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Short Citation:
Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services, 2023: Sea Level Trends: Sea Level Variations of the United States Derived from National Water Level Observation Network Stations, https://www.fisheries.noaa.gov/inport/item/37628.

Item Identification

Title: Sea Level Trends: Sea Level Variations of the United States Derived from National Water Level Observation Network Stations
Short Name: Sea Level Trends
Status: On Going
Creation Date: 1854
Revision Date: 2018
Publication Date: 2001
Abstract:

Water level records are a combination of the fluctuations of the ocean and the vertical land motion at the location of the station. Monthly mean sea level (MSL) variations were analyzed for the stations of the National Ocean Service's (NOS) National Water Level Observation Network (NWLON) having at least 30 years of data. The sea level variations determined are the relative sea level trend, the average seasonal cycle, and the interannual variability at each station. Since the derived trends include the local vertical land motion, they are spatially variable. The relative sea level trend plots include the time series for each station of the monthly MSL with the seasonal cycle removed, a 5-month average, and the linear trend with its 95% confidence interval; the average seasonal cycle; the interannual variation of MSL. The plots are updated monthly and the long-term trend is recalculated every year. The location and timing of any major earthquakes near stations in tectonically-active areas are noted since an associated vertical offset or a change in MSL trend is possible.

Purpose:

The mission of the National Ocean Service, Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services is to provide the national infrastructure, and the scientific and technical expertise to monitor, assess, and distribute tide, current, water level, and other coastal oceanographic products and services necessary to support NOAA's mission.

Notes:

7

DOI (Digital Object Identifier): None

Keywords

Theme Keywords

Thesaurus Keyword
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Science Keywords
EARTH SCIENCE > CLIMATE INDICATORS > ATMOSPHERIC/OCEAN INDICATORS > SEA LEVEL RISE
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Science Keywords
EARTH SCIENCE > CLIMATE INDICATORS > ATMOSPHERIC/OCEAN INDICATORS > SEA LEVEL RISE > INUNDATION
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Science Keywords
EARTH SCIENCE > HUMAN DIMENSIONS > NATURAL HAZARDS > FLOODS
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Science Keywords
EARTH SCIENCE > LAND SURFACE > GEOMORPHIC LANDFORMS/PROCESSES > COASTAL PROCESSES > FLOODING
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Science Keywords
EARTH SCIENCE > LAND SURFACE > GEOMORPHIC LANDFORMS/PROCESSES > COASTAL PROCESSES > SEA LEVEL CHANGES
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Science Keywords
EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > COASTAL PROCESSES > SEA LEVEL RISE
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Science Keywords
EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > COASTAL PROCESSES > SEA SURFACE HEIGHT
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Science Keywords
EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > COASTAL PROCESSES > TIDAL HEIGHT
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Science Keywords
EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > SEA SURFACE TOPOGRAPHY > MEAN SEA SURFACE
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Science Keywords
EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > SEA SURFACE TOPOGRAPHY > SEA LEVEL
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Science Keywords
EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > TIDES
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Science Keywords
EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > TIDES > TIDAL RANGE
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Science Keywords
EARTH SCIENCE > TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE > SURFACE WATER > SURFACE WATER PROCESSES/MEASUREMENTS > FLOODS > FLOOD FREQUENCY
ISO 19115 Topic Category
climatologyMeteorologyAtmosphere
ISO 19115 Topic Category
geoscientificInformation
ISO 19115 Topic Category
oceans
ISO 19115 Topic Category
transportation
NGDA Portfolio Themes
National Geospatial Data Asset
NGDA Portfolio Themes
NGDA
NGDA Portfolio Themes
Water Oceans and Coasts Theme
UNCONTROLLED
None average seasonal cycle
None coastal monitoring
None interannual variability
None long-term water level station
None Mean Sea Level
None Monthly MSL Variation
None MSL
None MSL change
None NWLON > National Water Level Observation Network
None NWLON station
None sea level fall
None sea level trends

