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Short Citation:
Office for Coastal Management, 2022: C-CAP Land Cover, Snohomish County, Washington, 2016,

Item Identification

Title: C-CAP Land Cover, Snohomish County, Washington, 2016
Status: Completed
Publication Date: 2019-03-14

The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products inventory coastal intertidal areas, wetlands, and adjacent uplands with the goal of monitoring changes in these habitats. The timeframe for this metadata is summer 2016. These maps are developed utilizing high resolution National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) imagery, and can be used to track changes in the landscape through time. This trend information gives important feedback to managers on the success or failure of management policies and programs and aid in developing a scientific understanding of the Earth system and its response to natural and human-induced changes. This understanding allows for the prediction of impacts due to these changes and the assessment of their cumulative effects, helping coastal resource managers make more informed regional decisions. NOAA C-CAP is a contributing member to the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics consortium and C-CAP products are included as the coastal expression of land cover within the National Land Cover Database.


C-CAP is dedicated to the development, distribution, and application of land cover and change data for the coastal regions of the U.S. This effort is being conducted in close coordination with state coastal management agencies, the interagency Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) consortium, and the National Land Cover Database (NLCD).

Supplemental Information:

Attributes for this product are as follows:

0 Background,

1 Unclassified (Cloud, Shadow, etc),

2 Impervious,



5 Developed Open Space,

6 Cultivated Land,

7 Pasture/Hay,

8 Grassland,



11 Upland Forest,

12 Scrub/Shrub,

13 Palustrine Forested Wetland,

14 Palustrine Scrub/Shrub Wetland,

15 Palustrine Emergent Wetland,

16 Estuarine Forested Wetland,

17 Estuarine Scrub/Shrub Wetland,

18 Estuarine Emergent Wetland,

19 Unconsolidated Shore,

20 Bare Land,

21 Open Water,

22 Palustrine Aquatic Bed,

23 Estuarine Aquatic Bed,

24 Tundra,

25 Snow/Ice,

Recommended Citation. NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) Regional Land Cover Database. Data collected 1995-present. Charleston, SC: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Office for Coastal Management. Data accessed at


Theme Keywords

Thesaurus Keyword
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Science Keywords
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Science Keywords
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Instrument Keywords Earth Remote Sensing Instruments > Passive Remote Sensing > Photon/Optical Detectors > Cameras > CAMERAS
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Platform Keywords Aircraft > AIRCRAFT
ISO 19115 Topic Category imageryBaseMapsEarthCover
None Land Cover
None Land Cover Analysis
None Remotely Sensed Imagery/Photos

Spatial Keywords

Thesaurus Keyword
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
None Coastal Zone
None Snohomish County
None Washington

Physical Location

Organization: Office for Coastal Management
City: Charleston
State/Province: SC

Data Set Information

Data Set Scope Code: Data Set
Maintenance Note:

5 years

Data Presentation Form: Image (digital)
Distribution Liability:

Users must assume responsibility to determine the usability of these data.

Support Roles

Data Steward

CC ID: 766727
Date Effective From: 2019
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): NOAA Office for Coastal Management (NOAA/OCM)
Address: 2234 South Hobson Ave
Charleston, SC 29405-2413
Email Address:
Phone: (843) 740-1202


CC ID: 766729
Date Effective From: 2019
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): NOAA Office for Coastal Management (NOAA/OCM)
Address: 2234 South Hobson Ave
Charleston, SC 29405-2413
Email Address:
Phone: (843) 740-1202

Metadata Contact

CC ID: 766730
Date Effective From: 2019
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): NOAA Office for Coastal Management (NOAA/OCM)
Address: 2234 South Hobson Ave
Charleston, SC 29405-2413
Email Address:
Phone: (843) 740-1202

Point of Contact

CC ID: 766728
Date Effective From: 2019
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): NOAA Office for Coastal Management (NOAA/OCM)
Address: 2234 South Hobson Ave
Charleston, SC 29405-2413
Email Address:
Phone: (843) 740-1202


