Short Citation:
Southwest Fisheries Science Center, 2021: Leopard Seal UAS Images 2013-2014 v1.0,

Item Identification

Title: Leopard Seal UAS Images 2013-2014 v1.0
Status: Completed
Creation Date: 2013
Publication Date: 2017

We aerially surveyed leopard seals of known body size and mass to test the precision and accuracy of photogrammetry from a small UAS. Flights were conducted in January and February of 2013 and 2014 and 50 photogrammetric samples were obtained from 15 unrestrained seals. Photogrammetric measurements from a single, vertical image obtained using UAS provide a noninvasive approach for estimating the mass and body condition of pinnipeds that may be widely applicable.


Measurements of body size and mass are fundamental to pinniped population management and research. Manual measurements tend to be accurate but are invasive and logistically challenging to obtain. Ground-based photogrammetric techniques are less invasive, but inherent limitations make them impractical for many field applications. The recent proliferation of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) in wildlife monitoring has provided a promising new platform for the photogrammetry of free-ranging pinnipeds. Leopard seals (Hydrurga leptonyx) are an apex predator in coastal Antarctica whose body condition could be a valuable indicator of ecosystem health.


The archived images set includes image metadata plus a description of the photo measurement protocol that was used by participants in this study.

Other Citation Details:

Krause DJ, Hinke JT, Perryman WL, Goebel ME, LeRoi DJ (2017) An accurate and adaptable photogrammetric approach for estimating the mass and body condition of pinnipeds using an unmanned aerial system. PLoS ONE 12(11): e0187465.

DOI (Digital Object Identifier):
DOI Registration Authority: DOI Registration Authority


Theme Keywords

Thesaurus Keyword
None cameras
None Hydrurga leptonyx
None leopard seal
None morphometrics
None photogrammetry
None pinnipeds
None UAS
None unmanned aerial system

Temporal Keywords

Thesaurus Keyword
None Austral Spring
None Austral Summer

Spatial Keywords

Thesaurus Keyword
None Antarctic peninsula
None Cape Shirreff
None CCAMLR Area 48.1
None FAO Area 48.1
None Livingston Island
None South Shetland Islands

Physical Location

Organization: Southwest Fisheries Science Center
City: La Jolla
State/Province: CA
Country: USA

Data Set Information

Data Set Scope Code: Data Set
Data Set Type: Images
Maintenance Frequency: None Planned
Data Presentation Form: Image (digital)
Distribution Liability:

Any conclusions drawn from the analysis of this information are not the responsibility of NOAA, the National Marine Fisheries Service, US AMLR or its partners.

Support Roles

Data Steward

CC ID: 864455
Date Effective From: 2011-05-09
Date Effective To:
Contact (Person): Woodman, Sam
Address: 8901 La Jolla Shores Dr
La Jolla, CA 92037
Email Address:
Phone: 858-546-7138


CC ID: 864456
Date Effective From: 2011-05-09
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): Southwest Fisheries Science Center (SWFSC)
Address: 8901 La Jolla Shores Dr.
La Jolla, CA 92037
Phone: (858)546-7000
Business Hours: 8:00-16:30

Metadata Contact

CC ID: 864457
Date Effective From: 2011-05-09
Date Effective To:
Contact (Person): Krause, Douglas
Email Address:

Point of Contact

CC ID: 864458
Date Effective From: 2011-05-09
Date Effective To:
Contact (Person): Krause, Douglas
Email Address:


Extent Group 1

Extent Group 1 / Geographic Area 1

CC ID: 591768
W° Bound: -61
E° Bound: -60.5
N° Bound: -62.25
S° Bound: -62.75

FAO Area 48.1, CCAMLR Area 48.1, Antarctic Peninsula, South Shetland Islands, Livingston Island, Cape Shirreff

Extent Group 1 / Time Frame 1

CC ID: 591769
Time Frame Type: Range
Start: 2013
End: 2014

Access Information

Security Class: Unclassified
Data Access Policy:

Available online at

Data Access Procedure:

Data Access Constraints:


Data Use Constraints:


Metadata Access Constraints:


Metadata Use Constraints:


Distribution Information

Distribution 1

CC ID: 591771
Download URL:
Distributor: Southwest Fisheries Science Center (SWFSC) (2011-05-09 - Present)
File Name: 168214.1.1.tar.gz
File Type: Zip

Data Quality

Analytical Accuracy:

UAS-derived measurements accurate to within 2.01 ± 1.06%

Quality Control Procedures Employed:

Data collected using recognized protocols.

Data Management

Have Resources for Management of these Data Been Identified?: No
Approximate Percentage of Budget for these Data Devoted to Data Management: Unknown
Do these Data Comply with the Data Access Directive?: No
Is Access to the Data Limited Based on an Approved Waiver?: No
Approximate Delay Between Data Collection and Dissemination: Two years
Actual or Planned Long-Term Data Archive Location: NCEI-CO
Approximate Delay Between Data Collection and Archiving: Two years
How Will the Data Be Protected from Accidental or Malicious Modification or Deletion Prior to Receipt by the Archive?:

Data are stored on a server at the Southwest Fisheries Science Center which has all appropriate access controls.


Lineage Statement:

Raw image data are collected by researchers at land based stations, organized, reviewed for QA/QC and later on shore-based servers.

Acquisition Information


Instrument 1

CC ID: 863581
Identifier: Olympus E-PM2
Instrument / Gear: Instrument
Instrument Type: Digital Camera

Micro 4/3 mirrorless camera.


Platform 1

CC ID: 863582
Identifier: APH-22

It's a vertical take off/landing (VTOL) hexacopter drone.

Mounted Instrument 1

Identifier: Olympus E-PM2

Child Items

Rubric scores updated every 15m

Rubric Score Type Title
Entity (ENT) 2013-14 CS LS Photo Index v1.0.csv

Catalog Details

Catalog Item ID: 47573
Metadata Record Created By: Stephanie Sexton
Metadata Record Created: 2017-10-03 18:34+0000
Metadata Record Last Modified By: Sam Woodman
Metadata Record Last Modified: 2020-11-30 16:51+0000
Metadata Record Published: 2017-10-25
Owner Org: SWFSC
Metadata Publication Status: Published Externally
Do Not Publish?: N
Metadata Next Review Date: 2018-10-26