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Short Citation:
Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, 2022: Benthic Surveys in Vatia, American Samoa since 2015: benthic images collected during belt transect surveys in 2015 and 2020, https://www.fisheries.noaa.gov/inport/item/31196.

Item Identification

Title: Benthic Surveys in Vatia, American Samoa since 2015: benthic images collected during belt transect surveys in 2015 and 2020
Short Name: Vatia: benthic images
Status: On Going
Publication Date: 2022
Abstract:

Jurisdictional managers have expressed concerns that nutrients from the village of Vatia, Tutuila, American Samoa, are having an adverse effect on the adjacent coral reef ecosystem. Excess nutrient loads promote increases in algal growth that can have deleterious effects on corals, such as benthic algae outcompeting and overgrowing corals. Nitrogen and phosphorus can also directly impact corals by lowering fertilization success, and reducing both photosynthesis and calcification rates. Land-based contributions of nutrients come from a variety of sources; in Vatia the most likely sources are poor wastewater management from piggeries and septic systems.

NOAA scientists conducted benthic surveys to establish a baseline against which to compare changes in the algal and coral assemblages in response to land-based sources of pollution, including nutrient fluxes.

Photoquadrat benthic images were collected in 2015 and 2020 only, via belt transect surveys of coral demography according to protocols established by NOAA National Coral Reef Monitoring Program (NCRMP) in 2015.

In 2015, the survey implemented a two-stage stratified random sampling (StRS) design to assess the Vatia benthic coral reef community, and a one-stage StRS design in 2020. The survey domain encompassed the majority of the mapped area of reef and hard bottom habitats in the 0–30 m depth range. The stratification scheme included cardinal position (i.e., north and south) and depth (i.e., shallow: >0–6 m and mid-depth: >6–18 m). Sampling effort allocation was determined based on strata area and sites randomly located within strata. The StRS design effectively reduces estimate variance through stratification using environmental covariates and by sampling more sites rather than more transects per site. Therefore, site-to-site comparisons should proceed with caution.

Purpose:

These data were generated from benthic surveys undertaken in Vatia Bay to establish a comprehensive baseline, status, and trends for benthic composition and coral demographics, and are part of a broader NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) funded project led by NOAA's National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS) and ESD to assess eutrophication impacts on coral ecosystem health in the bay. These efforts feed into the higher-level CRCP objectives by establishing an in-situ tracking system to assess the effects of management and mitigation strategies and activities in the target watersheds to reduce land-based sources of pollution.

Other Citation Details:

Vargas-Angel B, Schumacher BD. 2018. Baseline surveys for coral reef community structure and demographics in Vatia Bay and Faga'alu Bay, American Samoa. Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, PIFSC Special Publication, SP-18-002, 38 p. https://doi.org/10.7289/V5/SP-PIFSC-18-002.

and

Vargas-Ángel B, Huntington B. 2020. Status and Trends Assessment of Benthic Coral Reef Communities in Vatia Bay, American Samoa, 2015–2020. Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, PIFSC Data Report, DR-20-020, 34p. https://doi.org/10.25923/r7dd-wg50, https://repository.library.noaa.gov/view/noaa/27437

Supplemental Information:

Between 2015 and 2018, NOAA, NCCOS collected water quality sampling for nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, urea, total nitrogen, orthophosphorus, and total phosphorus data as part of this project to quantify the nutrient dynamics of the Bay. These additional data are described separately by the NOAA National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS); see citation below.