Currentness Reference: Acquisition date of the NAIP imagery

Extent Group 1

Extent Group 1 / Geographic Area 1

CC ID: 766725
W° Bound: -122.449
E° Bound: -120.866
N° Bound: 48.312
S° Bound: 47.748

Extent Group 1 / Time Frame 1

CC ID: 766724
Time Frame Type: Discrete
Start: 2016-01-01

Spatial Information

Spatial Representation

Representations Used

Grid: Yes

Grid Representation 1

CC ID: 766737
Dimension Count: 3
Cell Geometry: Point
Transformation Parameters Available?: No

Axis Dimension 1

Dimension Type: Row
Size: 4166

Axis Dimension 2

Dimension Type: Column
Size: 7703

Axis Dimension 3

Dimension Type: Vertical
Size: 1

Access Information

Security Class: Unclassified
Data Access Constraints:


Data Use Constraints:

Data set is not for use in litigation. While efforts have been made to ensure that these data are accurate and reliable within the state of the art, NOAA, cannot assume liability for any damages, or misrepresentations, caused by any inaccuracies in the data, or as a result of the data to be used on a particular system. NOAA makes no warranty, expressed or implied, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty.



CC ID: 766731
URL Type:
Online Resource


CC ID: 866392
Name: Data Access Viewer

Technical Environment


Microsoft Windows XP Version 5.1 (Build 2600) Service Pack 3; ESRI ArcCatalog

Data Quality


According to the accuracy assessment performed by NOAA Office for Coastal Management staff, the overall accuracy of this product is 95.4%. There were 396 total points distributed across the county. The accuracy of each class is as follows (Producer's, User's accuracies):

Impervious (100%, 100%)

Open Space Developed (100%, 83.3%)

Cultivated (96.0%, 96.0%)

Pasture/Hay (88.2%, 93.8%)

Grassland (80.0%, 83.3%)

Upland Forest (100%, 94.7%)

Shrub/Scrub (93.5%, 100%)

Palustrine Forested Wetland (100%, 95.0%)

Palustrine Shrub/Scrub Wetland (95.5%, 100%)

Palustrine Emergent Wetland (92.3%, 96.0%)

Estuarine Forested Wetland (N/A, N/A)

Estuarine Shrub/Scrub Wetland (100%, 100%)

Estuarine Emergent Wetland (100%, 95.2%)

Unconsolidated Shore (96.0%, 96.0%)

Bare Land (96.9%, 100%)

Water (96.6%, 100%)

Palustrine Aquatic Bed (100%, 100%)

Estuarine Aquatic Bed (N/A, N/A)

Ice/Snow (100%, 100%)

Overall accuracy (94.2%)

Points were sampled using a stratified random sampling scheme, with a minimum target sample of 10 points per class. A few of the rarer categories did not meet this minimum threshold target. Estuarine Forested Wetland, Estuarine Shrub/Scrub Wetland, Palustrine Aquatic Bed, and Estuarine Aquatic Bed Wetland were either did not meet this threshold or were not sampled at all due to the relatively low total area of those classes. The correct land cover classification was determined through analyst interpretation of the imagery used in creating the map, as well as possible references to GoogleEarth in order to reference additional dates/seasons of imagery for that location. All points were interpreted by two analysts, plus a third who made a final determination when there was not agreement on the call.

Completeness Report:

Data does not exist for all classes.

There are no pixels representing class 9 (Deciduous Forest), 11 (Mixed Forest), 24 (Tundra), 25 (Perennial Ice/Snow), 26 (Dwarf Scrub - Alaska specific class), 27 (Sedge/Herbaceous), and 28 (Moss - Alaska specific). Developed classes have been altered to exclude the percentage breakdown of impervious surfaces as the breakdown is not appropriate for high resolution mapping (Developed High Intensity (2), Developed Medium Intensity (3), and Developed Low Intensity (4) are reduced to Impervious (Class 2)).