Spatial Keywords

Thesaurus Keyword
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
CONTINENT > NORTH AMERICA > UNITED STATES OF AMERICA > ALABAMA
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
CONTINENT > NORTH AMERICA > UNITED STATES OF AMERICA > ALASKA
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
CONTINENT > NORTH AMERICA > UNITED STATES OF AMERICA > CALIFORNIA
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
CONTINENT > NORTH AMERICA > UNITED STATES OF AMERICA > CONNECTICUT
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
CONTINENT > NORTH AMERICA > UNITED STATES OF AMERICA > DELAWARE
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
CONTINENT > NORTH AMERICA > UNITED STATES OF AMERICA > DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
CONTINENT > NORTH AMERICA > UNITED STATES OF AMERICA > FLORIDA
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
CONTINENT > NORTH AMERICA > UNITED STATES OF AMERICA > GEORGIA
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
CONTINENT > NORTH AMERICA > UNITED STATES OF AMERICA > HAWAII
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
CONTINENT > NORTH AMERICA > UNITED STATES OF AMERICA > LOUISIANA
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
CONTINENT > NORTH AMERICA > UNITED STATES OF AMERICA > MAINE
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
CONTINENT > NORTH AMERICA > UNITED STATES OF AMERICA > MARYLAND
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
CONTINENT > NORTH AMERICA > UNITED STATES OF AMERICA > MASSACHUSETTS
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
CONTINENT > NORTH AMERICA > UNITED STATES OF AMERICA > MISSISSIPPI
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
CONTINENT > NORTH AMERICA > UNITED STATES OF AMERICA > NEW HAMPSHIRE
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
CONTINENT > NORTH AMERICA > UNITED STATES OF AMERICA > NEW JERSEY
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
CONTINENT > NORTH AMERICA > UNITED STATES OF AMERICA > NEW YORK
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
CONTINENT > NORTH AMERICA > UNITED STATES OF AMERICA > NORTH CAROLINA
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
CONTINENT > NORTH AMERICA > UNITED STATES OF AMERICA > OREGON
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
CONTINENT > NORTH AMERICA > UNITED STATES OF AMERICA > PENNSYLVANIA
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
CONTINENT > NORTH AMERICA > UNITED STATES OF AMERICA > RHODE ISLAND
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
CONTINENT > NORTH AMERICA > UNITED STATES OF AMERICA > SOUTH CAROLINA
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
CONTINENT > NORTH AMERICA > UNITED STATES OF AMERICA > TEXAS
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
CONTINENT > NORTH AMERICA > UNITED STATES OF AMERICA > VIRGINIA
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
CONTINENT > NORTH AMERICA > UNITED STATES OF AMERICA > WASHINGTON
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
OCEAN > ATLANTIC OCEAN > NORTH ATLANTIC OCEAN > BERMUDA
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
OCEAN > ATLANTIC OCEAN > NORTH ATLANTIC OCEAN > CARIBBEAN SEA
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
OCEAN > ATLANTIC OCEAN > NORTH ATLANTIC OCEAN > CARIBBEAN SEA > PUERTO RICO
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
OCEAN > ATLANTIC OCEAN > NORTH ATLANTIC OCEAN > CARIBBEAN SEA > VIRGIN ISLANDS
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
OCEAN > ATLANTIC OCEAN > NORTH ATLANTIC OCEAN > GULF OF MEXICO
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
OCEAN > PACIFIC OCEAN > CENTRAL PACIFIC OCEAN > AMERICAN SAMOA
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
OCEAN > PACIFIC OCEAN > CENTRAL PACIFIC OCEAN > HAWAIIAN ISLANDS
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
OCEAN > PACIFIC OCEAN > CENTRAL PACIFIC OCEAN > JOHNSTON ATOLL
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
OCEAN > PACIFIC OCEAN > CENTRAL PACIFIC OCEAN > KIRIBATI
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
OCEAN > PACIFIC OCEAN > CENTRAL PACIFIC OCEAN > MIDWAY ATOLL
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
OCEAN > PACIFIC OCEAN > CENTRAL PACIFIC OCEAN > WAKE ISLAND
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
OCEAN > PACIFIC OCEAN > NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN > GULF OF ALASKA
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
OCEAN > PACIFIC OCEAN > SOUTH PACIFIC OCEAN > POLYNESIA > COOK ISLANDS
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
OCEAN > PACIFIC OCEAN > SOUTH PACIFIC OCEAN > POLYNESIA > FIJI
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
OCEAN > PACIFIC OCEAN > SOUTH PACIFIC OCEAN > POLYNESIA > FRENCH POLYNESIA
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
OCEAN > PACIFIC OCEAN > SOUTH PACIFIC OCEAN > POLYNESIA > SAMOA
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
OCEAN > PACIFIC OCEAN > WESTERN PACIFIC OCEAN > MICRONESIA > GUAM
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
OCEAN > PACIFIC OCEAN > WESTERN PACIFIC OCEAN > MICRONESIA > MARSHALL ISLANDS
UNCONTROLLED
None Coastal U.S. territories
None Coastal United States
None U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone

