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Short Citation:
NMFS Office Of Protected Resources, 2024: Coho Salmon (Central California Coast ESU),

Item Identification

Title: Coho Salmon (Central California Coast ESU)
Publication Date: 2019-10-10

Critical habitat includes the water, substrate, and adjacent riparian zone of estuarine and riverine reaches (including off-channel habitats). The riparian area is defined as the area adjacent to a stream that provides the following functions: shade, sediment, nutrient or chemical regulation, streambank stability, and input of large woody debris or organic matter.See the final rule (64 FR 24049) for descriptions of areas excluded from this critical habitat designation. Excluded Indian lands were not clipped out of the data.


These data represent critical habitat designated (May 5, 1999, 64 FR 24049) under the Endangered Species Act for the Central California Coast coho salmon ESU.


Theme Keywords

Thesaurus Keyword
ISO 19115 Topic Category
ISO 19115 Topic Category
None coho salmon
None critical habitat

Spatial Keywords

Thesaurus Keyword
None California
None Navarro River
None Russian River
None San Lorenzo River

Physical Location

City: Portland
State/Province: OR

Data Set Information

Data Set Scope Code: Data Set
Maintenance Frequency: As Needed
Data Presentation Form: Map (digital)
Data Set Credit: CREDIT: National Marine Fisheries Service, West Coast Region ORIGINATORS: Protected Resources Division, West Coast Region, National Marine Fisheries Service;

Support Roles

Data Steward

CC ID: 1081993
Date Effective From: 2019-10-10
Date Effective To:
Contact (Person): Dunn, Shanna
Email Address:

Metadata Contact

CC ID: 1081995
Date Effective From: 2019-10-10
Date Effective To:
Contact (Person): Dunn, Shanna
Email Address:

Point of Contact

CC ID: 1081994
Date Effective From: 2019-10-10
Date Effective To:
Contact (Person): Dunn, Shanna
Email Address:


Currentness Reference: Publication Date

Extent Group 1

Extent Group 1 / Geographic Area 1

CC ID: 1081997
W° Bound: -124.357815
E° Bound: -121.971378
N° Bound: 40.265013
S° Bound: 36.953822

Spatial Information

Reference Systems

Reference System 1

CC ID: 1081990

Coordinate Reference System

CRS Type: Geographic 2D
EPSG Code: EPSG:4326
EPSG Name: WGS 84
See Full Coordinate Reference System Information

Access Information

Security Class: Unclassified
Data Use Constraints:

These data are not the official legal definition of critical habitat. The Code of Federal Regulations (50 CFR 226.210) is the source for the legal definition of the critical habitat designation.

Technical Environment


Version 6.2 (Build 9200) ; Esri ArcGIS

Data Quality

Completeness Report:

Clarifications only apply to this feature class.

Military areas ineligible for designation (qualifying INRMP): none

Military areas excluded due to national security impacts: none

Indian lands excluded: yes (not clipped)

Economic exclusions: none

Habitat Conservation Plan (HCP) exclusions: none

Unoccupied areas designated: none

Federal Register final rule page:

May 5, 1999, 64 FR 24061

No ESA 4(b)(2) report for this designation.2021-05-24T00:00:00Endangered Species Act critical habitat spatial data clarifications



National Hydrogaphy Dataset

CC ID: 1081985
Contact Role Type: Originator
Contact Type: Organization
Contact Name: United States Geological Survey (USGS)
Source Contribution:

The lines in this dataset were extracted from a 2018 version of the high resolution National Hydrography Dataset (NHDFlowline feature class). The lines were split at specific locations to represent the upstream ends of critical habitat; other vertices were not altered.

Process Steps

Process Step 1

CC ID: 1081986

Data creation process 2019.


Central California Coast (CCC) coho data were developed as part of an effort to interpret and depict several salmonid critical habitat designations completed in the 1990s that relied on text-based descriptions but lacked GIS data. Critical habitat areas were identified based on the following:

- The regulatory definition of ESA critical habitat for this ESU found at 50 CFR 226.210 (a) and the supporting final rule (64 FR 24061, May 5, 1999);

- U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) high resolution National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) - downloaded February 2018;

- Intrinsic Potential (IP) GIS data from a juvenile coho rearing model developed by the Southwest Fisheries Science Center (SWFSC);

- National Elevation Data and Digital Topographic Maps;

- California Fish Passage Assessment Database [ds69, published 2019-03-05] and Coho Distribution [ds326, published 2016-06-22] from the California Department of Fish and Wildlife (CDFW);

- The professional judgment of biologists from the NMFS California Coastal Office, Protected Resources Division, and SWFSC; and

- Maps and documentation in these references:

Spence, B.C., Harris, S.L., Jones, W.E., Goslin, M.N., Agrawal, A., and E. Mora. 2005. Historical occurrence of coho salmon in streams of the Central California Coast coho salmon Evolutionarily Significant Unit. Technical Memorandum NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC-383. Southwest Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA, U.S. Dept of Commerce.

Agrawal, A., Schick, R.S., Bjorkstedt, E.P., Szerlong, R.G., Goslin, M.N., Spence, B.C., Williams, T.H., and K.M. Burnett. 2005. Predicting the potential for historical coho, Chinook and steelhead habitat in Northern California. Technical Memorandum NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC-379. Southwest Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA, U.S. Dept of Commerce.

