Short Citation:
Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, 2021: Monk Seal Ecosystem Model Data: A Comparison of Ecosystem Structure and Energy Flows of Monk Seal Populations from Laysan Island and French Frigate Shoals in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, https://www.fisheries.noaa.gov/inport/item/35796.

Item Identification

Title: Monk Seal Ecosystem Model Data: A Comparison of Ecosystem Structure and Energy Flows of Monk Seal Populations from Laysan Island and French Frigate Shoals in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands
Short Name: Monk Seal Ecosystem Model Data
Status: Completed
Publication Date: 2017-11-06
Abstract:

To understand various ecosystem dynamics that could explain observed changes and differences in monk seal biomass at French Frigate Shoals (FFS) and Laysan (LAY), Ecopath with Ecosim (EwE) version 6.4.4 modeling software was used to conduct two types of simulations, sensitivity (to understand the system) and hindcast (to evaluate drivers of monk seal population dynamics). EwE models for LAY and FFS were developed and model output was compared between the 2 models. The model output data included in the data sets represent the most important conclusions as reported in the publication from this study. These are (1) the mean of the last 5 years of each perturbation for sensitivity assessment; and (2) hindcast simulations. The first data set was used to understand the main drivers of the trophic structure and energy flow in the ecosystems. Four perturbation scenarios were simulated for a time span of 40 years (2010 through 2049): (a) baseline (compare static structural ecosystem composition between FFS and LAY), (b) altered predator abundance (30% decrease in biomass of main predators in the ecosystem), (c) altered monk seal prey abundance (30% decrease in biomass of main monk seal prey groups, with and without bottomfish to test how much bottomfish accounts for changes, and (d) altered primary productivity (change productivity annually by 10% for both phytoplankton and benthic algae through an annual forcing factor of 0.9 and 1.1 on both groups). The hindcast simulations were performed to evaluate the importance of historical stressors to monk seal population dynamics by selecting the best-fit model for the monk seal biomass time series (1998-2015). Stressors included were (a) fishing with time series based on commercial fishery data, (b) environment with time series of the monthly PDO index as a multiplier for primary productivity, (c) additional mortality simulated with a constant removal of monk seals of varied intensities, and (4) combinations of these 3 stressors (2a and 2c being the most important with regard to the observed trend in monk seal population). Time series observation data of monk seal biomass and benthic bottomfish biomass, as well as catch time series of bank sharks (only for FFS), benthic and demersal bottomfish, bank jacks, and macroheterotrophs (lobsters) were loaded into Ecosim for model fitting. Refer to Weijerman et al (2017) for complete details.

Purpose:

The main objective of this study was to understand the difference in ecosystem dynamics that could explain the observed decrease in monk seal biomass at French Frigate Shoals and the more stable biomass at Laysan. Specifically we investigated the relative influence of potential drivers---including primary productivity, prey population, and predation---on the monk seal populations in 40-year simulations and the external drivers of climate and fishing with an additional mortality on monk seals in hindcast simulations. Understanding the drivers and predictability of population trends will illuminate areas of focus for Hawaiian monk seal recovery efforts.

Other Citation Details:

Weijerman M, Robinson S, Parrish F, Polovina J, Littnan C (2017) Comparative application of trophic ecosystem models to evaluate drivers of endangered Hawaiian monk seal populations. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 582:215-229. https://doi.org/10.3354/meps12320

DOI (Digital Object Identifier): https://doi.org/10.3354/meps12320

Keywords

Theme Keywords

Thesaurus Keyword
CoRIS Discovery Thesaurus Numeric Data Sets > Biology
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Ecological Dynamics
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Vertebrates
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Marine Biology > Marine Mammals
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Marine Biology > Marine Mammals > Pinnipeds
ISO 19115 Topic Category 002
ISO 19115 Topic Category biota
NODC DATA TYPES THESAURUS BIOMASS
NODC OBSERVATION TYPES THESAURUS model output
NODC SUBMITTING INSTITUTION NAMES THESAURUS US DOC; NOAA; NMFS; Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center; Ecosystem Sciences Division
None bottomfish fishery
None ecological modeling
None Ecopath with Ecosim
None EwE
None Hawaiian monk seal
None monk seal
None Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center
None PIFSC
None Protected Species Division
None PSD
None recovery

