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Short Citation:
Office for Coastal Management, 2024: Coastal California Digital Imagery,

Item Identification

Title: Coastal California Digital Imagery
Short Name: Coastal_CA_Digital_Imagery
Status: Completed
Publication Date: 2011-09-12

This digital ortho-imagery dataset is a survey of coastal California. The project area consists of approximately 3774 square miles. The project design of the digital ortho-imagery data acquisition was developed to achieve a 30 cm pixel resolution. Fugro EarthData, Inc. acquired 289 flight lines in 36 lifts from August 26, 2010 through November 29, 2010. Digital ortho-imagery data collection was performed with Conquest and King Air aircrafts, utilizing a Leica ADS40-SH52 sensor. During the time of image acquisition at least two dual frequency GPS receivers are utilized. One receiver, acting as the remote, was operated on board the aircraft with the antenna located over the camera. For differential GPS processing, a second receiver was used on land as the base station. These receivers were in constant operation during the imagery collection and GPS phase data was collected at an epoch rate of at least 1 second. After processing the differential GPS solution by using the remote and master station a final estimated trajectory is generated. The smoothed best estimate trajectory, or sbet, is then in combination with ground surveyed points to strengthen the geospatial accuracy of the imagery. The digital ortho-imagery was cut to tiles measuring 1500 meters by 1500 meters.

Original contact information:

Contact Org: NOAA Office for Coastal Management

Phone: 843-740-1202



The mission of the Office for Coastal Management is to support the environmental, social, and economic well being of the coast by linking people, information, and technology. These digital ortho-imagery data are intended to support the local Coastal Zone Managers in their decision-making processes, including applications such as sea level rise.



Supplemental Information:

The information in this report is the result of digital ortho-imagery surveys performed on the dates indicated and the general conditions at the time of flight.


Theme Keywords

Thesaurus Keyword
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Science Keywords
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Science Keywords
ISO 19115 Topic Category
None ADS40-SH52
None Aerotriangulation (AT)
None Digital Ortho-imagery
None Digital Surface Model (DSM)
None Ortho
None Orthoimage
None Orthophoto
None Orthophotography

Spatial Keywords

Thesaurus Keyword
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
Geographic Names Information System Coastal California
Geographic Names Information System US

Instrument Keywords

Thesaurus Keyword
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Instrument Keywords

Platform Keywords

Thesaurus Keyword
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Platform Keywords
Airplane > Airplane

Physical Location

Organization: Office for Coastal Management
City: Charleston
State/Province: SC

Data Set Information

Data Set Scope Code: Data Set
Maintenance Frequency: As Needed
Data Presentation Form: Map (digital)
Entity Attribute Overview:

Leica ADS40-SH52 sensors; push-broom; serial numbers: SH024, SH110, and SH022; 4-band multi-spectral ortho-imagery tiles with 30 cm pixel ground resolution, configured to display as 8-bit color-infrared and capable of being redisplayed as 8-bit natural color.

Entity Attribute Detail Citation:

see process steps within this record

Distribution Liability:

Any conclusions drawn from the analysis of this information are not the responsibility of NOAA, the Office for Coastal Management or its partners.

Data Set Credit: Department of Commerce (DOC), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Ocean Service (NOS), Office for Coastal Management (OCM); the California State Coastal Conservancy (SCC) Ocean Protection Council (OPC); and the Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise (JALBTCX).

Support Roles

Data Steward

CC ID: 633906
Date Effective From: 2011-09-12
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): NOAA Office for Coastal Management (NOAA/OCM)
Address: 2234 South Hobson Ave
Charleston, SC 29405-2413
Email Address:
Phone: (843) 740-1202


CC ID: 633908
Date Effective From: 2011-09-12
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): NOAA Office for Coastal Management (NOAA/OCM)
Address: 2234 South Hobson Ave
Charleston, SC 29405-2413
Email Address:
Phone: (843) 740-1202

Metadata Contact

CC ID: 633909
Date Effective From: 2011-09-12
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): NOAA Office for Coastal Management (NOAA/OCM)
Address: 2234 South Hobson Ave
Charleston, SC 29405-2413
Email Address:
Phone: (843) 740-1202

Point of Contact

CC ID: 633907
Date Effective From: 2011-09-12
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): NOAA Office for Coastal Management (NOAA/OCM)
Address: 2234 South Hobson Ave
Charleston, SC 29405-2413
Email Address:
Phone: (843) 740-1202


Currentness Reference: Publication Date

Extent Group 1

Extent Group 1 / Geographic Area 1

CC ID: 1301303
W° Bound: -124.455747
E° Bound: -117.005324
N° Bound: 42.042545
S° Bound: 32.489401

Extent Group 1 / Time Frame 1

CC ID: 1301302
Time Frame Type: Discrete
Start: 2011-09-12

Spatial Information

Spatial Representation

Representations Used

Grid: Yes

Grid Representation 1

CC ID: 633898
Dimension Count: 3
Cell Geometry: Point
Transformation Parameters Available?: No

Axis Dimension 1

Dimension Type: Row
Size: 5000

Axis Dimension 2

Dimension Type: Column
Size: 5000

Axis Dimension 3

Dimension Type: Vertical
Size: 1

Access Information

Security Class: Unclassified
Security Classification System:


Security Handling Description:


Data Access Procedure: This data set is dynamically generated based on user-specified parameters.;

Data Access Constraints:


Data Use Constraints:

Users should be aware that temporal changes may have occurred since this data set was collected and some parts of this data may no longer represent actual surface conditions. Users should not use this data for critical applications without a full awareness of its limitations.

Metadata Access Constraints:


Metadata Use Constraints:


Distribution Information

Distribution 1

CC ID: 744950
Download URL:
File Name: Customized Download

Create custom data files by choosing area, map projection, file format, etc.

