Slide Menu
Search Help Show/Hide Menu
Short Citation:
Office for Coastal Management, 2022: C-CAP Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), Saipan 1945-2005-Era Land Cover Change Analysis, https://www.fisheries.noaa.gov/inport/item/48244.

Item Identification

Title: C-CAP Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), Saipan 1945-2005-Era Land Cover Change Analysis
Short Name: 1945_2005_saipan_change
Status: Completed
Publication Date: 2011-02-16
Abstract:

This data set contains the 1945-era and 2005-era classifications of

Saipan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands and can be used to analyze change.

This data set utilized Scanned Black and White Aerial Photography and Quickbird scenes

which were analyzed according to the Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP)

protocol to determine land cover.

Purpose:

To improve the understanding of coastal uplands and

wetlands, and their linkages with the distribution,

abundance, and health of living marine resources.

Notes:

11471

Keywords

Theme Keywords

Thesaurus Keyword
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Science Keywords EARTH SCIENCE > LAND SURFACE > LAND USE/LAND COVER
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Science Keywords EARTH SCIENCE > LAND SURFACE > LAND USE/LAND COVER > LAND USE/LAND COVER CLASSIFICATION
UNCONTROLLED
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Instrument Keywords Earth Remote Sensing Instruments > Passive Remote Sensing > Photon/Optical Detectors > Cameras > CAMERAS
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Platform Keywords Aircraft > AIRCRAFT
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Platform Keywords Earth Observation Satellites > WORLDVIEW-2
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Platform Keywords Earth Observation Satellites > WORLDVIEW-3
ISO 19115 Topic Category imageryBaseMapsEarthCover
None Change Detection Analysis
None Land Cover Analysis
None Remotely Sensed Imagery/Photos

Spatial Keywords

Thesaurus Keyword
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords OCEAN > PACIFIC OCEAN > WESTERN PACIFIC OCEAN > MICRONESIA > NORTHERN MARIANA ISLANDS
UNCONTROLLED
None Coastal Zone
None Saipan
None US Territory

Physical Location

Organization: Office for Coastal Management
City: Charleston
State/Province: SC

Data Set Information

Data Set Scope Code: Data Set
Maintenance Frequency: As Needed
Data Presentation Form: Map (digital)
Distribution Liability:

Users must assume responsibility to determine the usability of these data.

Support Roles

Data Steward

CC ID: 626377
Date Effective From: 2011-02-16
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): NOAA Office for Coastal Management (NOAA/OCM)
Address: 2234 South Hobson Ave
Charleston, SC 29405-2413
Email Address: coastal.info@noaa.gov
Phone: (843) 740-1202
URL: https://coast.noaa.gov

Distributor

CC ID: 626379
Date Effective From: 2011-02-16
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): NOAA Office for Coastal Management (NOAA/OCM)
Address: 2234 South Hobson Ave
Charleston, SC 29405-2413
Email Address: coastal.info@noaa.gov
Phone: (843) 740-1202
URL: https://coast.noaa.gov

Metadata Contact

CC ID: 626380
Date Effective From: 2011-02-16
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): NOAA Office for Coastal Management (NOAA/OCM)
Address: 2234 South Hobson Ave
Charleston, SC 29405-2413
Email Address: coastal.info@noaa.gov
Phone: (843) 740-1202
URL: https://coast.noaa.gov

Point of Contact

CC ID: 626378
Date Effective From: 2011-02-16
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): NOAA Office for Coastal Management (NOAA/OCM)
Address: 2234 South Hobson Ave
Charleston, SC 29405-2413
Email Address: coastal.info@noaa.gov
Phone: (843) 740-1202
URL: https://coast.noaa.gov

Extents

Currentness Reference: Acquisition date of the aerial photographs and Quickbird scenes

Extent Group 1

Extent Group 1 / Geographic Area 1

CC ID: 626383
W° Bound: 145.688029
E° Bound: 145.831972
N° Bound: 15.290656
S° Bound: 15.091067

Extent Group 1 / Time Frame 1

CC ID: 626382
Time Frame Type: Range
Start: 1945-02-01
End: 2005-04-10

Spatial Information

Spatial Representation

Representations Used

Grid: Yes

Grid Representation 1

CC ID: 626367
Dimension Count: 3
Cell Geometry: Point
Transformation Parameters Available?: No

Axis Dimension 1

Dimension Type: Row
Size: 4290

Axis Dimension 2

Dimension Type: Column
Size: 7809

Axis Dimension 3

Dimension Type: Vertical
Size: 1

Access Information

Security Class: Unclassified
Data Access Constraints:

None

Data Use Constraints:

Data set is not for use in litigation. While efforts have been

made to ensure that these data are accurate and reliable within

the state of the art, NOAA, cannot assume liability for any

damages, or misrepresentations, caused by any inaccuracies in the

data, or as a result of the data to be used on a particular

system. NOAA makes no warranty, expressed or implied, nor does

the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty.

