Short Citation:
Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, 2021: Reefs for the future: Resilience of coral reefs in the main Hawaiian Islands, https://www.fisheries.noaa.gov/inport/item/23147.

Item Identification

Title: Reefs for the future: Resilience of coral reefs in the main Hawaiian Islands
Short Name: Reef Resilience - Main Hawaiian Islands
Status: Completed
Publication Date: 2014
Abstract:

Declining health of coral reef ecosystems led scientists to search for factors that support reef resilience: the ability of reefs to resist and recover from environmental disturbance. Scientists recently identified 11 measurable factors that affect the resilience of coral reefs (McClanahan et al., 2012). Reef resilience factors include characteristics of the coral assemblage, populations of fish that live on the reef, land use practices, and water temperature variability. These factors were used by NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Coral Reef Ecosystem Program (CREP) to conduct a quantitative assessment of the resilience potential of reefs across the main Hawaiian Islands (MHI).

Locations of Rapid Ecological Assessment (REA) surveys conducted by NOAA Coral Reef Ecosystem Program (CREP) from 2010 to 2013 were used to designate study units called "georegions". Watersheds upstream of georegions were then grouped to delineate the area that could affect adjacent reefs through pollution, runoff, and sedimentation. REA surveys provided data to evaluate biological/ecological resilience factors, and external data sources were used to inform physical and environmental factors not directly measured by CREP. Five of the resilience factors can be directly influenced by local management. Data for each factor was compiled, normalized, and averaged to produce a composite resilience score for each georegion.

In all, twenty-nine study areas were analyzed across the MHI. Lowest composite resilience scores were earned by reefs near densely populated areas on O`ahu, while highest scores were earned near relatively sparsely populated areas of other islands. The reef resilience framework data package described herein comprises the original data sources used in this analysis, the intermediary and final data resulting from the analysis, the process documentation, and the 2-page PIFSC Special Publication published in 2014 (SP-15-001).

Data can be accessed via the NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) Ocean Archive, accession #0128219.

Purpose:

Structural, ecological, and physical processes including, diversity, recruitment, herbivory, disease, and thermal tolerance have been identified as key elements contributing to reef resilience. This analysis, funded by the NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program, integrates interdisciplinary data sets collected by NOAA Coral Reef Ecosystem Program (CREP) and its partners to operationalize reef resilience in the U.S.-affiliated Pacific Islands. It is important to identify and understand these factors, so that management strategies can be tailored to maintaining or restoring coral communities to maximize their chances of survival in a changing climate. This analysis contributes to the local jurisdiction's capacity to meaningfully assess reef ecosystem condition in relation to a range of threats. A key aspect of the reef resilience framework is that it can empower local action to improve resilience of coral reefs because some drivers of resilience are heavily influenced by large-scale climatic forces, while others can be directly affected by local management.

Other Citation Details:

PIFSC. 2014. Reefs for the future: Resilience of coral reefs in the main Hawaiian Islands. NOAA Fisheries Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, PIFSC Special Publication, SP-15-001, 2p.

Supplemental Information:

Reef resilience factors as described by McClanahan et al. (2012) include:

