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Short Citation:
Office for Coastal Management, 2023: 2004 Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron, Michigan Coastline LiDAR,

Item Identification

Title: 2004 Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron, Michigan Coastline LiDAR
Short Name: mi2004_m18_metadata
Status: Completed
Publication Date: 2006-10-19

This metadata document describes the collection and processing of Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) data over

an area along the coast of Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron, Michigan. Data was collected at a nominal two (2) meter post spacing

between points. Two elevation data sets were compiled in this project, first surface returns, in which features that are

above the ground, such as buildings, bridges, tree tops, etc. have not been eliminated and a Bare Earth Data set.

Original contact information:

Contact Org: NOAA Office for Coastal Management

Phone: 843-740-1202



This LIDAR collected under this task order has been supplied to the NOAA, Office for Coastal Management (OCM) to support local

Coastal Zone Managers in their decision-making processes.



Supplemental Information:

The 2004 Saginaw Bay, Michigan Lidar Data Validation Report may be viewed at:


Theme Keywords

Thesaurus Keyword
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Science Keywords
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Science Keywords
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Science Keywords
ISO 19115 Topic Category
None Beach
None Erosion

Spatial Keywords

Thesaurus Keyword
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords

Physical Location

Organization: Office for Coastal Management
City: Charleston
State/Province: SC

Data Set Information

Data Set Scope Code: Data Set
Maintenance Frequency: None Planned
Distribution Liability:

Any conclusions drawn from the analysis of this information are not the responsibility of NOAA,

the Office for Coastal Management or its partners.

Data Set Credit: EarthData International of Maryland, LLC 7320 Executive Way Frederick, MD 21704 1-301-948-8550 1-301963-2064

Support Roles

Data Steward

CC ID: 624292
Date Effective From: 2006-10-19
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): NOAA Office for Coastal Management (NOAA/OCM)
Address: 2234 South Hobson Ave
Charleston, SC 29405-2413
Email Address:
Phone: (843) 740-1202


CC ID: 624294
Date Effective From: 2006-10-19
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): NOAA Office for Coastal Management (NOAA/OCM)
Address: 2234 South Hobson Ave
Charleston, SC 29405-2413
Email Address:
Phone: (843) 740-1202

Metadata Contact

CC ID: 624295
Date Effective From: 2006-10-19
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): NOAA Office for Coastal Management (NOAA/OCM)
Address: 2234 South Hobson Ave
Charleston, SC 29405-2413
Email Address:
Phone: (843) 740-1202

Point of Contact

CC ID: 624293
Date Effective From: 2006-10-19
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): NOAA Office for Coastal Management (NOAA/OCM)
Address: 2234 South Hobson Ave
Charleston, SC 29405-2413
Email Address:
Phone: (843) 740-1202


Currentness Reference: Ground Condition

Extent Group 1

Extent Group 1 / Geographic Area 1

CC ID: 1133700
W° Bound: -83.969892
E° Bound: -82.946673
N° Bound: 44.345024
S° Bound: 43.551754

Extent Group 1 / Time Frame 1

CC ID: 1133699
Time Frame Type: Range
Start: 2004-04-27
End: 2004-05-04

Spatial Information

Spatial Representation

Representations Used

Vector: Yes

Access Information

Security Class: Unclassified
Data Access Procedure:

This data can be obtained on-line at the following URL:;

Data Access Constraints:


Data Use Constraints:

Users should be aware that temporal changes may have occurred since this data set was collected and some parts

of this data may no longer represent actual surface conditions. Users should not use this data for critical applications

without a full awareness of its limitations.

Distribution Information

Distribution 1

CC ID: 743896
Download URL:
File Name: Customized Download

Create custom data files by choosing data area, product type, map projection, file format, datum, etc.

Distribution 2

CC ID: 743897
Download URL:
File Name: Bulk Download

Simple download of data files.



CC ID: 743899
URL Type:
Online Resource


CC ID: 743900
URL Type:
Online Resource

Activity Log

Activity Log 1

CC ID: 624317
Activity Date/Time: 2016-05-23

Date that the source FGDC record was last modified.

Activity Log 2

CC ID: 624316
Activity Date/Time: 2017-11-14

Converted from FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata (version FGDC-STD-001-1998) using '' script. Contact Tyler Christensen (NOS) for details.

Activity Log 3

CC ID: 717901
Activity Date/Time: 2018-02-08

Partial upload of Positional Accuracy fields only.

Activity Log 4

CC ID: 743898
Activity Date/Time: 2018-03-13

Partial upload to move data access links to Distribution Info.

Data Quality

Horizontal Positional Accuracy:

The horizontal accuracy of this lidar data was not assessed. The high vertical

accuracy is indicative of good horizontal accuracy, though slight horizontal inaccuracies are difficult to detect using

these check points because they were located in relatively flat terrain.

Vertical Positional Accuracy:

Thirty check points collected on generally flat open terrain with a reported accuracy

of 0.03 meters were compared to the lidar points. The Guidelines for Digital Elevation Data by NDEP recommends

interpolation from a surface generated from a triangulated irregular network (TIN) derived from the lidar point data

surrounding the check point for assessing the accuracy of mass points. This method was employed in this evaluation.

Elevation values at the location of each of the 30 check points were interpolated from the triangulated bare earth point

data. The vertical error at each check point location was calculated by subtracting the interpolated lidar elevation

value from the check point elevation value. The 95th percentile error was used to calculate the overall accuracy of the

lidar data because the errors were distributed non-parametrically.

; Quantitative Value: 0.26 meters, Test that produced the value:

Tested 0.26 meter fundamental vertical accuracy at 95th percentile in open

terrain. The fundamental vertical accuracy at the 95th percentile was calculated with the following equation: Vertical

Accuracy = 95th percentile error.