Conceptual Consistency:

Tests for logical consistency indicate that all row and column positions in the selected latitude/longitude window contain data. Conversion and integration with vector files indicates that all positions are consistent with earth coordinates covering the same area. Attribute files are logically consistent.


Process Steps

Process Step 1

CC ID: 766742

This dataset was created by NOAA's Ocean Service, Office for Coastal Management (OCM).

Random Forest Classification: The initial 1m spatial resolution 6 class high resolution land cover product was developed using a Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA) processing framework. This involves taking each image to be classified and grouping the pixels based on spectral and spatial properties into regions of homogeneity called objects. The resulting objects are the primary units for analysis. Additionally, these objects introduce additional spectral, shape, textural and contextual information into the mapping process and are utilized as independent variables in a supervised classification. Each object is labeled using a Random Forest Classifier which is ensemble version of a Decision Tree. Training data for the initial 6 classes (Herbaceous, Bare, Impervious, Water, Forest and Shrub) were generated through photo interpretation. The resulting Random Forest model was applied to the input data sets to create the initial automated map.

Water Refinement: Commission and omission errors associated with the Water class were addressed through manual interpretation and clean up in ERDAS Imagine. Once the review and edits were complete, the refined Water class was incorporated back into the land cover data set.

Unconsolidated Shore:

Unconsolidated substrate features were extracted primarily through unsupervised classification and manual editing in ERDAS Imagine. This process relied on MLLW Orthoimagery acquired by NGS during 2014. This served as a primary data source since it was collected at a lower tidal stage relative to other available imagery. Once these features were inserted into the land cover additional object based clean up algorithms were applied.


Cultivated land and Pasture/Hay features were incorporated into the grassland category of the initial land cover product through a modeling process which relied on the NAIP imagery as well as the WA State Dept. of Agriculture's 2015 Crop Distribution data set. Manual edits were made based on feedback from local experts.


Wetlands were derived through a modeling process which used ancillary data such as Soils (SSURGO), the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) and topographic derivatives. Forest, shrub and grassland objects within the initial land cover that exhibited hydric characteristics based on the input ancillary layers were designated to their appropriate wetland category. The process relied mainly on the NWI to determine palustrine and estuarine distinctions.

Open Space Developed:

Managed grasses and other low lying vegetation associated with development were derived using information in a Parcel data set provided by Snohomish County. Open Space Developed (OSD) labels were designated to Grassland features in the land cover data that intersected parcels with specific use codes and/or contained a certain amount of impervious surfaces. The threshold varied by use that were likely candidates for change were analyzed for the presence of impervious surface based on the 2015 land cover. Additional clean up was performed to remove speckle and slivers.

Attributes for this product are as follows:

0 Background

1 Unclassified

2 Impervious



5 Developed, Open Space

6 Cultivated Crops

7 Pasture/Hay

8 Grassland/Herbaceous



11 Upland Forest

12 Scrub/Shrub

13 Palustrine Forested Wetland

14 Palustrine Scrub/Shrub Wetland

15 Palustrine Emergent Wetland

16 Estuarine Forested Wetland

17 Estuarine Scrub/Shrub Wetland

18 Estuarine Emergent Wetland

19 Unconsolidated Shore

20 Bare Land

21 Open Water

22 Palustrine Acquatic Bed

23 Estuarine Aquatic Bed,

24 Tundra,

25 Snow/Ice

Process Date/Time: 2018-12-06 00:00:00

Catalog Details

Catalog Item ID: 53263
GUID: gov.noaa.nmfs.inport:53263
Metadata Record Created By: Erik Hund
Metadata Record Created: 2018-08-06 07:33+0000
Metadata Record Last Modified By: SysAdmin InPortAdmin
Metadata Record Last Modified: 2022-03-29 17:46+0000
Metadata Record Published: 2019-03-22
Owner Org: OCM
Metadata Publication Status: Published Externally
Do Not Publish?: N
Metadata Review Frequency: 1 Year