1. Pollution,

2. Sedimentation,

3. Herbivore biomass,

4. Macroalgae cover,

5. Coral diversity,

6. Coral recruitment,

7. Disease prevalence,

8. Bleaching resistance,

9. Physical impacts,

10. Fishing pressure, and

11. Sea surface temperature variability.

Keywords

Theme Keywords

Thesaurus Keyword
CoRIS Discovery Thesaurus Geographic Information > Ecological Characterization
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Atmosphere > Precipitation > Precipitation Amount
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Vegetation > Algae > Algal Cover
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Vegetation > Algae > Fleshy Macroalgae
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Coral biodiversity
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Coral Diseases
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Coral Diseases > Black Band Disease
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Photic Zone Corals
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef Damage Assessment > Human physical
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef Monitoring and Assessment > Reef Fish Census > Stationary
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Atmosphere > Atmospheric Phenomena > Global Change
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Atmosphere > Atmospheric Phenomena > Global Warming
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Aquatic Habitat > Benthic Habitat
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Aquatic Habitat > Reef Habitat
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Aquatic Habitat > Reef Habitat > Recovery
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Ecological Dynamics > Herbivory
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Microbiota > Bacteria
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Microbiota > Blue-green Algae
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Vegetation > Algae
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Vegetation > Algae > Algae Cover
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Coral Diseases > Bleaching
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Coral Diseases > Bleaching > Degree Heating Week (DHW)
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Coral Diseases > Bleaching > Sea Surface Temperature (SST)
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef Monitoring and Assessment
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef Monitoring and Assessment > Benthos Analysis
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef Monitoring and Assessment > Benthos Analysis > Quadrat Monitoring
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef Monitoring and Assessment > Benthos Analysis > Quadrat Monitoring > Photograph Analysis
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef Monitoring and Assessment > Benthos Analysis > Transect monitoring
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef Monitoring and Assessment > Benthos Analysis > Transect Monitoring > Belt Transect
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef Monitoring and Assessment > Benthos Analysis > Transect Monitoring > Linear Transect (line)
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef Monitoring and Assessment > In Situ Biological
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef Monitoring and Assessment > Photographic Analysis
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef Monitoring and Assessment > Rapid Assessment Studies
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef Monitoring and Assessment > Reef Fish Census
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef Monitoring and Assessment > Remote Sensing
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef Monitoring and Assessment > Remote Sensing > Satellite (digital scans)
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Quadrat Monitoring > Photograph Analysis
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Hydrosphere > Surface Water > Runoff
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Coastal Processes > Coral Reefs
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Coastal Processes > Coral Reefs > Marine Protected Areas
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Marine Biology > Fish > Fish Assemblages
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Marine Biology > Fish > Fish Census
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Marine Biology > Fish > Fishing
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Ocean Temperature > Sea Surface Temperature
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Ocean Temperature > Water Temperature
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Ocean Temperature > Water Temperature > Anomaly
CRCP Project 810
CRCP Project Reefs for the future: Identifying coral reef resilience in the US Pacific islands based on CRED coral reef monitoring data
ISO 19115 Topic Category 002
ISO 19115 Topic Category 014
ISO 19115 Topic Category Biota
ISO 19115 Topic Category oceans
NODC PROJECT NAMES THESAURUS Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP)
NODC PROJECT NAMES THESAURUS Pacific Reef and Assessment Monitoring Program (Pacific RAMP)
NODC SEA AREA NAMES THESAURUS North Pacific Ocean
NODC SUBMITTING INSTITUTION NAMES THESAURUS US DOC; NOAA; NMFS; Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center; Coral Reef Ecosystem Division
None Coral Reef Ecosystem Division
None Coral Reef Ecosystem Program
None CRED
None CREP
None Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center
None PIFSC

Spatial Keywords

Thesaurus Keyword
CoRIS Place Thesaurus COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Hawaii > Hawaii > Hawaii (21N160W0000)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Hawaii > Hawaii > Hawaii Island (19N155W0003)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Hawaii > Hawaii > Kauai Island (22N159W0001)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Hawaii > Hawaii > Molokai Island (21N157W0001)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Hawaii > Honolulu > Oahu (21N157W0003)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Hawaii > Kauai > Niihau Island (21N160W0001)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Hawaii > Maui > Lanai Island (20N156W0002)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Hawaii > Maui > Maui Island (20N156W0004)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Hawaiian Islands (21N157W0027)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Central Pacific Ocean > Hawaiian Islands (21N157W0027)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Central Pacific Ocean > Hawaiian Islands > Hawaii > Hawaii (21N160W0000)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Central Pacific Ocean > Hawaiian Islands > Hawaii Island > Hawaii Island (19N155W0003)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Central Pacific Ocean > Hawaiian Islands > Kauai Island > Kauai Island (22N159W0001)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Central Pacific Ocean > Hawaiian Islands > Lanai Island > Lanai Island (20N156W0002)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Central Pacific Ocean > Hawaiian Islands > Maui Island > Maui Island (20N156W0004)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Central Pacific Ocean > Hawaiian Islands > Molokai Island > Molokai Island (21N157W0001)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Central Pacific Ocean > Hawaiian Islands > Niihau Island > Niihau Island (21N160W0001)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Central Pacific Ocean > Hawaiian Islands > Oahu Island > Oahu (21N157W0003)

Physical Location

Organization: Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center
City: Honolulu
State/Province: HI
Country: USA

Data Set Information

Data Set Scope Code: Data Set
Data Set Type: Mixed
Maintenance Frequency: None Planned
Data Presentation Form: PDF document (digital), tabular digital data (csv), and vector digital data
Entity Attribute Overview:

See download document (data dictionary).

