Short Citation:
Office for Coastal Management, 2021: 2010 Northern San Francisco Bay Area Lidar: Portions of Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, Napa, San Francisco, Solano, and Sonoma Counties, https://www.fisheries.noaa.gov/inport/item/48217.

Item Identification

Title: 2010 Northern San Francisco Bay Area Lidar: Portions of Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, Napa, San Francisco, Solano, and Sonoma Counties
Short Name: sfbay2010_m584_metadata
Status: Completed
Publication Date: 2011-05
Abstract:

This Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) dataset is a survey of northern San Francisco Bay, California. The project area consists of

approximately 437 square miles in portions of seven California counties: Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, Napa, San Francisco, Solano, and

Sonoma. The project design of the LiDAR data acquisition was developed to support a nominal post spacing of 1 meter. Fugro EarthData, Inc.

acquired 147 flight lines in nine lifts on February 25, 26, and 28; March 1, 24, and 26; and April 3, 15, and 16, 2010. The data was

divided into 1500 by 1500 meter cells that serve as the tiling scheme. LiDAR data collection was performed with a Piper Navajo twin

engine aircraft, utilizing a Leica ALS60 MPiA sensor, collecting multiple return x, y, and z as well as intensity data. LiDAR data is

remotely sensed high-resolution elevation data collected by an airborne collection platform. This data of northern San Francisco Bay,

California, is classified according to the ASPRS classification scheme and was collected at sufficient resolution to provide a nominal

point spacing of 1 m for collected points. Up to 4 returns were recorded for each pulse in addition to an intensity value.

Original contact information:

Contact Org: NOAA Office for Coastal Management

Phone: 843-740-1202

Email: coastal.info@noaa.gov

Purpose:

The mission of the Office for Coastal Management is to support the environmental, social, and economic well being of the coast by linking

people, information, and technology. These LiDAR data are intended for use in coastal management decision making, including applications

such as sea level rise.

Notes:

10240

Supplemental Information:

The information in this report is the result of LiDAR surveys performed on the date indicated and the general conditions at the time

of flight. Data for Red Rock, within San Francisco Bay, was not flown within the project tidal requirements. This data was

collected as part of a cross-tie flight (Lift 5711309005203) on February 26, 2010 and is located within tile C5490_41970. In this area

the breaklines were artificially lowered to match the hydro-flattened bay however, the LiDAR LAS data remains unaffected and accurate

tide heights can be obtained from the data.

A footprint of this data set may be viewed in Google Earth at:

https://coast.noaa.gov/htdata/lidar1_z/geoid18/data/584/supplemental/2010_Northern_San_Francisco_Bay_Lidar.kmz

The LiDAR Quality Assurance (QA) Report may be viewed at:

https://coast.noaa.gov/htdata/lidar1_z/geoid18/data/584/supplemental/SF_QA_Report_3rdDelivery_110420_Final.pdf

Keywords

Theme Keywords

Thesaurus Keyword
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Science Keywords Earth Science > Land Surface > Topography > Terrain Elevation > Topographical Relief Maps
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Science Keywords Earth Science > Oceans > Bathymetry/Seafloor Topography > Seafloor Topography
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Science Keywords Earth Science > Oceans > Coastal Processes > Coastal Elevation
ISO 19115 Topic Category elevation
None Bathymetry/Topography
None Elevation
None LiDAR
None Model
None Surface
None Terrain

Spatial Keywords

Thesaurus Keyword
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords Continent > North America > United States Of America > California
None Alameda County
None California
None Contra Costa County
None Marin County
None Napa County
None Northern San Francisco Bay
None San Francisco County
None Solano County
None Sonoma County
None US

Physical Location

Organization: Office for Coastal Management
City: Charleston
State/Province: SC

Data Set Information

Data Set Scope Code: Data Set
Maintenance Frequency: As Needed
Entity Attribute Overview:

Leica ALS60 MPiA sensor

1 m nominal post spacing

Entity Attribute Detail Citation:

see process steps within this record

Distribution Liability:

Any conclusions drawn from the analysis of this information are not the responsibility of NOAA, the Office for Coastal Management or its partners.