NMFS. 2012. Final Recovery Plan for Central California Coast coho salmon Evolutionarily Significant Unit. National Marine Fisheries Service, Southwest Region, Santa Rosa, California.

Spatial analysis steps to produce data.

1) Clipped the NHD to the text description from the critical habitat designation

2) Partitioned the NHD into 100 meter segments

3) Calculated the gradient of each 100 meter segment using a 10 meter USGS digital elevation model (DEM)

4) Used the NHD's flow direction and a geometric network to analyze gradient, removed segments upstream of 7% gradients (reference: Agrawal et. al. 2005 - Figure 1 gradient suitability curve for coho)

5) Retained segments downstream of 7% gradients that were too small (<= 20 meters) to rely on the gradient value (i.e., 1 to 2 pixels in the DEM) or were artificial paths (NHD FCode 55800) to maintain network connectivity

6) Retained segments that overlapped with CDFW coho distribution data (field observations) and SWFSC intrinsic potential coho data (model) with the 21.5 deg C temperature mask applied (Agrawal et. al. 2005)

7) Removed segments upstream from total natural barriers, total anthropogenic barriers, and partial barriers that were specifically identified as blocking upstream adult coho migration

8) Removed segments identified by NMFS biologists as not being accessible to or suitable habitat for coho.

The following tribal lands were excluded from the Central California Coast coho critical habitat designation, but were not clipped out of the spatial data: Cloverdale Rancheria, Coyote Valley Rancheria, Dry Creek Rancheria, Guidiville Rancheria, Hopland Rancheria, Lytton Rancheria, Manchester/Point Arena Rancheria, Pinoleville Rancheria, and Stewarts Point Rancheria.


Critical habitat was designated to include "all river reaches accessible in 1999" to CCC coho salmon from Punta Gorda in northern California south to the San Lorenzo River in central California, including Arroyo Corte Madera Del Presidio and Corte Madera Creek, tributaries to San Francisco Bay. These spatial data are NMFS' best estimate of "all

Process Date/Time: 2019-10-10 00:00:00

Process Step 2

CC ID: 1081987

The source data in COCCC_CH.shp (GCS_North_American_1983) were post processed to COCCC_ch_FINAL_20210524 (GCS_North_American_1983).

The 100 meter segments (39,816 feature count) leftover from the gradient analysis were cumbersome and deemed unnecessary for publication.

COCCC_CH.shp fields: FID, Shape, Permanent_, FDate, Resolution, GNIS_ID, GNIS_Name, LengthKM, ReachCode, FlowDir, WBArea_Per, FType, FCode, MainPath, InNetwork, Visibility, Enabled, POINT_X, POINT_Y, POINT_X_1, POINT_Y_1, RASTERVALU, RASTERVA_1, Diff, Percent, meters, Shape_Leng, DPS

Geometry editing steps included:

1) ccc_coho_post_processing_remove100msegs.gdb -> converted "COCCC_CH.shp" to a feature class "COCCC_CH" in the gdb

2) Selected, by location, all features in the original 2018 NHD that shared a line segment with "COCCC_CH"

3) Exported selected NHD features to "COCCC_CH_NHDselectexport"

4) Used "COCCC_CH" to clip NHD features in "COCCC_CH_NHDselectexport" and created "COCCC_CH_NHDselectexport_clip"

5) Reviewed output against source and found a single feature that did not migrate, added the feature in with merge tool to create final layer "COCCC_ch_FINAL_20210524" (feature count 7,301).

Process Date/Time: 2021-05-24 00:00:00

Process Step 3

CC ID: 1081988

Version COCCC_ch_FINAL_20210524 (GCS_North_American_1983) was converted into the standardized feature class SalmonCoho_CentralCaliforniaCoastESU_19990505 (GCS_WGS_84 wkid 4326) using the National Critical Habitat Geodatabase processing protocol.

During standardization, geometry was not edited. Attributes were edited. Metadata was edited and populated using the final rule/CFR and the source COCCC_CH.shp (GCS_North_American_1983).

Migrated fields: "GNIS_Name" into "UNIT", "FCode" into "NOTES" (populated descriptions with FCode values)

Dropped fields: OBJECTID, Permanent_Identifier, FDate, Resolution, GNIS_ID, LengthKM, ReachCode, FlowDir, WBArea_Permanent_Identifier, FType, MainPath, InNetwork, VisibilityFilter, Shape_Length

Process Date/Time: 2021-05-25 00:00:00

Child Items

Rubric scores updated every 15m

Rubric Score Type Title
Entity SalmonCoho_CentralCaliforniaCoastESU_19990505

Catalog Details

Catalog Item ID: 65303
GUID: gov.noaa.nmfs.inport:65303
Metadata Record Created By: Jonathan Molineaux
Metadata Record Created: 2021-08-31 20:53+0000
Metadata Record Last Modified By: SysAdmin InPortAdmin
Metadata Record Last Modified: 2023-05-30 18:10+0000
Metadata Record Published: 2022-04-02
Owner Org: OPR
Metadata Publication Status: Published Externally
Do Not Publish?: N
Metadata Last Review Date: 2022-04-02
Metadata Review Frequency: 1 Year
Metadata Next Review Date: 2023-04-02