Whitall, D, M Curtis, A Mason, B Vargas-Angel. 2019. Excess Nutrients in Vatia Bay, American Samoa: Spatiotemporal Variability, Source Identification and Impact on Coral Reef Ecosystems. NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS NCCOS 266. Silver Spring. 69 pages. doi:10.25923/j8cp-x570

Keywords

Theme Keywords

Thesaurus Keyword
UNCONTROLLED
CoRIS Discovery Thesaurus Visual Images > Habitats
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef Monitoring and Assessment
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef Monitoring and Assessment > Baseline studies
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef Monitoring and Assessment > In Situ Biological
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Coastal Processes > Coral Reefs
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Coastal Processes > Coral Reefs > Coral Reef Ecology
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Coastal Processes > Coral Reefs > Coral Reef Ecology > Benthic biology
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Marine Biology > Coral
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Marine Biology > Coral Communities
CRCP Project 31090
CRCP Project 31259
CRCP Project Eutrophication Impacts on Coral Ecosystem Health in Vatia
CRCP Project Status and trends assessment for LBSP impacts on reef communities in Faga'alu Bay and Vatia Bay
ISO 19115 Topic Category 002
ISO 19115 Topic Category Biota
NODC DATA TYPES THESAURUS PHOTOQUADRAT IMAGES
NODC OBSERVATION TYPES THESAURUS imagery
NODC PROJECT NAMES THESAURUS Coral Reef Conservation Program
NODC SUBMITTING INSTITUTION NAMES THESAURUS US DOC; NOAA; NMFS; Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center; Ecosystem Sciences Division; Coral Reef Ecosystem Program
None Coral Reef Ecosystem Division
None Coral Reef Ecosystem Program
None CRED
None CREP
None Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center
None PIFSC

Spatial Keywords

Thesaurus Keyword
UNCONTROLLED
CoRIS Place Thesaurus COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > American Samoa > Tutuila Island > Vatia Bay (14S170W0028)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Tutuila Island > Vatia Bay (14S170W0028)
NODC SEA AREA NAMES THESAURUS South Pacific Ocean
None Vatia

Physical Location

Organization: Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center
City: Honolulu
State/Province: HI
Country: USA

Data Set Information

Data Set Scope Code: Data Set
Data Set Type: JPG Files
Maintenance Frequency: None Planned
Data Presentation Form: Image (digital)
Entity Attribute Overview:

Raw data include 30 benthic photographs per survey site. Included in the archive package is a list of survey sites, including site id, location (latitude/longitude), and survey date, where photoquads were collected. The file naming convention for each photo/image is [SITE]_[YEAR]_[TRANSECT]_[PHOTO_NUMBER].JPG (for example: TUT-903_2012_A_01.JPG).

Distribution Liability:

While every effort has been made to ensure that these data are accurate and reliable within the limits of the current state of the art, NOAA cannot assume liability for any damages caused by errors or omissions in the data, nor as a result of the failure of the data to function on a particular system. NOAA makes no warranty, expressed or implied, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty.

Data Set Credit: PIFSC Coral Reef Ecosystem Program and funded by the NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program

Support Roles

Data Steward

CC ID: 303301
Date Effective From: 2015
Date Effective To:
Contact (Person): Vargas-Angel, Bernardo
Address: 1845 Wasp Blvd.
Honolulu, HI 96818
USA
Email Address: bernardo.vargasangel@noaa.gov
Phone: (808)725-5423
Contact Instructions:

Email preferred

Distributor

CC ID: 317984
Date Effective From: 2016
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): National Centers for Environmental Information - Silver Spring, Maryland (NCEI-MD)
Address: NOAA/NESDIS E/OC SSMC3, 4th Floor, 1351 East-West Highway
Silver Spring, MD 20910-3282
Phone: (301) 713-3277

Metadata Contact

CC ID: 1075955
Date Effective From: 2021
Date Effective To:
Contact (Person): Luers, Lori H
Address: 1845 Wasp Blvd.
Honolulu, HI 96818
USA
Email Address: lori.luers@noaa.gov

Metadata Contact

CC ID: 303304
Date Effective From: 2015
Date Effective To:
Contact (Person): DesRochers, Annette M
Address: 1845 Wasp Blvd.
Honolulu, HI 96818
USA
Email Address: annette.desrochers@noaa.gov
Phone: (808)725-5461
Business Hours: 8 am - 5 pm
Contact Instructions:

Email preferred

Originator

CC ID: 303300
Date Effective From: 2015
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP)
Address: 1305 East West Highway 10th Floor
Silver Spring, MD 20910-3281
Phone: (301) 713-3155
URL: https://coralreef.noaa.gov
Contact Instructions:

Funders

Originator

CC ID: 303305
Date Effective From: 2015
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC)
Address: 1845 Wasp Blvd.
Honolulu, HI 96818
USA
Email Address: pifsc.info@noaa.gov
Phone: 808-725-5360
URL: https://www.pifsc.noaa.gov
Business Hours: 8:00 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.

Point of Contact

CC ID: 303306
Date Effective From: 2015
Date Effective To:
Contact (Person): Vargas-Angel, Bernardo
Address: 1845 Wasp Blvd.
Honolulu, HI 96818
USA
Email Address: bernardo.vargasangel@noaa.gov
Phone: (808)725-5423
Contact Instructions:

Email preferred

View Historical Support Roles

Extents

Currentness Reference: Ground Condition

Extent Group 1

Extent Description:

Vatia Bay, Tutuila, American Samoa

Extent Group 1 / Geographic Area 1

CC ID: 303309
W° Bound: -170.67555555556
E° Bound: -170.66666666667
N° Bound: -14.24305555556
S° Bound: -14.25138888889
Description

Vatia Bay, Tutuila, American Samoa

Extent Group 1 / Time Frame 1

CC ID: 303308
Time Frame Type: Range
Start: 2015-11-02
End: 2015-11-12
Description:

benthic images collected during belt transect surveys in 2015.

Extent Group 1 / Time Frame 2

CC ID: 1075956
Time Frame Type: Range
Start: 2020-01-01
End: 2020-01-30
Description:

benthic images collected during belt transect surveys in 2020.

Access Information

Security Class: Unclassified
Security Classification System:

Not applicable

Security Handling Description:

Not applicable

Data Access Policy:

NOAA Coral Reef Ecosystem Sciences Division (ESD) Data Sharing Recommendations, version 9.0 updated August 12, 2015:

The ESD welcomes the opportunity to collaborate on research issues contributing to the scientific basis for better management of marine ecosystems. The ESD has a very diverse set of field activities that generates large volumes of data using an array of data collection protocols.

The following recommendations are for your consideration as you use this data:

1) Data analyses should take all field exigencies into account. The most effective way to do this would be active collaboration with ESD principal investigators.

2) In all presentations, product releases, or publications using data generated by ESD, proper acknowledgement of both ESD and the individuals responsible for data collection is expected. Citing the DOI (if available) is preferred, a non-DOI example is listed below.

3) If you collect or generate data for the same study areas, ESD requests that you share relevant information on complimentary data collections.

4) Those receiving data are strongly urged to inform the ESD Data Management Team of any errors and discrepancies that are discovered during the course of using these data. They are further urged to bring to the attention of the Team all problems and difficulties encountered in using these data. This information is necessary in order to improve the collections and to facilitate more efficient and economical data processing and retrieval. The users are asked to supply copies of any missing data that may be located, and to provide information as to significant subsets and special aggregations of data that are developed in using the material provided.

Example citation:

"This publication makes use of data products provided by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Sciences Division (ESD), Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), with funding support from the NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP). The analysis and interpretations presented here are solely that of the current authors."

Data Access Procedure:

Data can be accessed online via the NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) Ocean Archive, link in the Distribution Information.

Data Access Constraints:

None

Data Use Constraints:

Please cite NOAA Ecosystem Sciences Division (ESD) when using the data.