Data Set Credit: Department of Commerce (DOC), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Ocean Service (NOS), Office for Coastal Management (OCM)

Support Roles

Data Steward

CC ID: 625243
Date Effective From: 2011-05
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): NOAA Office for Coastal Management (NOAA/OCM)
Address: 2234 South Hobson Ave
Charleston, SC 29405-2413
Email Address: coastal.info@noaa.gov
Phone: (843) 740-1202
URL: https://coast.noaa.gov

Distributor

CC ID: 625245
Date Effective From: 2011-05
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): NOAA Office for Coastal Management (NOAA/OCM)
Address: 2234 South Hobson Ave
Charleston, SC 29405-2413
Email Address: coastal.info@noaa.gov
Phone: (843) 740-1202
URL: https://coast.noaa.gov

Metadata Contact

CC ID: 625246
Date Effective From: 2011-05
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): NOAA Office for Coastal Management (NOAA/OCM)
Address: 2234 South Hobson Ave
Charleston, SC 29405-2413
Email Address: coastal.info@noaa.gov
Phone: (843) 740-1202
URL: https://coast.noaa.gov

Point of Contact

CC ID: 625244
Date Effective From: 2011-05
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): NOAA Office for Coastal Management (NOAA/OCM)
Address: 2234 South Hobson Ave
Charleston, SC 29405-2413
Email Address: coastal.info@noaa.gov
Phone: (843) 740-1202
URL: https://coast.noaa.gov

Extents

Currentness Reference: Publication Date

Extent Group 1

Extent Group 1 / Geographic Area 1

CC ID: 1036075
W° Bound: -122.646374
E° Bound: -122.111077
N° Bound: 38.350295
S° Bound: 37.753405

Extent Group 1 / Time Frame 1

CC ID: 1036066
Time Frame Type: Discrete
Start: 2010-02-25

Extent Group 1 / Time Frame 2

CC ID: 1036067
Time Frame Type: Discrete
Start: 2010-02-26

Extent Group 1 / Time Frame 3

CC ID: 1036068
Time Frame Type: Discrete
Start: 2010-02-28

Extent Group 1 / Time Frame 4

CC ID: 1036069
Time Frame Type: Discrete
Start: 2010-03-01

Extent Group 1 / Time Frame 5

CC ID: 1036070
Time Frame Type: Discrete
Start: 2010-03-24

Extent Group 1 / Time Frame 6

CC ID: 1036071
Time Frame Type: Discrete
Start: 2010-03-26

Extent Group 1 / Time Frame 7

CC ID: 1036072
Time Frame Type: Discrete
Start: 2010-04-03

Extent Group 1 / Time Frame 8

CC ID: 1036073
Time Frame Type: Discrete
Start: 2010-04-15

Extent Group 1 / Time Frame 9

CC ID: 1036074
Time Frame Type: Discrete
Start: 2010-04-16

Spatial Information

Spatial Representation

Representations Used

Vector: Yes

Access Information

Security Class: Unclassified
Security Classification System:

None

Security Handling Description:

N/A

Data Access Procedure:

This data can be obtained on-line at the following URL: https://coast.noaa.gov/dataviewer

;

Data Access Constraints:

None

Data Use Constraints:

Users should be aware that temporal changes may have occurred since this data set was collected and some parts of this data may no longer

represent actual surface conditions. Users should not use this data for critical applications without a full awareness of its limitations.

Distribution Information

Distribution 1

CC ID: 744030
Download URL: https://coast.noaa.gov/dataviewer/#/lidar/search/where:ID=584
Distributor:
File Name: Customized Download
Description:

Create custom data files by choosing data area, product type, map projection, file format, datum, etc.

Distribution 2

CC ID: 744031
Download URL: https://coast.noaa.gov/htdata/lidar1_z/geoid18/data/584
Distributor:
File Name: Bulk Download
Description:

Simple download of data files.

URLs

URL 1

CC ID: 744033
URL: https://coast.noaa.gov/dataviewer
URL Type:
Online Resource

URL 2

CC ID: 744034
URL: https://coast.noaa.gov
URL Type:
Online Resource

Activity Log

Activity Log 1

CC ID: 625280
Activity Date/Time: 2016-05-23
Description:

Date that the source FGDC record was last modified.

Activity Log 2

CC ID: 625279
Activity Date/Time: 2017-11-14
Description:

Converted from FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata (version FGDC-STD-001-1998) using 'fgdc_to_inport_xml.pl' script. Contact Tyler Christensen (NOS) for details.

Activity Log 3

CC ID: 717962
Activity Date/Time: 2018-02-08
Description:

Partial upload of Positional Accuracy fields only.

Activity Log 4

CC ID: 744032
Activity Date/Time: 2018-03-13
Description:

Partial upload to move data access links to Distribution Info.

Technical Environment

Description:

Microsoft Windows XP Version 5.1 (Build 2600) Service Pack 2; ESRI ArcCatalog 9.2.6.1500

Data Quality

Accuracy:

The boresight of the LiDAR was processed against the ground control for this project which consisted of 41 LiDAR ground survey points

and 1 ABGPS base station at the operation airport. The horizontal datum for the control was the North American Datum of 1983

(NAD83, NSRS2007). The vertical datum was the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD88). The vertical datum was realized

through the use of the published ellipsoidal heights of the CORS and the GEOID09 model. Airborne GPS (ABGPS) data was collected during

the acquisition mission for each flight line. During the data acquisition the Positional Dilution of Precision (PDOP) for the ABGPS was

monitored to make sure it did not exceed 3.5. The ground control points were measured by technicians using Terrascan and

proprietary software and applied during the boresight adjustment of the project lines.