Instrument Keywords

Thesaurus Keyword
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Instrument Keywords
ACOUSTIC SOUNDERS
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Instrument Keywords
PRESSURE SENSORS > PRESSURE SENSORS
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Instrument Keywords
TIDE GAUGES > TIDE GAUGES
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Instrument Keywords
WATER LEVEL GAUGES > WATER LEVEL GAUGES
UNCONTROLLED
None Microwave Water Level (MWWL) Sensor

Platform Keywords

Thesaurus Keyword
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Platform Keywords
GOES > NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites

Physical Location

Organization: Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services
City: Silver Spring
State/Province: MD

Data Set Information

Data Set Scope Code: Data Set
Maintenance Frequency: As Needed
Data Presentation Form: Profile (digital)
Distribution Liability:

Recorded water levels are a combination of changes in the sea level and the vertical land motion at the location of the gauge. Therefore, the trends derived are relative MSL trends and can be considered valid only for a region near the gauge with similar vertical land motion. Calculation of absolute MSL trends requires the accurate determination of vertical land motion at the gauges and was beyond the scope of this project.

Support Roles

Data Steward

CC ID: 393227
Date Effective From: 2016-08-23
Date Effective To:
Contact (Position): Stakeholder Services Branch
Email Address: tide.predictions@noaa.gov
Phone: 301-713-2815

Distributor

CC ID: 1223744
Date Effective From: 2023
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS)
URL: Tides and Currents

Distributor

CC ID: 393229
Date Effective From: 2016-08-23
Date Effective To:
Contact (Position): Stakeholder Services Branch
Email Address: tide.predictions@noaa.gov
Phone: 301-713-2815

Metadata Contact

CC ID: 393230
Date Effective From: 2016-08-23
Date Effective To:
Contact (Position): Stakeholder Services Branch
Email Address: tide.predictions@noaa.gov
Phone: 301-713-2815

Point of Contact

CC ID: 393228
Date Effective From: 2016-08-23
Date Effective To:
Contact (Position): Stakeholder Services Branch
Email Address: tide.predictions@noaa.gov
Phone: 301-713-2815

Extents

Currentness Reference: Publication Date

Extent Group 1

Extent Group 1 / Geographic Area 1

CC ID: 393233
W° Bound: -180
E° Bound: 180
N° Bound: 61.24
S° Bound: -14.28

Extent Group 1 / Time Frame 1

CC ID: 393232
Time Frame Type: Continuing
Start: 1854

Spatial Information

Spatial Representation

Representations Used

Vector: Yes

Reference Systems

Reference System 1

CC ID: 1269849

Coordinate Reference System

CRS Type: Geographic 2D
EPSG Code: EPSG:4269
EPSG Name: NAD83
See Full Coordinate Reference System Information

Reference System 2

CC ID: 1269850

Coordinate Reference System

CRS Type: Geographic 2D
EPSG Code: EPSG:4326
EPSG Name: WGS 84
See Full Coordinate Reference System Information