Distribution Liability:

While every effort has been made to ensure that these data are accurate and reliable within the limits of the current state of the art, NOAA cannot assume liability for any damages caused by errors or omissions in the data, nor as a result of the failure of the data to function on a particular system. NOAA makes no warranty, expressed or implied, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty.

Data Set Credit: Brett Schumacher, Coral Reef Researcher at NOAA Coral Reef Ecosystem Program (CREP)

Support Roles

Data Set Credit

CC ID: 196904
Date Effective From: 2013-10-01
Date Effective To:
Contact (Person): Schumacher, Brett D
Address: 1845 Wasp Blvd
Honolulu, HI 96818
USA
Email Address: brett.schumacher@noaa.gov
Phone: (808)725-5405
Contact Instructions:

E-mail preferred

Data Steward

CC ID: 196906
Date Effective From: 2013-10-01
Date Effective To:
Contact (Person): Schumacher, Brett D
Address: 1845 Wasp Blvd
Honolulu, HI 96818
USA
Email Address: brett.schumacher@noaa.gov
Phone: (808)725-5405
Contact Instructions:

E-mail preferred

Distributor

CC ID: 257602
Date Effective From: 2015-10-05
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): National Centers for Environmental Information - Silver Spring, Maryland (NCEI-MD)
Address: NOAA/NESDIS E/OC SSMC3, 4th Floor, 1351 East-West Highway
Silver Spring, MD 20910-3282
Phone: (301) 713-3277

Distributor

CC ID: 196907
Date Effective From: 2013-10-01
Date Effective To: 2015-10-04
Contact (Person): Kanemura, Troy T
Address: 1845 Wasp Blvd.
Honolulu, HI 96818
USA
Email Address: troy.kanemura@noaa.gov
Phone: (808)725-5422
Contact Instructions:

E-mail preferred

Metadata Contact

CC ID: 184795
Date Effective From: 2013-10-01
Date Effective To:
Contact (Person): DesRochers, Annette M
Address: 1845 Wasp Blvd.
Honolulu, HI 96818
USA
Email Address: annette.desrochers@noaa.gov
Phone: (808)725-5461
Business Hours: 8 am - 5 pm
Contact Instructions:

E-mail preferred

Originator

CC ID: 196908
Date Effective From: 2013-10-01
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC)
Address: 1845 Wasp Blvd.
Honolulu, HI 96818
USA
Phone: 808-725-5300
URL: http://www.pifsc.noaa.gov
Business Hours: 8:00 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.

Point of Contact

CC ID: 196905
Date Effective From: 2013-10-01
Date Effective To:
Contact (Person): Vargas-Angel, Bernardo
Address: 1845 Wasp Blvd.
Honolulu, HI 96818
USA
Email Address: bernardo.vargasangel@noaa.gov
Phone: (808)725-5423
Contact Instructions:

E-mail preferred

Process Contact

CC ID: 197028
Date Effective From: 2013-10-01
Date Effective To:
Contact (Person): Schumacher, Brett D
Address: 1845 Wasp Blvd
Honolulu, HI 96818
USA
Email Address: brett.schumacher@noaa.gov
Phone: (808)725-5405
Contact Instructions:

E-mail preferred

Extents

Currentness Reference: Time frame of data (1978-2013) and analysis (2013-2014)

Extent Group 1

Extent Group 1 / Geographic Area 1

CC ID: 196909
W° Bound: -160.4
E° Bound: -154.7
N° Bound: 22.4
S° Bound: 18.8
Description

Main Hawaiian Islands

Extent Group 1 / Time Frame 1

CC ID: 196910
Time Frame Type: Range
Start: 2013-01
End: 2014-12
Description:

Time span of analysis.

Extent Group 1 / Time Frame 2

CC ID: 196911
Time Frame Type: Range
Start: 2008
End: 2013
Description:

Temporal coverage of NOAA Coral Reef Ecosystem Program (CREP) survey data.

Extent Group 1 / Time Frame 3

CC ID: 197835
Time Frame Type: Range
Start: 1985
End: 2012
Description:

Temporal coverage of Pathfinder v5.2 sea surface temperature data.

Extent Group 1 / Time Frame 4

CC ID: 197836
Time Frame Type: Range
Start: 1978
End: 2007
Description:

Thirty-year base period used for mean rainfall in Giambelluca et al. 2013.

