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Short Citation:
Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, 2024: Derived bathymetry from IKONOS satellite imagery of nearshore benthic habitats,

Item Identification

Title: Derived bathymetry from IKONOS satellite imagery of nearshore benthic habitats
Status: Completed
Publication Date: 2016

Methods used were adapted from a "cookbook" of instructions developed by Kyle Hogref

for using IKONOS imagery data to derive seafloor elevations in optically clear

water. This dataset was derived from high-resolution (2 m) imagery from DigitalGlobe's

WorldView-2 sensor of the Kaanapali area of Maui, Hawaii. Sensor bands 1,2

and 5 (coastal, blue and near IR respectively) were used to derive depth information.

The method assumes uniform water clarity but deviations from that condition

made extraction difficult in water greater than 30 m depth in the Kaanapali scene

used. Results show that biotic material or sediment in the water column skewed results

shallower if the material has a high albedo and deeper if the material has a low

albedo. Nearshore areas were significantly less impacted in the Kaanapali area,

due to the geomorphology of the area and the hi resolution and quality of the imagery,

allowing visual descrimination of apparent sediment in the water column.

For presentation purposes the map product shows an Inverse Distance Weighted interpolated

bathymetry surface, restricted to data within 600 m of the shoreline.


DG WorldView-2 data are used as the base imagery to derived pseudobathymetry of the

Kaanapali area of Maui. This area has both SHOALS and multi-beam acoustic derived

bathymetry coverage and will provide an example case of the strengths and

weaknesses of pseudobathymetry extraction from high resolution satellite imagery methods.


FGDC upload, AMD 2015-06-08

Kaanapali, Maui, Hawaii

Loaded by FGDC Metadata Uploader, batch 6158, 06-08-2015 17:49

The following FGDC sections are not currently supported in InPort, but were preserved and will be included in the FGDC export:

- Spatial Reference Information (FGDC:spref),

- Spatial Data Organization Information (FGDC:spdoinfo)

Supplemental Information:

LiDAR bathymetry of Kaanapali, Maui from Scanning Hydrographic Airborne Operational

LiDAR data from the United States Army Corps of Engineers Joint Airborne LiDAR

Bathymertry Technical Center for Expertise. Multibeam sonar data from the

Main Hawaiian Islands Bathymetry synthesis maintained by the Hawaii Mapping Research Group

at the University of Hawaii, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology.


Theme Keywords

Thesaurus Keyword
ISO 19115 Topic Category
CoRIS Discovery Thesaurus Geographic Information > Bathymetry
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus earth science > oceans > bathymetry/seafloor topography > bathymetry
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Coastal Processes > Coral Reefs
CRCP Project 467
CRCP Project Benthic Habitat Mapping and Characterization in the Pacific Islands Region
CRCP Project Mapping and EcoSpatial Information Products to Support Coral Reef Ecosystem Management in the Pacific Islands Region
NODC PROJECT NAMES THESAURUS Coral Reef Conservation Program
NODC SUBMITTING INSTITUTION NAMES THESAURUS US DOC; NOAA; NMFS; Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center; Ecosystem Sciences Division; Coral Reef Ecosystem Program
None Coral Reef Ecosystem Division
None Coral Reef Ecosystem Program
None Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center

Spatial Keywords

Thesaurus Keyword
NODC SEA AREA NAMES THESAURUS Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monument
None Pacific Remote Island Areas

Stratum Keywords

Thesaurus Keyword
Global Change Master Directory SEA FLOOR

Physical Location

Organization: Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center
City: Honolulu
State/Province: HI
Country: USA

Data Set Information

Data Set Scope Code: Data Set
Data Set Type: GIS dataset of raster files
Maintenance Frequency: None Planned
Data Presentation Form: Map (digital)
Entity Attribute Overview:

Depth values are real values based on the average of the

soundings that fell within the extracted grid cells. The number

of soundings per grid cell range from >1000 soundings in shallow

depths to as few as 20 soundings in deeper areas. A total error

budget for these data have not been developed. Therefore, the

accuracy of depth measurements should be considered to be within

1 meter.