Access Information

Security Class: Unclassified
Data Access Constraints:

None

Data Use Constraints:

None

Distribution Information

Distribution 1

CC ID: 393234
Start Date: 2023-05
End Date: Present
Download URL: https://mapservices.weather.noaa.gov/static/rest/services/NOS_Observations/CO_OPS_Products/MapServer
Distributor: Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS) (2023 - Present)
Description:

Other Documents

File Type (Deprecated): ArcGIS REST Services
Application Version: 10.91

Distribution 2

CC ID: 393236
Start Date: 2001
End Date: Present
Download URL: https://tidesandcurrents.noaa.gov/sltrends/sltrends.shtml
Distributor: Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS) (2023 - Present)
Description:

Relative Sea Level Trends page and interactive map. Zoom in/out and pan around in the map. Arrows represent stations, and the direction and rate of relative sea level trend at that those locations.

Click any arrow to access the linear sea level trend and other data for that station.

NOAA Technical Reports related to Sea Level Trends are linked at the bottom of this page.

File Type (Deprecated): tabular and digital data

URLs

URL 1

CC ID: 393226
URL: https://tidesandcurrents.noaa.gov/
Name: CO-OPS Home Page
URL Type:
Online Resource
Description:

This is the CO-OPS Home Page

URL 2

CC ID: 1182598
URL: https://tidesandcurrents.noaa.gov/pub.html
Name: CO-OPS Publications Page
URL Type:
Online Resource
Description:

This is the CO-OPS Publications Page

Activity Log

Activity Log 1

CC ID: 393262
Activity Date/Time: 2016-08-23
Description:

Date that the source FGDC record was last modified.

Activity Log 2

CC ID: 393261
Activity Date/Time: 2017-04-05
Description:

Converted from FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata (version FGDC-STD-001-1998) using 'fgdc_to_inport_xml.pl' script. Contact Tyler Christensen (NOS) for details.

Activity Log 3

CC ID: 583899
Activity Date/Time: 2017-09-13
Description:

Partial upload of Spatial Info section only.

Activity Log 4

CC ID: 598757
Activity Date/Time: 2017-11-01
Description:

Replaced entire Lineage section to populate new Source Contribution field.

Activity Log 5

CC ID: 716318
Activity Date/Time: 2018-02-08
Description:

Partial upload of Positional Accuracy fields only.

Activity Log 6

CC ID: 1182718
Activity Date/Time: 2022-08-26
Description:

- Changed the short name from sl_trends to Sea Level Trends.

- Shortened the wording in many of the sections with paragraphs (such as the abstract)

- added URL 2 in that section

Activity Log 7

CC ID: 1182833
Activity Date/Time: 2022-08-30
Activity Type: Title Change
Responsible Party: Brianna Key
Description:

Name changed from "Sea Levels Online" to "Sea Level Trends"

Activity Log 8

CC ID: 1232318
Activity Date/Time: 2023-03-17
Activity Type: Minor edits
Responsible Party: Shawn Maddock
Description:

Updated GCMD keywords

Activity Log 9

CC ID: 1270048
Activity Date/Time: 2023-08-31
Activity Type: Updates
Responsible Party: Shawn Maddock
Description:

Updated links for GIS MapServer, and dataset creation and/or publication dates in this record to comply with NGDA requirements.

Data Quality

Accuracy:

The 95% confidence intervals of the MSL trends for all water level stations are listed in the tables of US and global trends. The range of confidence intervals are inversely proportional to the length of the data series. A minimum of 30 years is required for the data time period to obtain a 95% confidence interval of +/- 1.5 mm/yr. The widest confidence intervals are for the stations with the shortest time periods of data. Since most of the U.S. East Coast stations have been in operation for many years, the trends are well determined showing narrow confidence intervals. The U.S. West Coast and Alaska station trends have a greater variability due to the variety of tectonic activity affecting vertical land motion at different stations. Some of the newer West Coast and Alaskan stations have wide confidence intervals due to shorter data sets. Several stations have separate trends determined for pre- and post- earthquake time periods. A group of stations in western Gulf Coast show large positive trends. The stations are undergoing rapid land subsidence due to sediment loading and compaction of the Mississippi River delta and/or oil and gas extraction.

