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Short Citation:
Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, 2024: Kure coral - Bomb radiocarbon record (1939-2002),

Item Identification

Title: Kure coral - Bomb radiocarbon record (1939-2002)
Short Name: Kure bomb radiocarbon
Status: Completed
Publication Date: 2016

Corals of the Hawaiian Archipelago are well situated in the North Pacific Gyre (NPG) to record how bomb-produced radiocarbon (14C) has been sequestered and transported by the sea. While this signal can be traced accurately through time in reef-building corals and used to infer oceanographic processes and determine the ages of marine organisms, a comprehensive and validated record has been lacking for the Hawaiian Archipelago. In this study, a coral core from Kure Atoll in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands was used to create a high-resolution bomb 14C record for the years 1939–2002, and was then used with other 14C measurements in fish otoliths and seawater to explore differences and similarities in the bomb 14C signal throughout the Hawaiian Archipelago. The Kure Atoll sample series produced a well-defined bomb 14C curve that, with some exceptions, was similar to other coral 14C records from the Hawaiian Archipelago. Subtle differences in the coral 14C records across the region may be explained by the large-scale ocean circulation patterns and decadal cycles of the NPG. The most rapid increase of 14C, in the 1950s and 1960s, showed similar timing across the Hawaiian Archipelago and provides a robust basis for use of bomb 14C dating to obtain high precision age determinations of marine organisms. Reference otoliths of juvenile fish demonstrated the use of the post-peak 14C decline period as a viable reference in the age validation of younger and more recently collected fishes, and effectively extended the utility of bomb 14C dating to the latest 30 years.


Establish a comprehensive bomb radiocarbon reference for use in age validation of regional marine organisms and to explain the oceanographic propagation of the signal through the North Pacific Ocean.


Data set also available via the NOAA Climatic Data Center

Kure Atoll, Hawaiian Archipelago Radiocarbon Data from 1939-2002 AD

Other Citation Details:


Andrews, A.H., D. Siciliano, D.C. Potts, E.E. DeMartini, and S. Covarrubias. 2016. Bomb radiocarbon and the Hawaiian Archipelago: Coral, otoliths and seawater. Radiocarbon 58(3): 531-548 (

Physical Location

Organization: Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center
City: Honolulu
State/Province: HI
Country: USA

Data Set Information

Data Set Scope Code: Data Set
Data Set Type: Excel and SAS Dataset
Maintenance Frequency: None Planned
Data Presentation Form: Document (digital)

Support Roles


CC ID: 380357
Date Effective From: 2016
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC)
Address: 1845 Wasp Blvd.
Honolulu, HI 96818
Email Address:
Phone: 808-725-5360
Business Hours: 8:00 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.

Point of Contact

CC ID: 1268567
Date Effective From: 2023-08
Date Effective To:
Contact (Person): Schemmel, Eva M
Email Address:
Contact Instructions:

Contact via email.

View Historical Support Roles


Currentness Reference: Publication Date

Extent Group 1

Extent Group 1 / Geographic Area 1

CC ID: 380361

Kure Atoll, Hawaiian Islands

Extent Group 1 / Time Frame 1

CC ID: 380362
Time Frame Type: Range
Start: 1939
End: 2002

Validated timeline for the coral core radiocarbon record using Sr/Ca as a proxy for seasonal/annual temperature changes.

Access Information

Security Class: Unclassified
Security Classification System:


Security Handling Description:


Data Access Policy:


Data Access Procedure:


Data Access Constraints:


Data Use Constraints:


Metadata Access Constraints:


Metadata Use Constraints:


Distribution Information

Distribution 1

CC ID: 380356
Download URL:
File Name: Kure Atoll 14C Data

Data Quality

Quality Control Procedures Employed:

Further QC after data entry.

Data Management

Have Resources for Management of these Data Been Identified?: Yes
Approximate Percentage of Budget for these Data Devoted to Data Management: Unknown
Do these Data Comply with the Data Access Directive?: No
Is Access to the Data Limited Based on an Approved Waiver?: No
If Distributor (Data Hosting Service) is Needed, Please Indicate: NCDC
Approximate Delay Between Data Collection and Dissemination: None
Actual or Planned Long-Term Data Archive Location: Other
If World Data Center or Other, Specify: NCDC
Approximate Delay Between Data Collection and Archiving: None
How Will the Data Be Protected from Accidental or Malicious Modification or Deletion Prior to Receipt by the Archive?:

PIFSC ITS performs scheduled back-ups.


Lineage Statement:

See publication:

Andrews, A.H., D. Siciliano, D.C. Potts, E.E. DeMartini, and S. Covarrubias. 2016. Bomb radiocarbon and the Hawaiian Archipelago: Coral, otoliths and seawater. Radiocarbon 58(3): 531-548 (

Catalog Details

Catalog Item ID: 36740
GUID: gov.noaa.nmfs.inport:36740
Metadata Record Created By: Allen H Andrews
Metadata Record Created: 2017-02-10 14:20+0000
Metadata Record Last Modified By: Brent M Miyamoto
Metadata Record Last Modified: 2023-08-25 19:37+0000
Metadata Record Published: 2019-07-23
Owner Org: PIFSC
Metadata Publication Status: Published Externally
Do Not Publish?: N
Metadata Last Review Date: 2019-07-23
Metadata Review Frequency: 1 Year
Metadata Next Review Date: 2020-07-23