Sockeye Salmon (Protected)
About The Species
Sockeye salmon are anadromous fish, which means they can live in both fresh and saltwater. They have a relatively complex life history that includes spawning and juvenile rearing in rivers followed by migrating to saltwater to feed, grow, and mature before returning to freshwater to spawn. Sockeye salmon are vulnerable to many stressors and threats including blocked access to spawning grounds and habitat degradation caused by dams and culverts. One evolutionary significant unit is listed as endangered and one ESU is listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act.
NOAA Fisheries is committed to conserving and protecting sockeye salmon. Our scientists and partners use a variety of innovative techniques to study, learn more about, and protect this species.
- Snake River ESU
- Ozette Lake ESU
In the Spotlight
One evolutionary significant unit of sockeye salmon is listed as endangered and one ESU is listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act.
The threatened and endangered ESUs of sockeye salmon were listed under the ESA on June 28, 2005. We had previously listed the Snake River ESU and Ozette Lake ESU in 1991 and 1999, but we reaffirmed the listings in 2005.
We designated critical habitat for the Snake River ESU on December 28, 1993 and for the Ozette Lake ESU on September 2, 2005.
Key Actions and Documents
NOAA Fisheries conducts various research activities on the biology, behavior, and ecology of sockeye salmon. The results of this research are used to inform management decisions for this species.
Dive Deeper Into Our Research
Sockeye Salmon in Alaska
Our work to forecast salmon harvests, assess the impact of commercial fisheries on salmon, and evaluate how salmon populations respond to environmental changes enable us to estimate abundance and trends for sockeye salmon in Alaska.
Recent Science Blogs
Final Environmental Assessment: Snake River Basin Fall Chinook and Coho Salmon, and Resident Trout Fisheries
The Snake River is a tributary to the Columbia River. The proposed management plans include fall…
Accumulating evidence has indicated that many fish populations are responding to climate change…
Many West Coast salmon and steelhead (Oncorhynchus sp.) stocks have declined substantially from…
2016 5-Year Review: Summary & Evaluation of Snake River Sockeye Snake River Spring-Summer Chinook Snake River Fall-Run Chinook Snake River Basin Steelhead
Many West Coast salmon and steelhead (Oncorhynchus spp.) stocks have declined substantially from…
Data & Maps
Tracks the implementation of recovery actions from Endangered Species Act (ESA) recovery plans.
Through our research we seek to understand ecological processes that drive the productivity of anadromous fish populations or fish that spend portions of their lives in freshwater, estuarine, transitional, and marine ecosystems of the Gulf of Alaska…
Legislation mandating research includes the Pacific Salmon Treaty, the North Pacific Anadromous Stocks Act, and the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act. Our research helps improve understanding of ocean ecology by supporting fish…