Short Citation:
Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, 2021: Fish, Benthic and Urchin Survey Data from Kahekili Herbivore Fisheries Management Area (HFMA), Maui since 2008, https://www.fisheries.noaa.gov/inport/item/30951.

Item Identification

Title: Fish, Benthic and Urchin Survey Data from Kahekili Herbivore Fisheries Management Area (HFMA), Maui since 2008
Short Name: Kahekili Herbivore Fisheries Management Area, Maui
Status: Completed
Creation Date: 2016-04
Revision Date: 2019-03
Publication Date: 2019
Abstract:

Data are summary fish, benthic and urchin data from belt transect surveys conducted by the Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Ecosystem Sciences Division (ESD; formerly the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division) within the Kahekili Herbivore Fisheries Management Area (KHFMA) in West Maui.

Surveys were completed in 'rounds', each round being an intensive 4 day survey effort (occasionally with an additional day soon after) from 2009 to 2018. Also included are data gathered by Hawaii Division of Aquatic Resources (HDAR) in 2008 at the same locations and using the same survey design and methods.

Each row represents a single survey of a 25-m haphazardly located transect within the KHFMA. All transects are included. Habitat types are SAG (shallow aggregate reef); DAG (deep aggregate reef); MMX (mixed mid-depth reef); SSG (shallow spur and groove); DSG (deep spur and groove); and SPA (shallow pavement).

Benthic cover (%) is extracted from a photo-transect (25 photographs taken at 1-m intervals, 15+ points analyzed per photograph using Photogrid Image Analysis Software). -9 values represent situations where images were either not gathered or not analyzed.

Fishes are surveyed by means of a diver swimming outward and return swims along the same transect. On the outward swims, the diver records all fishes >15 cm total length (TL) within a 4-m wide belt centered on the diver; on the return swim, divers record fishes <15 cm TL within a 2-m wide belt. Fish species and size observations are converted to biomass (grams per square meter, or g/m^2) using species-specific length-weight conversion parameters. Urchins are counted on a 1-m wide belt centered on the transect line. Urchin density is calculated by the number per square meter (#/m^2).

Purpose:

In 2009, the state of Hawaii established the Kahekili Herbivore Fisheries Management Area (KHFMA) in West Maui. Fishing for herbivores (parrotfishes, surgeonfishes, chub, sea urchins) is prohibited within the KHFMA, as the goal is to use this form of marine management to prevent and possibly reverse shifts from coral to macroalgal domination, possibly evident on reefs at the KHFMA in recent years. The data described herein are part of an ongoing monitoring program assessing changes in fish and benthic assemblages following creation of the KHFMA.

The NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) has provided support for ESD staff to assist HDAR staff with maintaining long-term biological monitoring of the KHFMA, using methods implemented in pre-closure baseline surveys in 2008 by HDAR and their partners at that time.

Other Citation Details:

Williams ID, White DJ, Sparks RT, Lino KC, Zamzow JP, Kelly ELA, et al. (2016) Responses of Herbivorous Fishes and Benthos to 6 Years of Protection at the Kahekili Herbivore Fisheries Management Area, Maui. PLoS ONE 11(7): e0159100. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0159100

Supplemental Information:

Surveys covered by this metadata record were gathered for the projects "Scientific support for Kahekili Herbivore Fisheries Management Area, Maui" and "Quantifying processes that underpin recovery at Kahekili Herbivore Fisheries Management Area (HFMA), Maui" conducted by PIFSC ESD, and funded by the CRCP in Fiscal Years 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2018 (FY10 Project#: 20482, FY11#:F200; FY12-14# F374, FY15-19:#30102).

Survey rounds took place on 09/01/2009-09/04/2009, 09/13/2010-09/16/2010, 02/28/2011-03/03/2011, 9/26/2011-9/29/2011, 4/23/2012-4/26/2012, 9/24/2012-9/27/2012, 4/22/2013-4/25/2013, 9/16/2013-9/19/2013, 3/31/2014-4/30/2014, 9/22/2014-9/24/2014, 4/6/2015-4/9/2015, 9/21/2015-9/24/2015, 3/7/2016-3/10/2016. 4/5/2016 and 10/17/2016-10/20/2016, 3/5/2018-3/9/2018, 9/24/2018-9/26/2018.

Also included are data gathered by HDAR at the same locations and using the same survey design and methods. Those data were gathered during two rounds: 1/22/2008-1/25/2008 and 8/18/2008-8/25/2008.

