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Short Citation:
Southwest Fisheries Science Center, 2024: AMLR Temperature Recording Archival Tags Gentoos 2005-2008 v1.2,

Item Identification

Title: AMLR Temperature Recording Archival Tags Gentoos 2005-2008 v1.2
Status: Completed
Creation Date: 2005

Estimates of daily activity and consequent demand for food during winter are scarce for many polar seabirds, yet essential for assessing constraints on foraging effort, demand for food, and potential competition with local fisheries. We affixed archival temperature tags to gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua) from two colonies in the South Shetland Islands to measure the frequency, timing, and duration of foraging trips and to estimate minimum food requirements during winter. Foraging trip frequencies ranged from 0.85 to 1.0 trips day-1 and were positively correlated with day length. Early winter foraging trips more closely matched day length than late winter foraging trips. The data suggest that individuals maximize foraging time during the early winter period, likely to recover body mass following the breeding season and molt. The more attenuated response of foraging trip durations to increasing day length in late winter may be related to differences in local resource availability or individual behaviors prior to the upcoming breeding season. Minimum food requirements also exhibited a seasonal cycle with a mid-winter minimum. On average, minimum food requirements were estimated at 0.70 ± 0.12 kg day-1. Extrapolated to the regional population of gentoo penguins, winter food requirements by gentoo penguins were equivalent to roughly 33% of annual krill catches by commercial fisheries in the South Shetland Island region over the past decade. Current expansion of the gentoo population and the krill fishery in the southern Scotia Sea warrants continued monitoring of gentoo penguins during winter.


We use temperature-recording archival tags to measure the basic activity patterns of gentoo penguins from two breeding colonies in the South Shetland Islands during the 2005, 2006, and 2008 austral winters. We first ask whether foraging trip frequencies, timing, and durations during winter differ across space and time. We then examine the relationship of trip durations with day length to assess how rapid changes in day length during winter affect foraging behavior. Finally, from the observations of daily activity, we estimate the minimum food requirements that are necessary to meet daily energy expenditures associated with the observed daily activity.

Other Citation Details:

Hinke, J.T. and W.Z. Trivelpiece. 2011. Daily activity and minimum food requirements during winter for gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua) in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. Polar Biol (2011) 34:1579-1590.

DOI 10.1007/s00300-011-1018-x

Supplemental Information:

NCEI data archive:

DOI (Digital Object Identifier):
DOI Registration Authority: DOI Registration Authority


Theme Keywords

Thesaurus Keyword
None archival tag
None ecosystem
None environmental
None Euphausia superba
None gentoo
None krill
None penguins
None Pygoscelis
None seasonality
None temperature
None winter consumption

Spatial Keywords

Thesaurus Keyword
None Admiralty Bay
None Antarctic
None Antarctica
None Bransfield Strait
None Cape Shirreff
None Copacabana
None King George Island
None Livingston Island
None South Shetlands

Physical Location

Organization: Southwest Fisheries Science Center
City: La Jolla
State/Province: CA
Country: USA

Data Set Information

Data Set Scope Code: Data Set
Data Set Type: Mixed
Maintenance Frequency: As Needed
Data Presentation Form: Table (digital)
Distribution Liability:

Any conclusions drawn from the analysis of this information are not the responsibility of NOAA, the National Marine Fisheries Service, US AMLR or its partners.

Data Set Credit: US Antarctic Marine Living Resources Program

Support Roles

Data Steward

CC ID: 864212
Date Effective From: 2019
Date Effective To:
Contact (Person): Hinke, Jefferson
Email Address:
Phone: 858-334-2825


CC ID: 864213
Date Effective From: 2019
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): Southwest Fisheries Science Center (SWFSC)
Address: 8901 La Jolla Shores Dr.
La Jolla, CA 92037
Phone: (858)546-7000
Business Hours: 8:00-16:30

Metadata Contact

CC ID: 864214
Date Effective From: 2019
Date Effective To:
Contact (Person): Hinke, Jefferson
Email Address:
Phone: 858-334-2825

Point of Contact

CC ID: 864215
Date Effective From: 2019
Date Effective To:
Contact (Person): Hinke, Jefferson
Email Address:
Phone: 858-334-2825


Extent Group 1

Extent Group 1 / Geographic Area 1

CC ID: 386789
W° Bound: -64
E° Bound: -43
N° Bound: -58
S° Bound: -65

FAO Area 48.1, CCAMLR Area 48.1, Antarctic Peninsula, South Shetland Islands, South Orkney Islands

Extent Group 1 / Time Frame 1

CC ID: 386788
Time Frame Type: Range
Start: 2005
End: 2008

Access Information

Security Class: Unclassified
Data Access Policy:

Available online at

Data Access Procedure:

Data Access Constraints:


Data Use Constraints:


Metadata Access Constraints:


Metadata Use Constraints:


Distribution Information

Distribution 1

CC ID: 389196
Download URL:
Distributor: Southwest Fisheries Science Center (SWFSC) (2019 - Present)
File Name: 162405.1.1.tar.gz
File Type (Deprecated): Zip
Compression: Zip

Data Quality


+/- 1 ° C

Quantitation Limits:

Temperature ranges from - 40 ° C to + 85 ° C

Quality Control Procedures Employed:

Data collected using recognized protocols.

Data Management

Have Resources for Management of these Data Been Identified?: No
Approximate Percentage of Budget for these Data Devoted to Data Management: Unknown
Do these Data Comply with the Data Access Directive?: Yes
Is Access to the Data Limited Based on an Approved Waiver?: No
Approximate Delay Between Data Collection and Dissemination: Two years
Actual or Planned Long-Term Data Archive Location: NCEI-CO
Approximate Delay Between Data Collection and Archiving: Two years
How Will the Data Be Protected from Accidental or Malicious Modification or Deletion Prior to Receipt by the Archive?:

Data are stored on a server at the Southwest Fisheries Science Center which has all appropriate access controls, and archived at the NCEI with assigned DOI (see title section for DOI information).


Lineage Statement:

Raw data are collected by researchers at land based stations, entered into data files, reviewed for QA/QC and later on shore-based servers.

Acquisition Information


Instrument 1

CC ID: 863556
Identifier: iBKrill
Instrument / Gear: Instrument
Instrument Type: Archival Temperature Recorder

A small (25x13x8mm) archival temperature recording tag suitable for external attachment on free-ranging marine animals.


Platform Unavailable Reason: Not Applicable

Child Items

Rubric scores updated every 15m

Rubric Score Type Title
Entity AMLR iBKrill 1-2.csv
Entity iBKrill_calibration_2005 v1-2.csv

Catalog Details

Catalog Item ID: 37066
GUID: gov.noaa.nmfs.inport:37066
Metadata Record Created By: Stephanie Sexton
Metadata Record Created: 2017-03-08 17:37+0000
Metadata Record Last Modified By: SysAdmin InPortAdmin
Metadata Record Last Modified: 2023-08-15 17:09+0000
Metadata Record Published: 2018-09-04
Owner Org: SWFSC
Metadata Publication Status: Published Externally
Do Not Publish?: N
Metadata Last Review Date: 2018-09-04
Metadata Review Frequency: 1 Year
Metadata Next Review Date: 2019-09-04