Distribution Information

Distribution 1

CC ID: 744114
Download URL: https://coast.noaa.gov/dataviewer/#/imagery/search/where:ID=4713
Distributor:
File Name: Customized Download
Description:

Create custom data files by choosing area, map projection, file format, etc.

URLs

URL 1

CC ID: 744116
URL: https://coast.noaa.gov/digitalcoast/data/ccaphighres
URL Type:
Online Resource

URL 2

CC ID: 744118
URL: https://coast.noaa.gov/digitalcoast
URL Type:
Online Resource

Activity Log

Activity Log 1

CC ID: 626399
Activity Date/Time: 2017-02-10
Description:

Date that the source FGDC record was last modified.

Activity Log 2

CC ID: 626398
Activity Date/Time: 2017-11-14
Description:

Converted from FGDC (Federal Geographic Data Committee) CSDGM (Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata) (version FGDC-STD-001-1998) using 'fgdc_to_inport_xml.pl' script. Contact Tyler Christensen (NOS) for details.

Activity Log 3

CC ID: 717088
Activity Date/Time: 2018-02-08
Description:

Partial upload of Positional Accuracy fields only.

Activity Log 4

CC ID: 744115
Activity Date/Time: 2018-03-13
Description:

Partial upload to move data access links to Distribution Info.

Technical Environment

Description:

Microsoft Windows XP Version 2002 Service Pack 3; ESRI ArcCatalog 9.3 Service Pack 1

Data Quality

Accuracy:

Attribute_Accuracy_Report

Horizontal Positional Accuracy:

12 meters CE90

Vertical Positional Accuracy:

There was no terrain correction in the geo-referencing

procedure.

Completeness Report:

Data does not exist for all classes.

Many classes of from-to change never occurred in Saipan.

Conceptual Consistency:

Tests for logical consistency indicate that all row and column

positions in the selected latitude/longitude window contain data.

Conversion and integration with vector files indicates that all

positions are consistent with earth coordinates covering the same

area. Attribute files are logically consistent.

Lineage

Sources

C-CAP Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Saipan 1945-2005-Era Land Cover Change Analysis

CC ID: 626362
Contact Name: Sanborn. www.sanborn.com
Publish Date: 2010-05-24
Extent Type: Range
Extent Start Date/Time: 1945-05-09
Extent End Date/Time: 2005-04-10
Citation URL: https://coast.noaa.gov/digitalcoast
Source Contribution:

NOAA OCM | Source Geospatial Form: remote-sensing image | Type of Source Media: CD-ROM

Process Steps

Process Step 1

CC ID: 626363
Description:

Late Date (2005-era) Classification:

This dataset was created by Sanborn (www.sanborn.com).

This version of the classification is the High Resolution Land Cover (2005-era) for the Island of Saipan , CNMI.

This section outlines the classification procedure for the Island of Saipan , CNMI High Resolution C-CAP. Quickbird imagery used in producing this land cover product was also utilized in producing an associated impervious surfaces layer for the island. The mapping approach utilized a boundary summary and refinement procedure developed by Sanborn to leverage previous United States Forest Service mapping efforts to create the high resolution land cover data set. A calibration visit was conducted and training data was collected for classification. Non impervious features were mapped using a 0.5 acre minimum mapping unit (MMU).

Pre-processing steps:

The Quickbird mosaic utilized for this project was provided from Digital Globe as an orthorectifed, georeferenced product and was consistent with the quoted 1:12000 spatial accuracy.

Field-Collected Data:

Training data was collected in the field between March 14th and 27th, 2008. Land cover observations were recorded by analysts. The referenced dataset went through a QA/QC procedure to ensure it met accuracy standards.

Classification:

Segmentation - Image segmentation was completed at multiple scales using the multispectral (2.4 m) imagery in order to group like spectral and textural objects within the imagery. For consistency, the associated impervious data set was incorporated into the segmentation layer as a boundary delimiter. Segments can share boundaries of an impervious surface, but can never overlap an impervious surface.

Automated Classification, Image segments are classified using a decision tree classifier in See5 software and an iterative nearest neighbor classifier in Definiens software. Nearest neighbor training data is collected through analyst interpretation or ancillary data sets and used to calibrate the classification algorithm.

Automated Classification Refinement - Models are built to refine or reclassify land cover areas by utilizing the wealth of attribute information linked to each segment within Definiens.

Classification Edits - As with any automated or semi-automated land cover classification there are often inconsistencies in the land cover map. The final step before map finalization was to remove inaccuracies through manual segment labeling as interpreted by an analyst.

Map Finalization - Sanborn used independent reviewer's comments to further refine the land cover map.