Entity Attribute Detail Citation:


Distribution Liability:

These data are not to be used for navigational purposes.

NOAA makes no warranty regarding these data, expressed or

implied, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a

warranty. NOAA cannot assume liability for any damages caused by

any errors or omissions in these data, nor as a result of the

failure of these data to function on a particular system.


Support Roles

Data Steward

CC ID: 264741
Date Effective From: 2012
Date Effective To:
Contact (Person): Ehses, Julia
Address: 1845 Wasp Blvd.
Honolulu, HI 96818
Email Address:
Phone: (808)725-5447
Contact Instructions:

Email preferred


CC ID: 203684
Date Effective From: 2012
Date Effective To:
Contact (Person): Ehses, Julia
Address: 1845 Wasp Blvd.
Honolulu, HI 96818
Email Address:
Phone: (808)725-5447
Contact Instructions:

Email preferred

Metadata Contact

CC ID: 203682
Date Effective From: 2012
Date Effective To:
Contact (Person): Akridge, Michael W
Address: 1845 Wasp Blvd.
Honolulu, HI 96818
Email Address:
Phone: (808)725-5483
Contact Instructions:

Email preferred


CC ID: 203685
Date Effective From: 2012
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC)
Address: 1845 Wasp Blvd.
Honolulu, HI 96818
Email Address:
Phone: 808-725-5360
Business Hours: 8:00 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.

Point of Contact

CC ID: 203683
Date Effective From: 2012
Date Effective To:
Contact (Person): Rooney, John JB
Address: 1845 Wasp Blvd.
Honolulu, HI 96818
Email Address:
Phone: (808)725-5438
Contact Instructions:

Email preferred


Currentness Reference: Ground Condition

Extent Group 1

Extent Group 1 / Geographic Area 1

CC ID: 203681
W° Bound: -156.776
E° Bound: -156.647
N° Bound: 20.9839
S° Bound: 20.8357

Extent Group 1 / Time Frame 1

CC ID: 203680
Time Frame Type: Range
Start: 2010-04-06
End: 2010-04-06

Access Information

Security Class: Unclassified
Security Classification System:

Not applicable

Security Handling Description:

Not applicable

Data Access Policy:

NOAA Coral Reef Ecosystem Program (CREP) Data Sharing Recommendations, version 9.0 updated August 12, 2015:

CREP welcomes the opportunity to collaborate on research issues contributing to the scientific basis for better management of marine ecosystems. CREP has a very diverse set of field activities that generates large volumes of data using an array of data collection protocols.

The following recommendations are for your consideration as you use this data:

1) Data analyses should take all field exigencies into account. The most effective way to do this would be active collaboration with CREP principal investigators.

2) In all presentations, product releases, or publications using data generated by CREP, proper acknowledgement of both CREP and the individuals responsible for data collection is expected. Citing the DOI (if available) is preferred, a non-DOI example is listed below.

3) If you collect or generate data for the same study areas, CREP requests that you share relevant information on complimentary data collections.

4) Those receiving data are strongly urged to inform the CREP Data Management Team of any errors and discrepancies that are discovered during the course of using these data. They are further urged to bring to the attention of the Team all problems and difficulties encountered in using these data. This information is necessary in order to improve the collections and to facilitate more efficient and economical data processing and retrieval. The users are asked to supply copies of any missing data that may be located, and to provide information as to significant subsets and special aggregations of data that are developed in using the material provided.

Example citation:

"This publication makes use of data products provided by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Program (CREP), Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), with funding support from the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). The analysis and interpretations presented here are solely that of the current authors.”

Data Access Procedure:

Data can be accessed online via the NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) Ocean Archive, accession #.


Data Access Constraints:


Data Use Constraints:

These data are not to be used for navigation purposes. Please acknowledge the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center,

and the Joint Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research (JIMAR) and Hawaii

Mapping Research Group (HMRG) at the University of Hawaii as the sources of

this information.