Access Information

Security Class: Unclassified
Security Classification System:

Not applicable

Security Handling Description:

Not applicable

Data Access Policy:

Coral Reef Ecosystem Program (CREP) Data Sharing Recommendations, version 9.0 updated August 12, 2015:

CREP welcomes the opportunity to collaborate on research issues contributing to the scientific basis for better management of marine ecosystems. CREP has a very diverse set of field activities that generates large volumes of data using an array of data collection protocols.

The following recommendations are for your consideration as you use this data:

1) Data analyses should take all field exigencies into account. The most effective way to do this would be active collaboration with CREP principal investigators.

2) In all presentations, product releases, or publications using data generated by CREP, proper acknowledgement of both CREP and the individuals responsible for data collection is expected. Citing the DOI (if available) is preferred, a non-DOI example is listed below.

3) If you collect or generate data for the same study areas, CREP requests that you share relevant information on complimentary data collections.

4) Those receiving data are strongly urged to inform the CREP Data Management Team of any errors and discrepancies that are discovered during the course of using these data. They are further urged to bring to the attention of the Team all problems and difficulties encountered in using these data. This information is necessary in order to improve the collections and to facilitate more efficient and economical data processing and retrieval. The users are asked to supply copies of any missing data that may be located, and to provide information as to significant subsets and special aggregations of data that are developed in using the material provided.

Example citation:

"This publication makes use of data products provided by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Program (CREP), Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), with funding support from the NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP). The analysis and interpretations presented here are solely that of the current authors”

Data Access Procedure:

Data can be accessed via the NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) Ocean Archive, accession #0128219.

Data Access Constraints:

None

Data Use Constraints:

Please cite NOAA Coral Reef Ecosystem Program (CREP) when using these data.

Example

Cite as: Schumacher, Brett; Coral Reef Ecosystem Program; Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (2015). Resilience of coral reefs in the main Hawaiian Islands (NCEI Accession 0128219). NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. Unpublished Dataset. [access date]

Metadata Access Constraints:

None

Metadata Use Constraints:

None

Distribution Information

Distribution 1

CC ID: 201645
Download URL: http://accession.nodc.noaa.gov/0128219
Distributor:
File Name: Annotated list of metrics and associated files.pdf
Description:

Data dictionary: Annotated list of metrics and associated files for the Reef Resilience data package.

Purpose: This document describes the entire contents of the Reef Resilience data package, including the 2-page publication, CSV files, and GIS shapefiles. Also described is each column and it's domain values contained in the CSV files and shapefiles.

File Date/Time: 2015-05-06 00:00:00
File Type: PDF
File Size: 287 kb

Distribution 2

CC ID: 202201
Download URL: http://accession.nodc.noaa.gov/0128219
Distributor:
File Name: Final_summary_2_pp.pdf
Description:

PIFSC. 2014. Reefs for the future: Resilience of coral reefs in the main Hawaiian Islands. NOAA Fisheries Pacific Science Center, PIFSC Special Publication, SP-15-001, 2p. Posted February 3, 2015.

File Type: PDF

Distribution 3

CC ID: 202246
Download URL: http://accession.nodc.noaa.gov/0128219
Distributor:
Description:

The Reef Resilience data package archived at the NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) Ocean Archive includes the original data sources used in the analysis, the intermediary and final data resulting from the analysis, the process documentation, and the 2-page PIFSC Special Publication published in 2014 (SP-15-001). NOAA NCEI Accession #0128219.

URLs

URL 1

CC ID: 196913
URL: http://www.pifsc.noaa.gov/library/pubs/SP-15-001.pdf
URL Type:
Online Resource
File Resource Format: PDF
Description:

PIFSC. 2014. Reefs for the future: Resilience of coral reefs in the main Hawaiian Islands. NOAA Fisheries Pacific Science Center, PIFSC Special Publication, SP-15-001, 2p. Posted February 3, 2015.

URL 2

CC ID: 196914
URL: https://pifscblog.wordpress.com/2015/02/05/reefs-for-the-future/
URL Type:
Online Resource
Description:

NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center Blog. Reefs for the future: Resilience of coral reefs in the main Hawaiian Islands. Posted Feb 5, 2015.