Attributes for this product are as follows:

0 Background

1 Unclassified

2 Impervious

3

4

5 Developed, Open Space

6 Cultivated Crops

7 Pasture/Hay

8 Grassland/Herbaceous

9 Deciduous Forest

10 Evergreen Forest

11 Mixed Forest

12 Scrub/Shrub

13 Palustrine Forested Wetland

14 Palustrine Scrub/Shrub Wetland

15 Palustrine Emergent Wetland

16 Estuarine Forested Wetland

17 Estuarine Scrub/Shrub Wetland

18 Estuarine Emergent Wetland

19 Unconsolidated Shore

20 Bare Land

21 Open Water

22 Palustrine Acquatic Bed

Process Date/Time: 2008-08-21 00:00:00

Process Step 2

CC ID: 626364
Description:

Process_Description

This dataset was created by Sanborn.

This dataset contains the classifications of 1945-era imagery and 2005-

era imagery. It is used for change analysis between these years. The

attributes include a from-to change description category. There are

481 classes corresponding to the 481 possible from-to change combinations.

In this section of the metadata, the 1945-era classification

procedure is described, then the 2005-era change detection classification procedure is

described. Finally in the post-processing section, the process of combining

the maps to generate a spatial matrix of change is discussed.

Early Date (1945-era) Classification:

This dataset was created by Sanborn (www.sanborn.com).

This version of the classification is the High Resolution Land Cover (1945-era) for the Island of Saipan , CNMI.

This section outlines the classification procedure for the Island of Saipan , CNMI High Resolution C-CAP. Scanned historic black-and-white images from 1945 were used in a semi-automated methodology to detect change (retroactive) from 2005 QuickBird imagery. The mapping approach used image segments derived from the mosaicked 1945 imagery and the 2005 land cover classification which were analyzed and categorized as changed/not changed. Once changes were identified, they were modeled into the 2005 classification to create the 1945 classification. Pervious features were mapped using a 0.5 acre minimum mapping unit (MMU), excepting some small features of historic interest.

Pre-processing steps:

The historic 1945 imagery was provided as scanned black-and-white unmosaicked tiffs. The tiffs were georectified using the 2005 QuickBird imagery as reference and subsequently mosaicked. Due to parallax problems with the high relief on the island, isolated shifts remained in the completed mosaics, which were accounted for in the subsequent steps.

Classification:

Segmentation - Image segmentation was completed at multiple scales using the 1945 mosaic, a texture band derived from the mosaic, and the 2005 land cover classification as a boundary layer. The segments were created using the MMU of 0.5 acre as an approximate minimum size threshold.

Automated Classification - Image segments were classified using a decision tree classifier in See5 software into forested and non-forested categories only, using training data collected from the 1945 imagery and analyst interpretation. The result was then compared to and differenced with the 2005 land cover classification to provide a preliminary change mask. This was intended only as a broad guide to landscape changes

Manual Change Interpretation and Classification - Analysts, using the preliminary change mask, scanned the imagery (both 1945 and 2005) for changes in the land cover. These changes were put into the change mask, with the segment often serving as land cover change boundaries. These boundaries were also manually changed where necessary. Those impervious surfaces that existed in 1945 but not in 2005 were edited in using raster editing methods. Once complete, the 1945 change mask was compared to/differenced with the 2005 classification to drop out any unchanged pixels. This left only those pixels and areas changed between 1945 and 2005. The change pixels were modeled into the 2005 classification to create the 1945 land cover classification.

Map Finalization - Sanborn used independent reviewer's comments to further refine the land cover map.

Attributes for this product are as follows:

0 Background

1 Unclassified

2 Impervious

3

4

5 Developed, Open Space

6 Cultivated Crops

7 Pasture/Hay

8 Grassland/Herbaceous

9 Deciduous Forest

10 Evergreen Forest

11 Mixed Forest

12 Scrub/Shrub

13 Palustrine Forested Wetland

14 Palustrine Scrub/Shrub Wetland

15 Palustrine Emergent Wetland

16 Estuarine Forested Wetland

17 Estuarine Scrub/Shrub Wetland

18 Estuarine Emergent Wetland

19 Unconsolidated Shore

20 Bare Land

21 Open Water

22 Palustrine Acquatic Bed

Process Date/Time: 2008-08-21 00:00:00

Process Step 3

CC ID: 626365
Description:

Metadata imported

Process Date/Time: 2011-02-15 00:00:00

Child Items

Rubric scores updated every 15m

Rubric Score Type Title
Entity Saipan

Catalog Details

Catalog Item ID: 48244
GUID: gov.noaa.nmfs.inport:48244
Metadata Record Created By: Anne Ball
Metadata Record Created: 2017-11-14 14:38+0000
Metadata Record Last Modified By: SysAdmin InPortAdmin
Metadata Record Last Modified: 2021-11-30 16:28+0000
Metadata Record Published: 2018-03-13
Owner Org: OCM
Metadata Publication Status: Published Externally
Do Not Publish?: N
Metadata Next Review Date: 2019-03-14