Example

Cite as: Vargas-Angel, Bernardo; Ecosystem Sciences Division; Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (2022). Benthic Surveys in Vatia, American Samoa since 2015: benthic images collected during belt transect surveys in 2015 and 2020. [access date]

Metadata Access Constraints:

None

Metadata Use Constraints:

None

Distribution Information

Distribution 1

CC ID: 324570
Download URL: http://accession.nodc.noaa.gov/0146680
Distributor: National Centers for Environmental Information - Silver Spring, Maryland (NCEI-MD) (2016 - Present)
File Name: Site_Information_(Vatia_2015).csv
Description:

List of survey sites, including site id, location (latitude/longitude), and survey date, where photoquads were collected.

File Date/Time: 2016-05-11 00:00:00
File Type: csv (comma-separated values)

Distribution 2

CC ID: 317985
Download URL: http://accession.nodc.noaa.gov/0146680
Distributor: National Centers for Environmental Information - Silver Spring, Maryland (NCEI-MD) (2016 - Present)
Description:

Photoquadrat benthic images collected in 2015 at 18 stratified randomly selected sites (30 photos per site) in Vatia Bay, Tutuila, American Samoa via belt transect surveys of coral demography by the NOAA Coral Reef Ecosystem Program (CREP).

File Type: JPG

Distribution 3

CC ID: 1075959
Download URL: http://accession.nodc.noaa.gov/0259494
Distributor: National Centers for Environmental Information - Silver Spring, Maryland (NCEI-MD) (2016 - Present)
File Name: Site_Information_Vatia_2020.csv
Description:

List of survey sites, including site id, location (latitude/longitude), and survey date, where photoquadrat benthic images collected in 2020 at 24 stratified randomly selected sites (30 photos per site).

File Type: .csv

Distribution 4

CC ID: 1075958
Download URL: http://accession.nodc.noaa.gov/0259494
Distributor: National Centers for Environmental Information - Silver Spring, Maryland (NCEI-MD) (2016 - Present)
Description:

Photoquadrat benthic images collected in 2020 at 24 stratified randomly selected sites (30 photos per site) in Vatia Bay, Tutuila, American Samoa via belt transect surveys of coral demography by the Ecosystem Sciences Division (ESD) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC).

URLs

URL 1

CC ID: 303316
URL: https://coastalscience.noaa.gov/projects/detail?key=245
URL Type:
Online Resource
File Resource Format: HTML
Description:

NCCOS Project Details: Nutrient Dynamics and Changes to Benthic Communities in Vatia, American Samoa

URL 2

CC ID: 324508
URL: https://repository.library.noaa.gov/view/noaa/10399
URL Type:
Online Resource
File Resource Format: PDF
Description:

Informative flyer illustrating impacts of land-based sources of pollution in Vatia Bay by the NOAA Coral Reef Ecosystem Program.

URL 3

CC ID: 332971
URL: http://www.pifsc.noaa.gov/cred/corals.php
URL Type:
Online Resource
File Resource Format: PHP
Description:

Overview of NOAA Coral Reef Ecosystem Program's methods to assess corals.

Technical Environment

Description:

PIFSC network/file system:

T:\Cruise\CruiseData\MP1602\Optical\TUT\REA\BENTHIC

T:\Cruise\CruiseData\MP2006\Optical\TUT\REA\BENTHIC

Data Quality

Accuracy:

Benthic Image collection was conducted by experienced benthic survey personnel who have been trained.

Handheld GPS units were used to locate sites and mark site locations.

Bias:

Not applicable

Comparability:

Site GPS location and depth are appropriately collected to allow spatiotemporal comparisons.

Completeness Measure:

Complete; photoquads were taken at all sites surveyed. On occasions instrument malfunction or sea conditions may preclude the collection of 30 benthic images per site.

Completeness Report:

Only forereef, hard bottom habitats were surveyed.

Conceptual Consistency:

Survey methods were consistent across all sites. Methods used in 2015 were slightly different from the current standard protocol used in 2020.

Quality Control Procedures Employed:

Instrumentation and camera setting are updated periodically to improve image quality.