URL 3

CC ID: 196916
URL: http://data.nodc.noaa.gov/coris/data/NOAA/nmfs/810_Reef_Resilience/BrowseGraphic.jpg
URL Type:
Browse Graphic
File Resource Format: JPG
Description:

Final summary map from 2-page summary document.

URL 4

CC ID: 196946
URL: http://hbmpweb.pbrc.hawaii.edu:8000/WHI/WHI.html
URL Type:
Online Resource
Description:

Kido 2006 full text not available online, but an interactive map of the Watershed Health Index and abstract are available through the listed website.

Technical Environment

Description:

Data streams were compiled and analyzed by NOAA Coral Reef Ecosystem Program (CREP) researchers using MS Excel and Access 2010, Minitab, PRIMER version 6 with the Permanova+ add-on, and ArcMap 10.1.

Data Quality

Representativeness:

The foundation of the analysis was in situ ecological survey data collected by NOAA Coral Reef Ecosystem Program (CREP) under the National Coral Reef Monitoring Program (NCRMP). These surveys were conducted around all of the populated main Hawaiian Islands, and georegions were delineated on each of these islands. Kaho'olawe was not included. Also, sections of some islands are not covered by surveys due to funding and logistical constraints. Therefore, parts of some islands are not covered by this analysis.

Accuracy:

Prior to conducting surveys, researchers are trained to identify and estimate/measure size of fish and corals along with other ecological metrics. Both classroom and field training and tests must be completed for all researchers (experienced and inexperienced alike) before each round of surveys begins. This training ensures that ecological surveys are conducted consistently by all researchers within survey efforts and also across periodic survey efforts.

Bias:

See description of training process in "Accuracy" section.

Comparability:

This project integrated NOAA Coral Reef Ecosystem Program (CREP) survey data with data from other, external projects (e.g. Watershed Health Index). Because external projects were implemented for purposes different from CREP surveys, the spatial extent of CREP surveys does not always align with other study zones. We endeavored to group sites and delineate georegions to align to the greatest degree possible, but some spatial incongruity remains, as evident in figures showing locations of survey sites relative to watershed boundaries.

Completeness Report:

Eleven metrics of reef resilience were identified in the McClanahan et al. 2012 paper. This project attempted to include all metrics in the analysis, but data to support one metric (physical damage) were not available in sufficient quantity for all georegions. Therefore, this metric was not used to calculate composite resilience scores.

Conceptual Consistency:

Analysis is modeled after Maynard et al. 2012, "Coral reef resilience to climate change in Saipan, CNMI; field-based assessments and implications for vulnerability and future management." The current project utilized slightly different data streams in some cases (e.g. updated SST metrics), but the analysis followed the same overall procedures.

Quality Control Procedures Employed:

With some datasets, two different individuals generated summary statistics that were verified against each other. In other cases, the analysis was run two different ways or two different times and results were cross-checked. "Sanity checks" were also performed to evaluate if the results make sense and are logical.

Data Management

Have Resources for Management of these Data Been Identified?: Yes
Approximate Percentage of Budget for these Data Devoted to Data Management: Unknown
Do these Data Comply with the Data Access Directive?: Yes
Is Access to the Data Limited Based on an Approved Waiver?: No
Approximate Delay Between Data Collection and Dissemination: Unknown
Actual or Planned Long-Term Data Archive Location: NCEI-MD
Approximate Delay Between Data Collection and Archiving: Unknown
How Will the Data Be Protected from Accidental or Malicious Modification or Deletion Prior to Receipt by the Archive?:

NOAA IRC and NOAA Fisheries ITS resources and assets.

Lineage

Lineage Statement:

The principal analytical task of this project was to calculate eleven metrics of "reef resilience" as identified by McClanahan et al. (2012). These metrics account for various aspects of the coral reef ecosystem, and are derived from several data streams, as described in the process steps.

Sources

"Ecological Assessment of Coral." Coral Reef Ecosystem Program. Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, n.d. Web. <http://www.pifsc.noaa.gov/cred/corals.php>

CC ID: 197033
Contact Type: Organization
Contact Name: Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, PIFSC
Citation URL: http://www.pifsc.noaa.gov/cred/corals.php

Allen SD, Bartlett N. 2008. Hawaii Marine Recreational Fisheries Survey. How analysis of raw catch data can benefit regional fisheries management and how catch estimates are developed: An example using 2003 data. Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center Administrative Report H-08-04, 33 p. + Appendices.