Metadata Access Constraints:


Metadata Use Constraints:


Distribution Information

Distribution 1

CC ID: 203686
Download URL:
File Type (Deprecated): netCDF or Arc ASCII
Distribution Format: NC - NetCDF



CC ID: 203688
URL Type:
Online Resource
File Resource Format: HTM


CC ID: 203689
URL Type:
Browse Graphic
Layout of data on original satellite imagery
File Resource Format: JPEG

Layout of data on original satellite imagery

Technical Environment


netCDF file created using the Generic

Mapping Tools (GMT) and ArcGIS ASCII file, both created in a

LINUX environment

Data Quality


Data are collected for resource

management and research purposes and are examined for internal

consistency; however, no effort is made to compare these data to

external references or to other published data.

Completeness Report:


Conceptual Consistency:

These data are believed to be logically

consistent though no tests were performed

Quality Control Procedures Employed:


Data Management

Have Resources for Management of these Data Been Identified?: Yes
Approximate Percentage of Budget for these Data Devoted to Data Management: Unknown
Do these Data Comply with the Data Access Directive?: Yes
Is Access to the Data Limited Based on an Approved Waiver?: No
Approximate Delay Between Data Collection and Dissemination: Unknown
Actual or Planned Long-Term Data Archive Location: NCEI-MD
Approximate Delay Between Data Collection and Archiving: Unknown
How Will the Data Be Protected from Accidental or Malicious Modification or Deletion Prior to Receipt by the Archive?:

NOAA IRC and NOAA Fisheries ITS resources and assets.


Process Steps

Process Step 1

CC ID: 203692

Multiple tools in ENVI 4.8 were used to complete the following processing

steps: Data conversion from digital number to radiance, correction for

atmosphere and water surface reflection, linearization of spectral decay

as function of depth, masking of non-applicable values, and bathymetric

derivation using variables from multiple linear regression analysis. Multiple

tools in ArcGIS 10.0 were used for dataset integration and to extract values

for the multiple linear regression analysis and subsequent error analyses.

The statisitcs program Matlab was used for the multiple linear regression

analysis to provide original variables for depth derivation. The multivariate

slope intercept formula used to derive depth was D = a + (bi)(xi) + (bj)(xj)

Where: D = depth a = intercept b = slope x = the linearized spectral value

resulted in 7.8491 - 2.8696(b1) + 7.9593(b2) b1 is the output masked linearized

pictral value of each pixel of Coastal band b2 is the output masked linearized

pictral value of each pixel of Blue band More information on this integration

process is provided in the product error analysis, availble from PIBHMC upon

request. This mosaiced derived bathymetry product (JohDBall3) was then integrated

with the multibeam sonar data, with sonar data prioritized over derived data,

to create the final product (JohDB3MB). A detailed description of all processing

steps is available at:

An error analysis of each derived bathymetry grid used is available from PIBHMC upon request.

To produce the interpolated surface shown in the map, the floating point grid was

converted to a point shapefile in Arc GIS 9.3 using the 'float to raster' and 'raster

to point' tools in the Arc Toolbox. A buffer of 600m from the shoreline was created

and the derived bathymetry points were clipped to exclude data outside this buffer.

This distance was chosen to exclude areas of deeper water that were erroneously

returning shallow depth values, due to characteristics of the water column. An

Inverse Distance Weighted interpolation was run using 3D Analyst, to produce an

interpolated surface, with a grid cell size of 10 m, a variable search radius

with a maximum distance of 60 m, and using the coastline as a barrier. All other

settings used were default. The interpolated surface was clipped using the coastline

and a small number of isolated cells were manually deleted.

Process Date/Time: 2011-10-12 00:00:00

Catalog Details

Catalog Item ID: 25280
GUID: gov.noaa.nmfs.inport:25280
Metadata Record Created By: Annette M DesRochers
Metadata Record Created: 2015-06-08 17:49+0000
Metadata Record Last Modified By: SysAdmin InPortAdmin
Metadata Record Last Modified: 2023-10-17 16:12+0000
Metadata Record Published: 2019-05-30
Owner Org: PIFSC
Metadata Publication Status: Published Externally
Do Not Publish?: N
Metadata Last Review Date: 2019-05-30
Metadata Review Frequency: 1 Year
Metadata Next Review Date: 2020-05-30