Maximum depth was 18 meters.

Keywords

Theme Keywords

Thesaurus Keyword
CoRIS Discovery Thesaurus Numeric Data Sets > Biology
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Aquatic Habitat > Reef Habitat
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Vegetation > Algae > Algal Cover
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Vegetation > Algae > Crustose Coralline Algae
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Vegetation > Algae > Fleshy Macroalgae
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Vegetation > Algae > Turf Algae
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef Monitoring and Assessment
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef Monitoring and Assessment > In Situ Biological
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef Monitoring and Assessment > Photographic Analysis
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef Monitoring and Assessment > Reef Fish Census > Belt Transect
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Coastal Processes > Coral Reefs
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Coastal Processes > Coral Reefs > Coral Reef Ecology > Coral Cover
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Coastal Processes > Coral Reefs > Coral Reef Ecology > Hard Coral Cover
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Coastal Processes > Coral Reefs > Marine Protected Areas
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Marine Biology > Fish
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Marine Biology > Fish > Fish Assemblages
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Marine Biology > Marine Invertebrates > Macroinvertebrates
CRCP Project 20482
CRCP Project 30102
CRCP Project F200
CRCP Project F374
CRCP Project Quantifying Processes that Underpin Recovery at Kahekili Herbivore Fisheries Management Area
CRCP Project Scientific support for Kahekili Herbivore Fisheries Management Area, Maui
ISO 19115 Topic Category 002
ISO 19115 Topic Category biota
NODC DATA TYPES THESAURUS BIOLOGICAL DATA
NODC DATA TYPES THESAURUS FISH BIOMASS
NODC DATA TYPES THESAURUS INVERTEBRATE SPECIES
NODC DATA TYPES THESAURUS REEF AND/OR BOTTOM REGIME - PERCENT COVER
NODC OBSERVATION TYPES THESAURUS biological
NODC OBSERVATION TYPES THESAURUS derived products
NODC OBSERVATION TYPES THESAURUS in situ
NODC OBSERVATION TYPES THESAURUS survey - swimmer/diver
NODC PROJECT NAMES THESAURUS Coral Reef Conservation Program
NODC PROJECT NAMES THESAURUS Kahekili Herbivore Fisheries Management Area
NODC SEA AREA NAMES THESAURUS North Pacific Ocean
NODC SUBMITTING INSTITUTION NAMES THESAURUS US DOC; NOAA; NMFS; Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center; Ecosystem Sciences Division
None Belt transect
None Coral Reef
None Coral Reef Ecosystem Division
None Coral Reef Ecosystem Program
None CRED
None CREP
None DAR
None Division of Aquatic Resources
None Ecosystem Sciences Division
None ESD
None Fisheries Management Area
None Hawaii Division of Aquatic Resources
None HDAR
None Herbivory
None Kahekili Herbivore Fisheries Management Area
None Marine Ecosystem
None Marine Protected Area
None Monitoring
None Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center
None PIFSC
None Reef Fishes

Temporal Keywords

Thesaurus Keyword
None Annual

Spatial Keywords

Thesaurus Keyword
CoRIS Place Thesaurus COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Hawaii > Maui > Maui Island (20N156W0004)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Central Pacific Ocean > Hawaiian Islands > Maui Island > Maui Island (20N156W0004)
None Kahekili Herbivore Fisheries Management Area
None Hawaii
None Kahekili
None Maui

Physical Location

Organization: Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center
City: Honolulu
State/Province: HI
Country: USA

Data Set Information

Data Set Scope Code: Data Set
Data Set Type: CSV Files
Maintenance Frequency: Annually
Maintenance Note:

Published in 2016 under accession 0146683 (including data from 2008 to March 2016) that has since been deprecated and replaced by accession 0165015 in August 2017 with the updated dataset that contains the data from the original accession plus the data from surveys through October 2016. The dataset was again updated in March 2019 with data from surveys through September 2018.

Data Presentation Form: Table (digital)
Entity Attribute Overview:

Each row represents a single survey of a 25 m haphazardly located transect within the Kahekili Herbivore Fisheries Management Area, Maui.

Habitat types are SAG (shallow agregate reef); DAG (deep aggregate reef); MMX (mixed mid-depth reef); SSG (shallow spur and groove); DSG (deep spur and groove); and SPA (shallow pavement).

Benthic cover (%) is extracted from a photo-transect (25 photographs, taken at 1-m intervals, 15+ points analyzed per photograph using Photogrid Image Analysis Software). -9 values represent situations where images were either not gathered or not analyzed.