An optical validation QC procedure is employed to verify number of images, per site and file name. Also, image color correction is implemented to improve image quality.

Benthic images and the file structure are quality controlled by CREP personnel before they are migrated and integrated into CREP's master optical directory on the PIFSC network.

Data Management

Have Resources for Management of these Data Been Identified?: Yes
Approximate Percentage of Budget for these Data Devoted to Data Management: Unknown
Do these Data Comply with the Data Access Directive?: Yes
Is Access to the Data Limited Based on an Approved Waiver?: No
Approximate Delay Between Data Collection and Dissemination: Unknown
Actual or Planned Long-Term Data Archive Location: NCEI-MD
Approximate Delay Between Data Collection and Archiving: Unknown
How Will the Data Be Protected from Accidental or Malicious Modification or Deletion Prior to Receipt by the Archive?:

NOAA IRC and NOAA Fisheries ITS resources and assets.

Lineage

Lineage Statement:

Benthic photographs were collected during belt transect surveys of corals by the NOAA Ecosystem Sciences Division (ESD) following the same protocol to that established by the NOAA National Coral Reef Monitoring Plan (NCRMP).

Sources

Baseline surveys for coral reef community structure and demographics in Vatia and Faga'alu Bay, American Samoa

CC ID: 1075962
Contact Role Type: Originator
Contact Type: Organization
Contact Name: NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center
Citation URL: https://repository.library.noaa.gov/view/noaa/17369
Citation URL Name: PIFSC special publication ; SP-18-002
Citation URL Description:

Vargas-Angel, B., B.D. Schumacher. (2018). Baseline Surveys for Coral Reef Community Structure and Demographics in Vatia and Faga'alu Bay, American Samoa NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, PIFSC Special Publication, SP-18-002, 38 p. 4

Ecosystem Sciences Division standard operating procedures: data collection for rapid ecological assessment benthic surveys

CC ID: 1075963
Contact Role Type: Originator
Contact Type: Organization
Contact Name: NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center
Citation URL: https://repository.library.noaa.gov/view/noaa/18267
Citation URL Name: NOAA technical memorandum NMFS-PIFSC ; 71
Citation URL Description:

Swanson, D., Bailey, H., Schumacher, B., Ferguson, M., and B. Vargas-Ángel. 2018. Ecosystem Sciences Division Standard Operating Procedures: Data Collection for Rapid Ecological Assessment Benthic Surveys. NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS-PIFSC-71, 63 p. https://doi.org/10.25923/39jh-8993

Ecosystem Sciences Division Standard Operating Procedures: Data Collection for Rapid Ecological Assessment Benthic Surveys, 2019 Update

CC ID: 1075964
Contact Role Type: Originator
Contact Type: Organization
Contact Name: NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center
Citation URL: https://repository.library.noaa.gov/view/noaa/23951
Citation URL Name: NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-PIFSC ; 96
Citation URL Description:

Winston W, Couch C, Huntingon B, Vargas-Ángel B. 2020. Ecosystem Sciences Division standard operating procedures: data collection for rapid ecological assessment benthic surveys,2019 update. NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS-PIFSC-96, 56 p

Status and Trends Assessment of Benthic Coral Reef Communities in Vatia Bay, American Samoa, 2015–2020

CC ID: 1075965
Contact Role Type: Originator
Contact Type: Organization
Contact Name: NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center
Citation URL: https://repository.library.noaa.gov/view/noaa/27437
Citation URL Name: PIFSC Data Report DR-20-020. Issued 25 November 2020. https://doi.org/10.25923/r7dd-wg50
Citation URL Description:

Vargas-Ángel, B., and Huntington, B. 2010. Status and Trends Assessment of Benthic Coral Reef Communities in Vatia Bay, American Samoa, 2015–2020PIFSC Data Report DR-20-020. Issued 25 November 2020. https://doi.org/10.25923/r7dd-wg50