Spatial Keywords

Thesaurus Keyword
CoRIS Place Thesaurus COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Hawaii > Honolulu > French Frigate Shoals (24N166W0001)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Hawaii > Honolulu > Laysan Island (25N171W0001)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Hawaii > Honolulu > Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (28N178W0000)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Central Pacific Ocean > Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (28N178W0000)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Central Pacific Ocean > Northwestern Hawaiian Islands > French Frigate Shoals (24N166W0001)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Central Pacific Ocean > Northwestern Hawaiian Islands > Laysan Island (25N171W0001)
NODC SEA AREA NAMES THESAURUS North Pacific Ocean
NODC SEA AREA NAMES THESAURUS Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument
None French Frigate Shoals
None Laysan
None Northwestern Hawaiian Islands
None NWHI
None PMNM

Physical Location

Organization: Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center
City: Honolulu
State/Province: HI
Country: USA

Data Set Information

Data Set Scope Code: Data Set
Data Set Type: CSV Files
Maintenance Frequency: None Planned
Data Presentation Form: Table (digital)
Entity Attribute Overview:

The output datasets include (1) Forecast simulations with monthly output for the last 5 years of a 40-year simulation run (year 2044 through 2049). Monthly output includes biomass of a variety of marine organisms, such as seabirds, sharks, fish, turtles, plankton, and algae; (2) Hindcast simulations from 1998 through 2015 include simulated monk seal and bottomfish biomass factoring a few key external drivers.

Distribution Liability:

While every effort has been made to ensure that these data are accurate and reliable within the limits of the current state of the art, NOAA cannot assume liability for any damages caused by errors or omissions in the data, nor as a result of the failure of the data to function on a particular system. NOAA makes no warranty, expressed or implied, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such warranty.

Data Set Credit: Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center

Support Roles

Author

CC ID: 361315
Date Effective From: 2016
Date Effective To:
Contact (Person): Weijerman, Mariska
Address: 1845 Wasp Blvd.
Honolulu, HI 96818
USA
Email Address: mariska.weijerman@noaa.gov
Phone: (808)725-5468
Contact Instructions:

Email preferred

Data Steward

CC ID: 361318
Date Effective From: 2016
Date Effective To:
Contact (Person): Weijerman, Mariska
Address: 1845 Wasp Blvd.
Honolulu, HI 96818
USA
Email Address: mariska.weijerman@noaa.gov
Phone: (808)725-5468
Contact Instructions:

Email preferred

Distributor

CC ID: 362319
Date Effective From: 2019
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): National Centers for Environmental Information - Silver Spring, Maryland (NCEI-MD)
Address: NOAA/NESDIS E/OC SSMC3, 4th Floor, 1351 East-West Highway
Silver Spring, MD 20910-3282
Phone: (301) 713-3277

Distributor

CC ID: 361316
Date Effective From: 2016
Date Effective To: 2019
Contact (Person): Weijerman, Mariska
Address: 1845 Wasp Blvd.
Honolulu, HI 96818
USA
Email Address: mariska.weijerman@noaa.gov
Phone: (808)725-5468

Metadata Contact

CC ID: 361319
Date Effective From: 2016
Date Effective To:
Contact (Person): DesRochers, Annette M
Address: 1845 Wasp Blvd.
Honolulu, HI 96818
USA
Email Address: annette.desrochers@noaa.gov
Phone: (808)725-5461
Business Hours: 8 am - 5 pm
Contact Instructions:

Email preferred

Originator

CC ID: 362320
Date Effective From: 2016
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC)
Address: 1845 Wasp Blvd.
Honolulu, HI 96818
USA
Phone: 808-725-5300
URL: http://www.pifsc.noaa.gov
Business Hours: 8:00 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.