Fishes are surveyed by means of a diver swimming outward and return swims down the transects. On the outward swims, the diver records all fishes >15 cm total length (TL) within a 4-m wide belt centered on the diver; on the return swim, divers record fishes <15 cm TL within a 2-m wide belt. Fish species and size observations are converted to biomass (grams per square meter, or g/m^2) using species-specific length-weight conversion parameters. Urchins are counted on a 1-m wide belt centered on the transect line. Urchin density is calculated by the number per square meter (#/m^2).

Entity Attribute Detail URL: https://www.fisheries.noaa.gov/inport/item/55543
Distribution Liability:

While every effort has been made to ensure that these data are accurate and reliable within the limits of the current state of the art, NOAA cannot assume liability for any damages caused by errors or omissions in the data, nor as a result of the failure of the data to function on a particular system. NOAA makes no warranty, expressed or implied, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty.

Data Set Credit: Ivor Williams, PIFSC Ecosystem Sciences Division and funded by the NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program

Support Roles

Data Set Credit

CC ID: 309053
Date Effective From: 2009
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) (CRCP)
Address: 1305 East West Highway 10th Floor
Silver Spring, MD 20910-3281
Phone: (301) 713-3155
URL: http://coralreef.noaa.gov

Data Steward

CC ID: 303223
Date Effective From: 2009
Date Effective To:
Contact (Person): Williams, Ivor D
Address: 1845 Wasp Blvd.
Honolulu, HI 96818
USA
Email Address: ivor.williams@noaa.gov
Phone: (808)725-5427
Contact Instructions:

Contact via email

Distributor

CC ID: 317941
Date Effective From: 2016
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): National Centers for Environmental Information - Silver Spring, Maryland (NCEI-MD)
Address: NOAA/NESDIS E/OC SSMC3, 4th Floor, 1351 East-West Highway
Silver Spring, MD 20910-3282
Phone: (301) 713-3277

Distributor

CC ID: 295774
Date Effective From: 2009
Date Effective To:
Contact (Person): Williams, Ivor D
Address: 1845 Wasp Blvd.
Honolulu, HI 96818
USA
Email Address: ivor.williams@noaa.gov
Phone: (808)725-5427
Contact Instructions:

Contact via email

Metadata Contact

CC ID: 295772
Date Effective From: 2016
Date Effective To:
Contact (Person): DesRochers, Annette M
Address: 1845 Wasp Blvd.
Honolulu, HI 96818
USA
Email Address: annette.desrochers@noaa.gov
Phone: (808)725-5461
Business Hours: 8 am - 5 pm
Contact Instructions:

Email preferred

Originator

CC ID: 295775
Date Effective From: 2009
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC)
Address: 1845 Wasp Blvd.
Honolulu, HI 96818
USA
Phone: 808-725-5300
URL: http://www.pifsc.noaa.gov
Business Hours: 8:00 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.

Point of Contact

CC ID: 295773
Date Effective From: 2009
Date Effective To:
Contact (Person): Williams, Ivor D
Address: 1845 Wasp Blvd.
Honolulu, HI 96818
USA
Email Address: ivor.williams@noaa.gov
Phone: (808)725-5427
Contact Instructions:

Contact via email

Extents

Currentness Reference: Ground Condition

Extent Group 1

Extent Description:

Kahekili Herbivore Fisheries Management Area, Maui

Extent Group 1 / Geographic Area 1

CC ID: 295771
W° Bound: -156.6983
E° Bound: -156.6867
N° Bound: 20.9542
S° Bound: 20.9263
Description

Extent of Kahekili Marine Reserve

Extent Group 1 / Time Frame 1

CC ID: 295770
Time Frame Type: Range
Start: 2008
End: 2018-09
Description:

Time frame of underwater surveys conducted in the Kahekili Herbivore Fisheries Management Area by HDAR (2008) and PIFSC Ecosystem Sciences Division (2009- September 2018).

Access Information

Security Class: Unclassified
Security Classification System:

Not applicable

Security Handling Description:

Not applicable

Data Access Policy:

NOAA Coral Reef Ecosystem Program (CREP) Data Sharing Recommendations, version 9.0 updated August 12, 2015:

CREP welcomes the opportunity to collaborate on research issues contributing to the scientific basis for better management of marine ecosystems. CREP has a very diverse set of field activities that generates large volumes of data using an array of data collection protocols.

