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Bocaccio (Sebastes paucispinis)

Status | Species Description | Habitat | Distribution | Population Trends | Threats | Conservation Efforts | Regulatory Overview | Taxonomy | Key Documents | More Info

Status

ESA Endangered - Puget Sound/ Georgia Basin DPS
ESA Species of Concern - Southern DPS (Northern California to Mexico)

Species Description

Weight:
up to 21 pounds (9.5 kg)
Length:
up to 3 feet (1 m)
Appearance:
olive to burnt orange-brown body with distinctively long jaw
Lifespan:
estimated 50 years
Diet:
invertebrates and small fishes, as adults
Behavior:
fertilization and embryo development is internal, and female rockfish give birth to live larval young

Bocaccio are large Pacific coast rockfish that reach up to 3 feet (1 m) in length. They have a distinctively long jaw extending to at least the eye socket. Their body ranges in color from olive to burnt orange or brown as adults. Young bocaccio are light bronze in color and have small brown spots on their sides.

Rockfishes are unusual among the bony fishes in that fertilization and embryo development is internal, and female rockfish give birth to live larval young. Larvae are found in surface waters, and may be distributed over a wide area extending several hundred miles offshore. "Fecundity" in female bocaccio ranges from 20,000 to over 2 million eggs, considerably more than many other rockfish species. Larvae and small juvenile rockfish may remain in open waters for several months, being passively dispersed by ocean currents.

Larval rockfish feed on diatoms, dinoflagellates, tintinnids, and cladocerans, and juveniles consume copepods and euphausiids of all life stages. Adults eat demersal invertebrates and small fishes, including other species of rockfish, associated with kelp beds, rocky reefs, pinnacles, and sharp dropoffs. Approximately 50 percent of adult bocaccio mature in 4 to 6 years. Bocaccio are difficult to age but are suspected to live as long as 50 years.

Habitat

Bocaccio are most common between 160 and 820 feet (50-250 m) depth, but may be found as deep as 1,560 feet (475m). Adults generally move into deeper water as they increase in size and age but usually exhibit strong site fidelity to rocky bottoms and outcrops. Juveniles and subadults may be more common than adults in shallower water, and are associated with rocky reefs, kelp canopies, and artificial structures, such as piers and oil platforms.

Critical Habitat
Critical habitat was designated for bocaccio in the Puget Sound/ Georgia Basin in November 2014. We proposed designation of critical habitat in August 2013. Download GIS critical habitat data for Puget Sound rockfish [zip].

Distribution

Bocaccio range from Punta Blanca, Baja California, to the Gulf of Alaska off Krozoff and Kodiak Islands. They are most common between Oregon and northern Baja California. In Puget Sound, most bocaccio are found south of Tacoma Narrows.

Population Trends

Recreational catch and effort data from the mid-1970s to mid-1990s suggests possible declines in abundance in Washington. Additional data over this period show the number of angler trips increased substantially, while the average number of rockfish caught per trip declined. Taken together, these data suggest declines in the population over time.

Today, few of these fish are caught by fishermen and none have been caught by Washington state biological surveys in 20 years, suggesting a very low population abundance. They are thought to be at an abundance that is less than 10% of their unfished abundance.

Stock assessments in 2009 indicate the population may be increasing, but still at 28% of the unfished level.

Threats

Conservation Efforts

Various state restrictions on fishing have been put in place over the years. Current regulations in the state of Washington, where the species is most at risk, limit the daily rockfish catch to three rockfish total (of any species). Because this species is so slow-growing, late to mature, and long-lived, recovery from the above threats will take many years, even if the threats are no longer affecting the species.

Regulatory Overview

In April 2010, we listed the Puget Sound/ Georgia Basin DPS as Endangered.

On April 9, 2007, we received a petition from Mr. Sam Wright (Olympia, Washington) to list "distinct population segments (DPSs)" of bocaccio, and 4 other rockfishes in Puget Sound, as endangered or threatened species under the ESA and to designate critical habitat. We found that this petition also did not present substantial scientific or commercial information to suggest that the petitioned actions may be warranted (72 FR 56986; October 5, 2007). On October 29, 2007, we received a letter from Mr. Wright presenting information that was not included in the April 2007 petition, and requesting reconsideration of the decision not to initiate a review of the species' status. We considered the supplemental information as a new petition and concluded that there was enough information in this new petition to warrant conducting status reviews of these rockfishes. The status review was initiated on March 17, 2008 (73 FR 14195).

In February 1999, we received a petition from Mr. Sam Wright of Olympia, Washington to list 18 species of marine fishes in Puget Sound, including this species, under the ESA. On June 21, 1999, we found that there was insufficient information concerning stock structure, status, and trends for this species to suggest that listing this species may be warranted (64 FR 33037).

Taxonomy

Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Scorpaeniformes
Family: Sebastidae
Genus: Sebastes
Species: paucispinis

Key Documents

(All documents are in PDF format.)
Title Federal Register Date
Final Rule Amending the Listing Description for the Bocaccio DPS 82 FR 7711 01/23/2017
Final Critical Habitat Designation for Yelloweye Rockfish, Canary Rockfish, and Bocaccio of the Puget Sound/ Georgia Basin 79 FR 68041 11/13/2014

Proposed Designation of Critical Habitat for Yelloweye Rockfish, Canary Rockfish, and Bocaccio of the Puget Sound/ Georgia Basin

78 FR 47635 08/06/2013
Status Review of 5 Rockfish Species in Puget Sound, WA   12/2010
Final Rule to List the Puget Sound/ Georgia Basin DPS as Endangered Under the ESA 75 FR 22276 04/28/2010
Proposed Rule to List the Puget Sound/ Georgia Basin DPS as Endangered Under the ESA 74 FR 18516 04/23/2009
2008: 90-Day Finding on a Petition to List 5 Rockfish Species in the Puget Sound Under the Endangered Species Act 73 FR 14195 03/17/2008
2007: 90-Day Finding on a Petition to List 5 Rockfish Species in the Puget Sound Under the ESA 72 FR 56986 10/05/2007
1999: 90-Day Finding on a Petition to List 18 Fishes in the Puget Sound Under the ESA 64 FR 33037 06/21/1999
Species of Concern Fact Sheet: Detailed n/a 05/18/2009
n/a 11/01/2007

More Information

Updated: February 3, 2017