Point of Contact

CC ID: 361317
Date Effective From: 2016
Date Effective To:
Contact (Person): Littnan, Charles L
Address: 1845 Wasp Blvd.
Honolulu, HI 96818
USA
Email Address: charles.littnan@noaa.gov
Phone: (808)725-5711
Contact Instructions:

Email preferred

Extents

Currentness Reference: Ground Condition

Extent Group 1

Extent Group 1 / Geographic Area 1

CC ID: 361322
W° Bound: -172
E° Bound: -166
N° Bound: 26
S° Bound: 23.5
Description

Laysan and French Frigate Shoals of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.

Extent Group 1 / Time Frame 1

CC ID: 361323
Time Frame Type: Range
Start: 1998-01-01
End: 2015-12-31
Description:

Hindcast model output for 1998-2015 for which we had time series of monk and bottomfish biomass.

For system understanding we used the same base conditions (ground condition) and ran simulations for 40 years.

Access Information

Security Class: Unclassified
Security Classification System:

Not applicable

Security Handling Description:

Not applicable

Data Access Policy:

NOAA Coral Reef Ecosystem Program (CREP) Data Sharing Recommendations, version 9.0 updated August 12, 2015:

CREP welcomes the opportunity to collaborate on research issues contributing to the scientific basis for better management of marine ecosystems. CREP has a very diverse set of field activities that generates large volumes of data using an array of data collection protocols.

The following recommendations are for your consideration as you use this data:

1) Data analyses should take all field exigencies into account. The most effective way to do this would be active collaboration with CREP principal investigators.

2) In all presentations, product releases, or publications using data generated by CREP, proper acknowledgement of both CREP and the individuals responsible for data collection is expected. Citing the DOI (if available) is preferred, a non-DOI example is listed below.

3) If you collect or generate data for the same study areas, CREP requests that you share relevant information on complimentary data collections.

4) Those receiving data are strongly urged to inform the CREP Data Management Team of any errors and discrepancies that are discovered during the course of using these data. They are further urged to bring to the attention of the Team all problems and difficulties encountered in using these data. This information is necessary in order to improve the collections and to facilitate more efficient and economical data processing and retrieval. The users are asked to supply copies of any missing data that may be located, and to provide information as to significant subsets and special aggregations of data that are developed in using the material provided.

Example citation:

"This publication makes use of data products provided by the Ecosystem Sciences Division (ESD), Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), with funding support from the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC). The analysis and interpretations presented here are solely that of the current authors.”

Data Access Procedure:

Data can be accessed online via the NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) Ocean Archive.

Data Access Constraints:

None

Data Use Constraints:

Please cite PIFSC Ecosystem Sciences Division (ESD) when using the data.

Suggested citation:

Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, 2019: Monk Seal Ecosystem Model Data: A Comparison of Ecosystem Structure and Energy Flows of Monk Seal Populations from Laysan Island and French Frigate Shoals in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands from 1998 through 2015, https://www.fisheries.noaa.gov/inport/item/35796.

Metadata Access Constraints:

None

Metadata Use Constraints:

None

Distribution Information

Distribution 1

CC ID: 361329
Download URL: http://accession.nodc.noaa.gov/0190881
Distributor: National Centers for Environmental Information - Silver Spring, Maryland (NCEI-MD) (2019 - Present)
File Name: 1a.Base.csv
Description:

Monthly output of ecosystem modeling data for the last 5 years of 40-year simulation run for Laysan and French Frigate Shoals with no additional drivers. This data set serves as the baseline.