Process Steps

Process Step 2015

CC ID: 303311
Description:

In 2015, the survey implemented a two-stage stratified random sampling (StRS) design. The survey domain encompassed the majority of the mapped area of reef and hard bottom habitats in the 0–30 m depth range. The stratification scheme included cardinal position (i.e., north and south) and depth (i.e., shallow: >0–6 m and mid-depth: >6–18 m). Sampling effort allocation was determined based on strata area and sites randomly located within strata. The StRS design effectively reduces estimate variance through stratification using environmental covariates and by sampling more sites rather than more transects per site. Therefore, site-to-site comparisons should proceed with caution.

At each site, belt-transects were the focal point of the biological surveys. In 2015, fifteen images were collected along each, two haphazardly laid, 18-m transects. Still photographs were collected to record the benthic community composition at predetermined points along belt transects with a high-resolution digital camera mounted on a pole. Photographs were taken every 1 m from the 1 m to the 15 m mark. This work generates 30 photographs per site, which are later analyzed by ESD staff and partners using the computer program CoralNet. This analysis is the basis for estimating benthic cover and composition at each site.

In 2016, American Samoa Department of Marine and Wildlife Resources (DMWR) collected benthic images approximately every 3 months at five shallow sites where permanent transects were established. DMWR forwarded the images to ESD for analysis and assess temporal changes in benthic cover. These data are reported separately.

Survey protocols followed the National Coral Reef Monitoring Program methodologies historically implemented by NOAA's Ecosystem Sciences Division.

Process Contact: Swanson, Dione W
Phone (Voice): (808)725-5417
Email Address: dione.swanson@noaa.gov
Source: Ecosystem Sciences Division Standard Operating Procedures: Data Collection for Rapid Ecological Assessment Benthic Surveys, 2019 Update

Process Step 2020

CC ID: 1076018
Description:

In 2020 the survey implemented a one-stage stratified random sampling (StRS) design. The survey domain encompassed the majority of the mapped area of reef and hard bottom habitats in the 0–30 m depth range. The stratification scheme included cardinal position (i.e., north and south) and depth (i.e., shallow: >0–6 m and mid-depth: >6–18 m). Sampling effort allocation was determined based on strata area and sites randomly located within strata. The StRS design effectively reduces estimate variance through stratification using environmental covariates and by sampling more sites rather than more transects per site. Therefore, site-to-site comparisons should proceed with caution.

One, haphazardly laid, 30-m belt-transect was the focal point of the photoquadrat survey in 2020, Still photographs were collected to record the benthic community composition with a high-resolution digital camera mounted on a pole. Thirty photographs were taken every meter from the 1 m to the 30 m. This work generates 30 photographs per site, which are later analyzed by ESD staff and partners using the computer program CoralNet.

Survey protocols followed the National Coral Reef Monitoring Program methodologies historically implemented by NOAA's Ecosystem Sciences Division.

Process Contact: Winston, Morgan S
Phone (Voice): (808)725-5480
Email Address: morgan.winston@noaa.gov
Source: Ecosystem Sciences Division Standard Operating Procedures: Data Collection for Rapid Ecological Assessment Benthic Surveys, 2019 Update

Child Items

Rubric scores updated every 15m

Rubric Score Type Title
Entity Site_Information_DataDictionary_Vatia_2020

Catalog Details

Catalog Item ID: 31196
GUID: gov.noaa.nmfs.inport:31196
Metadata Record Created By: Annette M DesRochers
Metadata Record Created: 2016-03-14 21:36+0000
Metadata Record Last Modified By: Lori H Luers
Metadata Record Last Modified: 2022-10-27 23:24+0000
Metadata Record Published: 2022-09-19
Owner Org: PIFSC
Metadata Publication Status: Published Externally
Do Not Publish?: N
Metadata Last Review Date: 2022-08-26
Metadata Review Frequency: 1 Year
Metadata Next Review Date: 2023-08-26