CC ID: 196954
Contact Type: Organization
Contact Name: Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, PIFSC
Publish Date: 2008-05-01
Citation URL: http://www.pifsc.noaa.gov/library/pubs/admin/PIFSC_Admin_Rep_08-04.pdf

Ayotte P, McCoy K, Williams I, Zamzow J. 2011. Coral Reef Ecosystem Division standard operating procedures: data collection for Rapid Ecological Assessment fish surveys. Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center Administrative Report H-11-08, 24 p.

CC ID: 197031
Contact Type: Organization
Contact Name: Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, PIFSC
Publish Date: 2011-12-01
Citation URL: http://www.pifsc.noaa.gov/library/pubs/admin/PIFSC_Admin_Rep_11-08.pdf

Giambelluca TW, Chen Q, Frazier AG, Price JP, Chen Y-L, Chu P-S, Eischeid JK, Delparte DM (2013) Online Rainfall Atlas of Hawai`i. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 94: 313-316, doi: 10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00228.1.

CC ID: 196955
Contact Name: Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society
Publish Date: 2013-03-01
Citation URL: http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/pdf/10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00228.1

Kido MH (2006) A GIS-based Watershed Health Index for the State of Hawaii. Technical Report to the Hawaii Department of Health, Environmental Health Administration - Environmental Planning Office, July 2006.

CC ID: 196956

Maynard J, McKagan S, Johnson S, Houk P, Ahmadia G, et al. (2012) Coral reef resilience to climate change in Saipan, CNMI; field-based assessments and implications for vulnerability and future management. Technical report submitted to the CNMI Division of Environmental Quality, Saipan, MP.

CC ID: 196958
Contact Name: CNMI Division of Environmental Quality
Publish Date: 2012-12-01
Citation URL: http://www.fpir.noaa.gov/Library/HCD/CoRIS_204_Saipan_Resilience_Report_Maynard_McKagan_2012.pdf

McClanahan TR, Donner SD, Maynard JA, MacNeil MA, Graham NAJ, et al. (2012) Prioritizing Key Resilience Indicators to Support Coral Reef Management in a Changing Climate. PLoS ONE 7(8): e42884. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0042884

CC ID: 196957
Contact Name: PLoS ONE
Publish Date: 2012-08-29
Citation URL: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0042884

NOAA Coral Reef Ecosystem Program (CREP) Benthic Image Analysis Standard Operating Procedures. Unpublished methods documented on the NOAA Wiki and unofficially available on the CoRIS website at http://data.nodc.noaa.gov/coris/data/NOAA/nmfs/810_Reef_Resilience/SOP_BenthicImageAnalysis_v2_2014_12_04.pdf

CC ID: 197032
Contact Type: Organization
Contact Name: Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, PIFSC
Citation URL: http://data.nodc.noaa.gov/coris/data/NOAA/nmfs/810_Reef_Resilience/SOP_BenthicImageAnalysis_v2_2014_12_04.pdf

Process Steps

Process Step 1

CC ID: 196960
Description:

The first task was to identify and define zones of interest, hereafter known as "georegions." Georegions were defined based on locations of Rapid Ecological Assessment (REA) surveys. REA surveys include surveys of fish and corals, and are conducted by the NOAA Coral Reef Ecosystem Program (CREP) at the Pacific Islands Fishery Science Center on a triennial basis as part of the Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (RAMP). Surveys were grouped based on proximity and shared exposure to wind and wave conditions.

Process Step 2

CC ID: 196961
Description:

The basis of the pollution metric is the Watershed Health Index (Kido 2006), which has been calculated for watersheds throughout the Main Hawaiian Islands (MHI) and is available online (http://hbmpweb.pbrc.hawaii.edu:8000/WHI/WHI.html). We used ArcGIS to combine this information by merging watersheds associated with each georegion and calculating a weighted mean WHI by area.

Source: Kido MH (2006) A GIS-based Watershed Health Index for the State of Hawaii. Technical Report to the Hawaii Department of Health, Environmental Health Administration - Environmental Planning Office, July 2006.

Process Step 3

CC ID: 196962
Description:

The sedimentation metric is based on precipitation that falls on the watersheds associated with each georegion. A "precipitation index" was derived based on interpolated rainfall information from the Rainfall Atlas of Hawai`i (Giambelluca et al. 2013). This information is available at http://rainfall.geography.hawaii.edu/downloads.html. Rainfall was scaled by the coastline of each georegion.