File Date/Time: 2019-05-06 00:00:00
File Type: csv (comma-separated values)

Distribution 2

CC ID: 379870
Download URL: http://accession.nodc.noaa.gov/0190881
Distributor: National Centers for Environmental Information - Silver Spring, Maryland (NCEI-MD) (2019 - Present)
File Name: 1b.30percent_DecreasePredatorBiomass.csv
Description:

Monthly output of ecosystem modeling data for the last 5 years of 40-year simulation run for Laysan and French Frigate Shoals where we decreased the biomass of the monk seal predators - Sea Birds, Tiger Sharks, Reef Sharks, Reef Jacks, Subphotic Piscivores - by 30%.

File Date/Time: 2019-05-06 00:00:00
File Type: csv (comma-separated values)

Distribution 3

CC ID: 379872
Download URL: http://accession.nodc.noaa.gov/0190881
Distributor: National Centers for Environmental Information - Silver Spring, Maryland (NCEI-MD) (2019 - Present)
File Name: 1c.30percent_DecreasePrey-Meso_BC_PK_FF.csv
Description:

Monthly output of ecosystem modeling data for the last 5 years of 40-year simulation run for Laysan and French Frigate Shoals where we decreased monk seal prey - Mesophotic Benthic Carnivores, Mesophotic Plantivores, Mesophotic Forage Fish - by 30%.

File Date/Time: 2019-05-06 00:00:00
File Type: csv (comma-separated values)

Distribution 4

CC ID: 379871
Download URL: http://accession.nodc.noaa.gov/0190881
Distributor: National Centers for Environmental Information - Silver Spring, Maryland (NCEI-MD) (2019 - Present)
File Name: 1c.30percent_DecreasePrey-Meso_BC_PK_FF_BB.csv
Description:

Monthly output of ecosystem modeling data for the last 5 years of 40-year simulation run for Laysan and French Frigate Shoals where we decreased in monk seal prey including bottomfish - Mesophotic Benthic Carnivores, Mesophotic Plantivores, Mesophotic Forage Fish, Bottomfish - by 30%.

File Date/Time: 2019-05-06 00:00:00
File Type: csv (comma-separated values)

Distribution 5

CC ID: 379868
Download URL: http://accession.nodc.noaa.gov/0190881
Distributor: National Centers for Environmental Information - Silver Spring, Maryland (NCEI-MD) (2019 - Present)
File Name: 1d.0.9xPrimaryProducers.csv
Description:

Monthly output of ecosystem modeling data for the last 5 years of 40-year simulation run for Laysan and French Frigate Shoals where we decreased Primary Producers by 10%.

File Date/Time: 2019-05-06 00:00:00
File Type: csv (comma-separated values)

Distribution 6

CC ID: 379869
Download URL: http://accession.nodc.noaa.gov/0190881
Distributor: National Centers for Environmental Information - Silver Spring, Maryland (NCEI-MD) (2019 - Present)
File Name: 1d.1.1xPrimaryProducers.csv
Description:

Monthly output of ecosystem modeling data for the last 5 years of 40-year simulation run for Laysan and French Frigate Shoals where we increased Primary Producers by 10%.

File Date/Time: 2019-05-06 00:00:00
File Type: csv (comma-separated values)

Distribution 7

CC ID: 379874
Download URL: http://accession.nodc.noaa.gov/0190881
Distributor: National Centers for Environmental Information - Silver Spring, Maryland (NCEI-MD) (2019 - Present)
File Name: 2a.Fishery_only.csv
Description:

Monthly output of ecosystem modeling data from 1998 - 2015 for Laysan (LAY) and French Frigate Shoals (FFS) where we included a bottomfish fishery only to assess its importance on the observed trend in monk seal population.

File Date/Time: 2019-05-06 00:00:00
File Type: csv (comma-separated values)

Distribution 8

CC ID: 379873
Download URL: http://accession.nodc.noaa.gov/0190881
Distributor: National Centers for Environmental Information - Silver Spring, Maryland (NCEI-MD) (2019 - Present)
File Name: 2c.Fishery_plus_percent_removal.csv
Description:

Monthly output of ecosystem modeling data from 1998 through 2015 for Laysan and French Frigate Shoals where we included a bottomfish fishery and an additional mortality on monk seals to assess its importance on the observed trend in monk seal population. For Laysan, the best fit with the observed data was fishery + 1 % removal, and for French Frigate Shoals it was fishery + 7% removal.