Horizontal Positional Accuracy:

The minimum expected horizontal accuracy was tested to meet or exceed the National Standard for Spatial Data Accuracy (NSSDA).

Horizontal accuracy is 1 meter RMSE or better.

Vertical Positional Accuracy:

The minimum expected vertical accuracy was tested to meet or exceed the National Standard for Spatial Data Accuracy. When compared to

GPS survey grade points in generally flat non-vegetated areas, at least 95% of the positions had an error less than or equal to the

spec of 18 cm (equivalent to root mean square error of 9 cm if errors were normally distributed).

The RMSEz in open terrain is 2.6 cm.

The Fundamental Vertical Accuracy (FVA) at the 95% confidence level in open terrain is 5.1 cm.

The Consolidated Vertical Accuracy (CVA) at the 95% confidence level in all land cover categories is 6.2 cm.

Completeness Measure:

Cloud Cover: 0

Completeness Report:

The following methods are used to assure LiDAR data

1. Use of IMU and ground control network utilizing GPS techniques.

2. Use of airborne GPS in conjunction with the acquisition of LiDAR.

3. Measurement of quality control ground survey points within the finished product.

The following software is used for the validation

1. Terrascan

2. Fugro EarthData Proprietary Software

Conceptual Consistency:

Compliance with the accuracy standard was ensured by the collection of GPS ground control prior to and during the acquisition of aerial

LiDAR and the establishment of a GPS base station at the Napa County Airport. The following checks were performed.

1. The ground control and airborne GPS data stream were validated through a fully analytical boresight adjustment.

2. The LiDAR data were checked against the project control prior to being used in DTM (Digital Terrain Model) generation.

3. LiDAR elevation data was validated through an inspection of edge matching and visual inspection for quality (artifact removal).

Lineage

Sources

Aerial Acquisition of Northern San Francisco Bay, California LiDAR

CC ID: 1036059
Publish Date: 2010-04-17
Extent Type: Discrete
Extent Start Date/Time: 2010-02-25
Source Contribution:

Fugro EarthData, Inc. collected ALS60-derived LiDAR over northern San Francisco Bay, CA with a 1 m, nominal post spacing using a Piper

Navajo twin engine aircraft. The collection for the entire project area was accomplished on February 25, 26, and 28; March 1, 24,

and 26; and April 3, 15, and 16, 2010. The collection was performed by Fugro EarthData, Inc., using a Leica ALS60 MPiA LiDAR system,

serial number 113, including an inertial measuring unit (IMU) and a dual frequency GPS receiver. This project required 9 lifts of

flight lines to be collected. The lines were flown at an average of 6,250 feet above mean terrain using a pulse rate of 121,300

pulses per second.

| Type of Source Media: External hard drive

Northern San Francisco Bay, Report of Survey

CC ID: 1036060
Publish Date: 2010-04-27
Extent Type: Discrete
Extent Start Date/Time: 2009-12-07
Source Contribution:

TerraSurv under contract to Fugro EarthData, Inc. successfully established ground control for Northern San Francisco Bay, CA. A total

of 41 ground control points were acquired. GPS was used to establish the control network. The horizontal datum was the North American

Datum of 1983 (NAD83, NSRS2007). The vertical datum was the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD88).

| Type of Source Media: electronic mail system

Process Steps

Process Step 1

CC ID: 1036061
Description:

All acquired LiDAR data went through a preliminary review to assure that complete coverage was obtained and that there were no gaps

between flight lines before the flight crew left the project site. Once back in the office, the data is run through a complete

iteration of processing to ensure that it is complete, uncorrupted, and that the entire project area has been covered without gaps

between flight lines. There are essentially three steps to this processing;

1. GPS/IMU Processing.

Airborne GPS and IMU data was immediately processed using the airport GPS base station data, which was available to the flight

crew upon landing the plane. This ensured the integrity of all the mission data. These results were also used to perform the

initial LiDAR system calibration test.

2. Raw LiDAR Data Processing.

Technicians processed the raw data to LAS format flight lines with full resolution output before performing QC. A starting

configuration file was used in this process, which contain the latest calibration parameters for the sensor. The technician also

generated flight line trajectories for each of the flight lines during this process.

3. Verification of Coverage and Data Quality.

Technicians checked flight line trajectory files to ensure completeness of acquisition for project flight lines, calibration lines,

and cross flight lines. The intensity images were generated for the entire lift at the required post spacing for the project.