Completeness Measure:

Cloud Cover: 0

Completeness Report:

None available

Conceptual Consistency:

The data were evaluated to ensure no voids exist and the data covers the entire project area.



Ground Control Survey of Saginaw Bay, Michigan

CC ID: 1133693
Publish Date: 2004-09-27
Extent Type: Range
Extent Start Date/Time: 2004-06-08
Extent End Date/Time: 2004-06-10
Source Contribution:

Twenty-four (24) ground control points were established by Terrasurv, Inc. using GPS for vertical and

horizontal coordinate values. Ground control references NAD83, NAVD88, Geoid99, in meters. An additional thirty (30)

independent check ground control points were acquired by Terrasurv, Inc. and provided directly to NOAA, OCM to support an

independent analysis of the accuracy of the Lidar data.

| Source Geospatial Form: Model | Type of Source Media: Electronic mail system

Saginaw Bay, Michigan LIDAR Scanning Project

CC ID: 1133694
Publish Date: 2004-09-27
Extent Type: Range
Extent Start Date/Time: 2004-04-27
Extent End Date/Time: 2004-05-04
Source Contribution:

The project area was flown using EarthData Aviation's Piper Navajo aircraft with tail number 62912.

LIDAR data was captured using an ALS40 LIDAR system, including an inertial measuring unit (IMU) and a dual frequency GPS

receiver. The acquisition was flown during the period of April 27 2004 through May 4, 2004. One ground based GPS receiver

was in constant operation during each flight. During the data acquisition, all receivers collected phase data at an epoch

rate of 1 Hz. All GPS phase data was post processed with continuous kinematic survey techniques using "On the Fly" (OTF)

integer ambiguity resolution. The GPS data was processed with forward and reverse processing algorithms. The results

from each process, using the data collected at the airport, were combined to yield a single fixed integer phase

differential solution of the aircraft trajectory.

| Source Geospatial Form: Model | Type of Source Media: CD-ROM

Process Steps

Process Step 1

CC ID: 1133695

EarthData has developed a unique method for processing LIDAR data. The algorithms for filtering data

were utilized within EarthData's proprietary software and commercial software written by TerraSolid. This software suite

of tools provides efficient processing for small to large-scale projects and has been incorporated into ISO 9001 compliant

production work flows. POINT CLOUD The following is a step-by-step breakdown of the process utilized to produce the

variably-spaced point cloud surface data set.

1. Processing of the LIDAR data begins with refinement of the initial boresight alignment parameters provided by

EarthData Aviation in the LITES configuration file delivered with the raw data. The technician also verifies that there

are no voids, and that the data covers the entire project area. Calibration is accomplished using the tri-directional

flight lines over the project airport, which is generally flat and free of major obstructions, trees or brush. Two

overlapping bi-directional lines are flown along the length of the runway, and the cross flight line is perpendicular

to both. All three lines are examined to ensure that they agree, within expected system tolerances, in the overlapping

areas. The technician will review flight lines and locate the areas that contained systematic errors or distortions

that were introduced by the LIDAR sensor.

2. Systematic distortions highlighted in step 1 were removed and the data was re-inspected. Corrections and adjustments

can involve the application of angular deflection or compensation for curvature of the ground surface that can be

introduced by crossing from on type of land cover to another.

3. All flight lines are processed with the refined calibration parameters obtained thru steps 1 and 2. All flight line

are examined to ensure that they agree, within expected system tolerances, in the overlapping areas (side lap).

4. The LIDAR data for each flight line was trimmed in batch for the removal of the overlap areas between flight lines.

The data was checked against a control network to ensure that vertical requirements were maintained. Conversion to the

client-specified datum and projections were then completed. The LIDAR flight line data sets were then segmented into

adjoining tiles for batch processing and data management.

5. The data was then edited for Blunder removal.

6. The data was processed interactively by the operator using LIDAR editing tools. During this final phase the operator

generated a TIN based on a desired thematic layer to evaluate the automated classification performed in step 5. This

allowed the operator to quickly re-classify points from one layer to another and recreate the TIN surface to see the

effects of edits. The use of geo-referenced images was toggled on or off to aid the operator in identifying problem areas.

The data was also examined with an automated profiling tool to aid the operator in the reclassification.

7. The data was separated into (1) variably-spaced point cloud in LAS files. The files were written to PC readable CD-ROM.

Process Date/Time: 2004-09-27 00:00:00

Process Step 2

CC ID: 1133696

The NOAA Office for Coastal Management (OCM) received files in LAS format. The files contained lidar intensity

and elevation measurements. OCM performed the following processing on the data to make it available within the Lidar Data

Retrieval Tool (LDART):

1. The data were projected from UTM to geographic decimal degrees using the General Cartographic Transformation Package.

2. The las files were sorted by latitude and the las header fields were completed.

Process Date/Time: 2005-01-05 00:00:00

Process Step 3

CC ID: 1133697

For data management purposes, the Office for Coastal Management converted the data from NAVD88 elevations to

ellipsoid elevations using Geoid 03.

Process Date/Time: 2008-01-01 00:00:00

Catalog Details

Catalog Item ID: 48193
GUID: gov.noaa.nmfs.inport:48193
Metadata Record Created By: Anne Ball
Metadata Record Created: 2017-11-14 14:19+0000
Metadata Record Last Modified By: SysAdmin InPortAdmin
Metadata Record Last Modified: 2022-08-09 17:11+0000
Metadata Record Published: 2022-03-16
Owner Org: OCM
Metadata Publication Status: Published Externally
Do Not Publish?: N
Metadata Last Review Date: 2022-03-16
Metadata Review Frequency: 1 Year
Metadata Next Review Date: 2023-03-16