Vertical Positional Accuracy:

For most stations, the plotted values are relative to the 1983-2001 mean sea level datum. Some stations with rapid positive and negative trends are on a 5-year epoch, and their values are plotted relative to the station's most recent 5-year epoch.

Completeness Report:

NOS has collected water level data for a span of more than 30 years at many US coastal locations. Although there may be long data gaps at some of the locations, the existing data can provide good estimates of linear MSL trends since vertical datums have been carefully maintained through periodic leveling to stable benchmarks with respect to the adjacent landmass. There are a wide range of error bars associated with the trends. Most of this variation can be attributed to the length of the data time series. In order to compare linear MSL trends between stations over different time periods, linear mean sea level trends were calculated for overlapping 50-year segments, for the stations with the longest data records. The differences between stations are mostly due to differences in vertical land motion.

Conceptual Consistency:

The 95% confidence intervals of the MSL trends for all water level stations are listed in the tables of US and global trends. The range of confidence intervals are inversely proportional to the length of the data series. A minimum of 30 years is required for the data time period to obtain a 95% confidence interval of +/- 1.5 mm/yr. The widest confidence intervals are for the stations with the shortest time periods of data. Since most of the U.S. East Coast stations have been in operation for many years, the trends are well determined showing narrow confidence intervals. The U.S. West Coast and Alaska station trends have a greater variability due to the variety of tectonic activity affecting vertical land motion at different stations. Some of the newer West Coast and Alaskan stations have wide confidence intervals due to shorter data sets. Several stations have separate trends determined for pre- and post- earthquake time periods. A group of stations in western Gulf Coast show large positive trends. The stations are undergoing rapid land subsidence due to sediment loading and compaction of the Mississippi River delta and/or oil and gas extraction.

Lineage

Sources

Sea Level Variations of the United States beginning in 1854

CC ID: 598758
Contact Role Type: Publisher
Contact Type: Organization
Contact Name: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Ocean Service (NOS), Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS)
Extent Type: Continuing
Extent Start Date/Time: 1854
Citation URL: https://tidesandcurrents.noaa.gov/pub.html
Citation URL Description:

This is our publications page. There are multiple publications showing sea level variations or trends up to the point of their writing.

Source Contribution:

Documents study procedures and results. | Source Geospatial Form: document | Type of Source Media: document

Process Steps

Process Step 1

CC ID: 598759
Description:

The data examined in this study consist of monthly mean sea levels for CO-OPS water level stations in operation for a span of at least 30 years. Although there may be years-long data gaps at some of the locations, the existing data can provide a good estimate of the linear MSL trend since the vertical datums have been maintained through periodic leveling to stable benchmarks with respect to the adjacent landmass. The monthly means are an average of hourly water level heights for a complete month of data. The sea level variations determined in this study were the linear secular trend, the average seasonal cycle, and the residual variability at each station. Recorded water levels are a combination of changes in the sea level and the vertical land motion at the location of the gauge. Therefore, the trends derived are relative MSL trends and can be considered valid only for the region near the gauge with similar vertical land motion. Calculation of absolute MSL trends requires the accurate determination of vertical land motion at the gauges and is beyond the scope of this study.

Catalog Details

Catalog Item ID: 37628
GUID: gov.noaa.nmfs.inport:37628
Metadata Record Created By: Tyler Christensen
Metadata Record Created: 2017-04-05 11:05+0000
Metadata Record Last Modified By: Shawn Maddock
Metadata Record Last Modified: 2023-08-31 21:12+0000
Metadata Record Published: 2023-08-31
Owner Org: CO-OPS
Metadata Publication Status: Published Externally
Do Not Publish?: N
Metadata Last Review Date: 2022-08-26
Metadata Review Frequency: 1 Year
Metadata Next Review Date: 2023-08-26