The following recommendations are for your consideration as you use this data:

1) Data analyses should take all field exigencies into account. The most effective way to do this would be active collaboration with CREP principal investigators.

2) In all presentations, product releases, or publications using data generated by CREP, proper acknowledgement of both CREP and the individuals responsible for data collection is expected. Citing the DOI (if available) is preferred, a non-DOI example is listed below.

3) If you collect or generate data for the same study areas, CREP requests that you share relevant information on complimentary data collections.

4) Those receiving data are strongly urged to inform the CREP Data Management Team of any errors and discrepancies that are discovered during the course of using these data. They are further urged to bring to the attention of the Team all problems and difficulties encountered in using these data. This information is necessary in order to improve the collections and to facilitate more efficient and economical data processing and retrieval. The users are asked to supply copies of any missing data that may be located, and to provide information as to significant subsets and special aggregations of data that are developed in using the material provided.

Example acknowledgment:

"This publication makes use of data products gathered by the Hawaii Division of Aquatic Resources and the Ecosystem Sciences Division (ESD), Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), with funding support from the NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP). The analysis and interpretations presented here are solely that of the current authors.”

Data Access Procedure:

Data can be accessed online via the NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) Ocean Archive.

Data Access Constraints:

None

Data Use Constraints:

Please cite Ecosystem Sciences Division (ESD) and acknowledge Hawaii Division of Aquatic Resources (HDAR) when using the data.

Example:

Cite as: Williams, Ivor; PIFSC Coral Reef Ecosystem Program (2017). Fish, Benthic and Urchin Survey Data from Kahekili Herbivore Fisheries Management Area (HFMA), Maui, HI since 2008 (NCEI Accession 0165015). Version 1.1. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. Dataset. [access date]

Metadata Access Constraints:

None

Metadata Use Constraints:

None

Distribution Information

Distribution 1

CC ID: 575299
Download URL: http://accession.nodc.noaa.gov/0165015
Distributor: National Centers for Environmental Information - Silver Spring, Maryland (NCEI-MD) (2016 - Present)
File Name: KHFMA_Data_Archive_2008to2018.csv
Description:

Summarized fish, benthic and urchin data from monitoring surveys within the Kahekili Herbivore Fisheries Management Area (KHFMA), Maui since 2008 through surveys conducted in September 2018. Each row in the dataset represents a single survey of a 25 m haphazardly located transect within the KHFMA. The previous accession (0146683) was deprecated and replaced by this accession.

File Date/Time: 2019-03-01 00:00:00
File Type: csv (comma-separated values)

Distribution 2

CC ID: 295776
Download URL: http://accession.nodc.noaa.gov/0165015
Distributor: National Centers for Environmental Information - Silver Spring, Maryland (NCEI-MD) (2016 - Present)
File Name: KHFMA_Data_Dictionary.csv
Description:

Data Dictionary

File Date/Time: 2019-03-01 00:00:00
File Type: csv (comma-separated values)
File Size: 22 KB

URLs

URL 1

CC ID: 303353
URL: https://www.facebook.com/KHFMA
URL Type:
Online Resource
File Resource Format: HTML
Description:

Kahekili Herbivore Fisheries Management Area Facebook page.

URL 2

CC ID: 303355
URL: http://dlnr.hawaii.gov/dar/files/2014/05/kahekili.jpg
URL Type:
Browse Graphic
File Resource Format: JPG
Description:

Map of Kahekili Herbivore Fishery Management Area

Technical Environment

Description:

Microsoft Access database

Data Quality

Representativeness:

Data are from haphazardly located surveys and are believed to be highly representative

Accuracy:

Fish observations at each site were made by divers who have been trained, and met minimum standards in identifying species present at the survey locations and in estimating size of fishes in survey counts. However, all species identifications are made visually, sometimes in situations where a fish is only briefly seen. Observations, including species identification and sizing, were periodically checked during the expedition for consistency between divers, and little discrepancy was noted between divers. Data is checked after each survey trip, but there remains some possibility of typographical or other errors. Benthic cover estimates derived from analysis of photographs are dependent on image quality - although that was generally good, as photographs were taken at less than 1 m from the reef substrate and in generally clear water, using a high resolution (8 MB) digital camera. Image quality is nearly always more than sufficient for there to be high confidence in accuracy of identification of benthic genera and functional groups

Completeness Report:

The survey sites were selected using a haphazard process based on available habitat and bathymetric habitats.

Conceptual Consistency:

The same methods of data collection were used at each of the sites surveyed at this location, and were conducted by the same scientists.