The technician visually checked the intensity images against the project boundary to ensure full coverage. The intensity histogram

was analyzed to ensure the quality of the intensity values. The technician also thoroughly reviewed the data for any gaps in project

area. The technician generated a sample TIN surface to ensure no anomalies were present in the data. Turbulence was inspected for

and if it affected the quality of the data, the flight line was rejected and reflown. The technician also evaluated the achieved

post spacing against project specified post spacing.

Process Date/Time: 2010-04-09 00:00:00

Process Step 2

CC ID: 1036062
Description:

The following steps describe the Raw Data Processing and Boresight process;

1. The calibration flight lines were first processed with the starting configuration file which contains the latest calibration

parameters for the sensor. The boresight for each lift was done individually as the solution may change slightly from lift to lift.

2. Lift boresighting was accomplished using the tri-directional calibration flight lines over the project area.

3. Once the boresighting was done for the calibration flight lines, the adjusted settings were applied on all of the flight lines

of the lift and checked for consistency. The technician selected a series of areas in the dataset to be inspected where adjacent

flight lines overlay. A routine was run to calculate the misalignment of the adjacent flight lines and a statistical report was

generated. The technician analyzed the result and applied more adjustment if necessary to optimize the result for the entire lift.

Color coded elevation difference images were generated for all flight line overlaps including cross ties in the lift once the

boresight adjustment was complete. The technician reviewed these images to ensure that systematic errors were eliminated for the

lift and the results met the project specifications.

4. Once the boresight adjustment was completed for each lift individually, the technician checked and corrected the vertical

misalignment of all flight lines and also the matching between data and ground truth. This process included calculating the z bias

value for each flight line so that all flight lines are aligned vertically. The entire dataset was then matched to ground control

points within the project specified accuracy range.

5. The technician ran a final vertical accuracy check after the z correction. The result was analyzed against the project specified

accuracy to make sure it met the project requirements.

Process Date/Time: 2010-05-24 00:00:00

Process Step 3

CC ID: 1036063
Description:

Fugro EarthData, Inc. has developed a unique method for processing LiDAR data to identify and re-classify elevation points falling on

vegetation, building, and other above ground structures into separate data layers. The steps are as follows;

1. Fugro EarthData, Inc. utilized commercial software as well as proprietary software for automatic filtering. The parameters used in

the process were customized for each terrain type to obtain optimum results.

2. The Automated Process typically re-classifies 90-98% of points falling on vegetation depending on terrain type. Once the automated

filtering was completed, the files were run through a visual inspection to ensure that the filtering was not too aggressive or not

aggressive enough. In cases where the filtering was too aggressive and important terrain features were filtered out, the data was

either run through a different filter or was corrected during the manual filtering process.

3. Interactive editing was completed in 3D visualization software which also provides manual and automatic point classification tools.

Fugro EarthData, Inc. used commercial and proprietary software for this process. Vegetation and artifacts remaining after automatic

data post-processing were reclassified manually through interactive editing. The hard edges of ground features that were automatically

filtered out during the automatic filtering process were brought back into ground class during manual editing. Auto-filtering routines

were utilized as much as possible within fenced areas during interactive editing for efficiency. The technician reviewed the LiDAR

points with color shaded TINs for anomalies in ground class during interactive filtering.

4. Upon the completion of peer review and finalization of bare earth filtering, the classified LiDAR point cloud work tiles went

through a water classification routine based on the collected hydro-flattened water polygons.

5. Upon the completion of peer review and finalization of the classified LiDAR point cloud work tiles, the tiles were reprojected to

NAD83 (NSRS2007), UTM zone 10 north, meters; NAVD88, meters, using GEOID09. The data was also cut to the approved tile layout.

The classified LiDAR point cloud data is in LAS format after this process. The technician checked the output LAS files for coverage

and format.

6. The classified LiDAR point cloud data were delivered in LAS 1.2 format;

2 - ground,

1 - unclassified,

9 - water,

7 - low points/noise, and

12 - overlap points.

Process Date/Time: 2011-04-20 00:00:00

Process Step 4

CC ID: 1036064
Description:

The NOAA Office for Coastal Management (OCM) received the lidar files in las format. The files contained lidar intensity

and elevation measurements. OCM performed the following processing for data storage and Digital Coast provisioning purposes:

1. Data converted from UTM Zone 10 coordinates to geographic coordinates.

2. Data converted from NAVD88 heights to ellipsoid heights using GEOID09.

3. The LAS data were sorted by latitude and the headers were updated.

Process Date/Time: 2011-05-01 00:00:00

Catalog Details

Catalog Item ID: 48217
Metadata Record Created By: Anne Ball
Metadata Record Created: 2017-11-14 14:20+0000
Metadata Record Last Modified By: Kirk Waters
Metadata Record Last Modified: 2021-02-05 20:38+0000
Metadata Record Published: 2021-02-05
Owner Org: OCM
Metadata Publication Status: Published Externally
Do Not Publish?: N
Metadata Next Review Date: 2022-02-06