File Date/Time: 2019-05-06 00:00:00
File Type: csv (comma-separated values)

Distribution 9

CC ID: 379875
Download URL: http://accession.nodc.noaa.gov/0190881
Distributor: National Centers for Environmental Information - Silver Spring, Maryland (NCEI-MD) (2019 - Present)
File Name: Observation_data.csv
Description:

Monk seal observation data from 1998 - 2015 and bottomfish observation data from 1998 to 2010. These data sets were used to compare model output data with to assess which simulation has the best fit and is therefore most likely to explain the factors contributing to the monk seal trends.

File Date/Time: 2019-05-06 00:00:00
File Type: csv (comma-separated values)

URLs

URL 1

CC ID: 362327
URL: https://www.pifsc.noaa.gov/hawaiian_monk_seal/
Name: Hawaiian Monk Seal Research
URL Type:
Online Resource
Description:

Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center website.

URL 2

CC ID: 362328
URL: http://ecopath.org
Name: Ecopath with Ecosim (EwE)
URL Type:
Online Resource
Description:

Ecological/ecosystem modeling software website.

Technical Environment

Description:

Model outputs (Excel/csv files) were generated using Ecopath with Ecosim version 6.4.3.

Data Quality

Representativeness:

Model output data (i.e., predictions) provide a range of potential answers based on the available data and should not be used for tactical management.

Accuracy:

Monk seal biomass data comes from beach counts. Bottomfish biomass data was model derived based on stock assessments of the bottomfish fishery. All generated data is model derived and has some uncertainty associated with it.

Analytical Accuracy:

Best-fit of model-simulated output data and observational data was based on the least square fitting criterion and summed the squared deviations. Additionally, the Akaike's information criterion (AIC) was calculated taking into account the small sample size.

Completeness Report:

All available biological data for the areas of interest were used. Fishery data was limited to 2010 as NOAA discontinued stock assessments once the fishery was closed.

Conceptual Consistency:

Data sets are model output data.

Quality Control Procedures Employed:

Model dynamics were validated with a hindcast simulation (1998-2015). Time series data of monk seal biomass and bottomfish biomass were loaded into Ecosim for validation and to fine-tune the model by adjusting vulnerability values and so minimize the residuals between predicted and observed time series of monk seal and bottomfish biomass using a least-square fitting criterion. We manually adjusted vulnerability values of interest based on the results from the perturbation scenarios and restricted them to ecological meaningful values (i.e., preferably between 1 and 3 with 10 as maximum value).

Data Management

Have Resources for Management of these Data Been Identified?: Yes
Approximate Percentage of Budget for these Data Devoted to Data Management: Unknown
Do these Data Comply with the Data Access Directive?: Yes
Is Access to the Data Limited Based on an Approved Waiver?: No
Approximate Delay Between Data Collection and Dissemination: Unknown
Actual or Planned Long-Term Data Archive Location: NCEI-MD
Approximate Delay Between Data Collection and Archiving: Unknown
How Will the Data Be Protected from Accidental or Malicious Modification or Deletion Prior to Receipt by the Archive?:

Model data is stored on an external hard drive and backed up to a server at PIFSC weekly by the data steward. Data on the PIFSC server are managed by NOAA IRC and NOAA Fisheries ITS.

Lineage

Lineage Statement:

Input data was collected for the Ecopath with Ecosim model (EwE) from Parrish et al 2011; PIFSC Ecosystem Sciences Division data, monk seal data, bottomfish stock asessment data, and other sources defined in Weijerman et al 2017 MEPS. The model output data is generated with the EwE model. See Weijerman et al 2017 MEPS for details.