Quality Control Procedures Employed:

Size estimates checked against known size ranges per species

Data Management

Have Resources for Management of these Data Been Identified?: Yes
Approximate Percentage of Budget for these Data Devoted to Data Management: Unknown
Do these Data Comply with the Data Access Directive?: Yes
Is Access to the Data Limited Based on an Approved Waiver?: No
Approximate Delay Between Data Collection and Dissemination: Unknown
Actual or Planned Long-Term Data Archive Location: NCEI-MD
Approximate Delay Between Data Collection and Archiving: Unknown
How Will the Data Be Protected from Accidental or Malicious Modification or Deletion Prior to Receipt by the Archive?:

NOAA IRC and NOAA Fisheries ITS resources and assets.

Lineage

Lineage Statement:

Belt transect fish surveys are investigations that provide a high degree of taxonomic resolution for reef fish communities. The surveys were conducted by teams of two divers with locations haphazardly spread throughout the survey area. Transect placement was guided by: (1) a focus on hardbottom communities; (2) deploying lines along an isobath and parallel to shore.

Sources

Williams ID, White DJ, Sparks RT, Lino KC, Zamzow JP, Kelly ELA, et al. (2016) Responses of Herbivorous Fishes and Benthos to 6 Years of Protection at the Kahekili Herbivore Fisheries Management Area, Maui. PLoS ONE 11(7): e0159100. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0159100

CC ID: 825851
Contact Role Type: Originator
Contact Type: Person
Contact Name: Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center
Publish Date: 2016-07-27
Citation URL: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0159100
Citation URL Name: PLOS One
Citation URL Description:

Responses of Herbivorous Fishes and Benthos to 6 Years of Protection at the Kahekili Herbivore Fisheries Management Area, Maui

Source Contribution:

Research article of findings from the data described herein.

Process Steps

Process Step 1

CC ID: 295779
Description:

For each survey round, approximately 80-100 survey transects are conducted within the KHFMA. Survey teams comprising of divers and working off a small boat were haphazardly dropped over hardbottom areas throughout the KHFMA. The divers would then swim straight down to the nearest suitable habitat (hardbottom large enough to lay a survey transect in); one of the survey divers would then tie off the starting point of the survey transect and the other recorded the transect start location using a GPS in a waterproof bag attached to a float. As much as possible, surveys were always run parallel to the shoreline running approximately northwards. Survey transects were of 25m length.

Process Contact: Williams, Ivor D
Phone (Voice): (808)725-5427
Email Address: ivor.williams@noaa.gov

Process Step 2

CC ID: 303356
Description:

One of the divers conducted fish surveys, recording the species, number and size (in 5 cm slots) of all fishes recorded within the transect ahead of the diver as they swam slowly along the transect line. Fishes larger than 15 cm total length (TL) were recorded within a 4-m wide belt centered on the diver as they laid out the 25 m transect tape. At the end of the transect, the diver would then turn around and resurvey the transect line, recording species, number and size of all fishes smaller than 15 cm TL in a 2-m wide belt centered on the transect line. The other survey diver followed the fish survey diver, and conducted a photo quadrat survey of the benthos under the transect line, and then recorded all sea urchins within a 1-m wide belt, during a return swim down the transect line.

Process Contact: Williams, Ivor D
Phone (Voice): (808)725-5427
Email Address: ivor.williams@noaa.gov

Process Step 3

CC ID: 303357
Description:

Photos were subsequently analyzed using point count image analysis software, with cover recorded to lowest possible taxonomic level (species for coral, genera for macroalgae, functional group for others [crustose coralline algae, turf, sand, other sessile invert]).

Process Contact: Williams, Ivor D
Phone (Voice): (808)725-5427
Email Address: ivor.williams@noaa.gov

Acquisition Information

Instruments

Instrument Unavailable Reason: Not Applicable

Child Items

Rubric scores updated every 15m

Rubric Score Type Title
Entity (ENT) Kahekili Entities

Catalog Details

Catalog Item ID: 30951
Metadata Record Created By: Annette M DesRochers
Metadata Record Created: 2016-02-26 21:28+0000
Metadata Record Last Modified By: SysAdmin InPortAdmin
Metadata Record Last Modified: 2020-08-03 16:13+0000
Metadata Record Published: 2019-03-01
Owner Org: PIFSC
Metadata Publication Status: Published Externally
Do Not Publish?: N
Metadata Next Review Date: 2020-03-01