Source: Giambelluca TW, Chen Q, Frazier AG, Price JP, Chen Y-L, Chu P-S, Eischeid JK, Delparte DM (2013) Online Rainfall Atlas of Hawai`i. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 94: 313-316, doi: 10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00228.1.

Process Step 4

CC ID: 196963
Description:

The herbivore biomass metric was derived from data from NOAA Coral Reef Ecosystem Program (CREP) Rapid Ecological Assessment (REA) fish surveys. Mean herbivore biomass for each georegion, as well as all subsequently described metrics based on data from REA surveys, were calculated based on a weighted average of reef area in three depth zones (0-6 meters, 6-18 meters, 18-30 meters).

Source: Ayotte P, McCoy K, Williams I, Zamzow J. 2011. Coral Reef Ecosystem Division standard operating procedures: data collection for Rapid Ecological Assessment fish surveys. Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center Administrative Report H-11-08, 24 p.

Process Step 5

CC ID: 196965
Description:

The macroalgal cover metric was derived from analysis of digital images of the benthos (photoquadrats) from NOAA Coral Reef Ecosystem Program (CREP) Rapid Ecological Assessment (REA) fish and coral surveys.

Source: NOAA Coral Reef Ecosystem Program (CREP) Benthic Image Analysis Standard Operating Procedures. Unpublished methods documented on the NOAA Wiki and unofficially available on the CoRIS website at http://data.nodc.noaa.gov/coris/data/NOAA/nmfs/810_Reef_Resilience/SOP_BenthicImageAnalysis_v2_2014_12_04.pdf

Process Step 6

CC ID: 196966
Description:

Metrics for coral diversity, coral recruitment, physical impacts to coral, and disease prevalence were calculated from data gathered by NOAA Coral Reef Ecosystem Program (CREP) Rapid Ecological Assessment (REA) benthic surveys.

Source: "Ecological Assessment of Coral." Coral Reef Ecosystem Program. Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, n.d. Web. <http://www.pifsc.noaa.gov/cred/corals.php>

Process Step 7

CC ID: 196967
Description:

The bleaching resistance metric was calculated based on the percent corals of a given species found in georegions, scaled by their sensitivity to bleaching as determined by observations of corals during a bleaching event.

Process Step 8

CC ID: 196968
Description:

The fishing pressure metric was derived from multiple data sources. The proximity of human population was the primary driver, and was scaled by the percentage of households that fish (Allen and Bartlett 2008) and the percentage of habitat that is protected from fishing in a form of marine protected area designated by the State of Hawaii as a "Marine Life Conservation District." U.S. Census data was used to estimate mean population within 10 kilometers of reef in each georegion, results of a social science study done by Allen and Bartlett (2008) were used to identify the percentage of households that fish, and ArcGIS was used to estimate percentage of shallow-water habitat protected from fishing.

Source: Allen SD, Bartlett N. 2008. Hawaii Marine Recreational Fisheries Survey. How analysis of raw catch data can benefit regional fisheries management and how catch estimates are developed: An example using 2003 data. Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center Administrative Report H-08-04, 33 p. + Appendices.

Process Step 9

CC ID: 196969
Description:

The Sea Surface Temperature (SST) variability metric was derived from Pathfinder v5.2 ~4 kilometer (1/24 degrees) daily SST data for the period 1985-2012, provided by the Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) and the U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center. The Pathfinder project was supported in part by a grant from the NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) Program for satellites. Scott Heron created derived data sets based on these data under a NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) grant (Heron-786), and these derived data sets were used as the basis of the SST variability metric. Based on discussions with Heron, the number of significant thermal events (defined as a period where a reef area experienced 4 consecutive degree heating weeks) and the interannual variability (standard deviation) of the climactically warmest month were combined to calculate the SST variability metric. Additional information about thermal history products is available at the Coral Reef Watch website (http://coralreefwatch.noaa.gov/satellite/thermal_history/th_index.php).

Catalog Details

Catalog Item ID: 23147
Metadata Record Created By: Annette M DesRochers
Metadata Record Created: 2015-02-18 20:17+0000
Metadata Record Last Modified By: Annette M DesRochers
Metadata Record Last Modified: 2019-11-25 21:50+0000
Metadata Record Published: 2015-11-27
Owner Org: PIFSC
Metadata Publication Status: Published Externally
Do Not Publish?: N
Metadata Next Review Date: 2016-11-27