Sources

Brodziak J, Moffitt R, DiNardo G. 2009. Hawaiian bottomfish assessment update for 2008. Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center Administrative Report H-09-02, 93 p.

CC ID: 380069
Contact Role Type: Publisher
Contact Type: Organization
Contact Name: Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center
Publish Date: 2009-03-02
Citation URL: http://www.pifsc.noaa.gov/library/pubs/admin/PIFSC_Admin_Rep_09-02.pdf
Citation URL Name: NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center library: staff publications
Source Contribution:

Input data

National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Reef Fish, including Benthic Estimate Data of the Hawaiian Archipelago since 2013

CC ID: 365349
Contact Role Type: Originator
Contact Type: Organization
Contact Name: Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center
Citation URL: https://www.fisheries.noaa.gov/inport/item/24447
Citation URL Name: InPort: NOAA Fisheries Enterprise Data Management Program
Source Contribution:

Input data

National Marine Fisheries Service (2017) Hawaiian monk seal. In: Carretta JV, Forney KA, Oleson EM, Weller DW and others (eds) U.S. Pacific marine mammal stock assessments: 2016. NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC-577, p 41–48

CC ID: 365535
Contact Role Type: Originator
Contact Type: Organization
Contact Name: Southwest Fisheries Science Center, SWFSC
Publish Date: 2017-06-01
Citation URL: http://doi.org/10.7289/V5/TM-SWFSC-577
Citation URL Name: NOAA Institutional Repository
Citation URL Description:

Monk seal biomass and life history data (draft report),

http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/sars/pdf/pac2016_draft.pdf

Source Contribution:

Input data

Parrish FA, Howell EA, Antonelis GA, Iverson SJ, Littnan CL, Parrish JD, Polovina JJ (2012) Estimating the carrying capacity of French Frigate Shoals for the endangered Hawaiian monk seal using Ecopath with Ecosim. Marine Mammal Science 28:522-541

CC ID: 365269
Publish Date: 2011-07-15
Citation URL: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-7692.2011.00502.x
Citation URL Name: Wiley Online Library, Marine Mammal Science
Source Contribution:

Peer-reviewed manuscript, input data

Weijerman M, Robinson S, Parrish F, Polovina J, Littnan C (2017) Comparative application of trophic ecosystem models to evaluate drivers of endangered Hawaiian monk seal populations. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 582:215-229.

CC ID: 362330
Publish Date: 2017-11-06
Citation URL: https://doi.org/10.3354/meps12320
Citation URL Name: Marine Ecology Progress Series
Source Contribution:

Peer-reviewed manuscript describing results

Process Steps

Process Step 1

CC ID: 839294
Description:

Fish species were aggregated into functional groups. All biomass data was converted to metric tons per square kilometer and used as input data for the EwE model. Rate parameters were calculated based on a weighted average by species composition in the functional groups. Landings data of bottomfish were aggregated by year for the spatial areas encompassing the two ecosystems of interest (Laysan and French Frigate Shoals). Model output data is reported without any additional process steps.

Process Contact: Weijerman, Mariska
Phone (Voice): (808)725-5468
Email Address: mariska.weijerman@noaa.gov
Source: Weijerman M, Robinson S, Parrish F, Polovina J, Littnan C (2017) Comparative application of trophic ecosystem models to evaluate drivers of endangered Hawaiian monk seal populations. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 582:215-229.

Acquisition Information

Instruments

Instrument Unavailable Reason: Not Applicable

Platforms

Platform Unavailable Reason: Not Applicable

Catalog Details

Catalog Item ID: 35796
Metadata Record Created By: Mariska Weijerman
Metadata Record Created: 2016-11-29 18:53+0000
Metadata Record Last Modified By: SysAdmin InPortAdmin
Metadata Record Last Modified: 2020-08-03 16:13+0000
Metadata Record Published: 2019-05-08
Owner Org: PIFSC
Metadata Publication Status: Published Externally
Do Not Publish?: N
Metadata Next Review Date: 2020-05-08