Distribution 2

CC ID: 744951
Download URL:
File Name: Bulk Download

Simple download of data files.

Activity Log

Activity Log 1

CC ID: 633930
Activity Date/Time: 2016-05-23

Date that the source FGDC record was last modified.

Activity Log 2

CC ID: 633929
Activity Date/Time: 2017-11-14

Converted from FGDC Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (version FGDC-STD-001-1998) using '' script. Contact Tyler Christensen (NOS) for details.

Activity Log 3

CC ID: 717274
Activity Date/Time: 2018-02-08

Partial upload of Positional Accuracy fields only.

Activity Log 4

CC ID: 744952
Activity Date/Time: 2018-03-13

Partial upload to move data access links to Distribution Info.

Technical Environment


Microsoft Windows XP Version 2002 (Build 2600) Service Pack 2; ESRI ArcCatalog

Data Quality


The digital ground-orthophotos were created to be fully compliant with a horizontal positional accuracy of 2 meters or better at the 95% confidence level as computed in accordance with the FGDC National Standard for Spatial Data Accuracy (NSSDA).

Horizontal Positional Accuracy:

The spatial accuracy of the georeferenced imagery is 2 meters or better at the 95% confidence level as computed in accordance with the FGDC National Standard for Spatial Data Accuracy (NSSDA).

Completeness Measure:

Cloud Cover: 0

Completeness Report:

The following methods are used to ensure digital ortho-imagery data accuracy: 1) Use of a ground control network utilizing GPS survey techniques; 2) Use of airborne GPS and IMU during the acquisition of imagery; and 3) Measurement of quality control ground survey points within the finished product. The following software was used for the validation: 1) Pixel Factory; 2) ESRI ArcInfo; 3) Adobe Photoshop; and 4) Fugro EarthData Proprietary software.

Conceptual Consistency:

Compliance with the accuracy standard was ensured by the collection of ground control and the establishment of a GPS base station at the following airports: McClellan-Palomar, Oxnard, Monterey Peninsula, Hayward Executive, Charles M. Schulz - Sonoma County, Shelter Cove, Ukiah Municipal, Jack McNamara Field, Arcata, and Santa Maria Public. The following checks were performed: 1) The digital ortho-imagery accuracy was validated by performing a full analytical bundle aerotriangulation adjustment and then checking it against the ground control prior to generating a digital surface model (DSM) or other products. 2) Digital ortho-imagery was validated through an inspection of edge matching and visual inspection for quality.



Aerial Acquisition of Coastal California Digital Imagery

CC ID: 1301293
Publish Date: 2011-08-26
Extent Type: Range
Extent Start Date/Time: 2010-08-26
Extent End Date/Time: 2011-08-23
Source Contribution:

The aerial imagery acquisition for Coastal California was flown to support the creation of digital ortho-imagery with a 30 cm pixel resolution. Fugro EarthData, Inc. acquired 296 flight lines in 37 lifts from August 26, 2010 through November 29, 2010; and August 23, 2011 (this lift was flown to minimize building lean). The lines were flown at an average of 9,490 feet above mean terrain, using the Leica ADS40-SH52 digital airborne sensor, serial numbers SH024, SH110, and SH022. | Type of Source Media: External hard drive

Report of Survey - California Coast Ground Control for ADS-40 Digital Photography

CC ID: 1301294
Publish Date: 2011-02-14
Extent Type: Range
Extent Start Date/Time: 2009-09-25
Extent End Date/Time: 2010-10-21
Source Contribution:

TerraSurv, Inc. under contract to Fugro EarthData, Inc. successfully established ground control for coastal California. A total of 241 ground control points were acquired; of which 75 were successfully located and used as ground control in the final block adjustments, and 126 were used as checkpoints. GPS was used to establish the control network. The horizontal datum was the North American Datum of 1983 (NAD83, NSRS2007). The vertical datum was the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD88). | Source Geospatial Form: model | Type of Source Media: electronic mail system

Process Steps

Process Step 1

CC ID: 1301295

All acquired ADS40-SH52 data went through a preliminary review to assure that complete coverage was obtained and that there were no gaps between flight lines before the flight crew left the project site. Once back in the office, the data was brought through a comprehensive quality check to ensure completeness, image quality and resolution. There are essentially three steps to this processing: 1) GPS/IMU Processing - Airborne GPS and IMU data was immediately processed using ground GPS base station data, which is available immediately after collection. 2) Raw ADS40-SH52 Image QC - A technician performed visual inspection of the raw ADS40-SH52 images on selected bands for each collected flight lines. This step ensures proper function of the sensor. 3) Verification of Coverage and Data Quality - The raw RGB images for each collected flight lines were rectified using existing DEM and the GPS/IMU solution in Fugro proprietary software. The technician visually reviewed all rectified images to ensure completeness and resolution of acquisition for all flight lines and to identify any data gaps, clouds, shadows and any un-predicted issues in project area. All issues that did not meet project specifications were rejected and recollected.

Process Date/Time: 2010-12-01 00:00:00

Process Step 2

CC ID: 1301296

Once the ADS40-SH52 data was collected and accepted, the Aerotriangulation (AT) phase began. Following is a step-by-step description of the AT process: 1) AT was accomplished as a component of Fugro EarthDatas exclusive Pixel Factory process. The ground control, GPS, and IMU solution was ingested and tie points between strips were identified. Normally, only five tie points are needed between adjacent flight lines. We used automated tie point selection function in Pixel Factory which allowed us to increase the amount of tie points. 2) The technician performed AT process and applied the bundle adjustment result to the images of each AT block (consisting of multiple lifts or sorties). The results of the adjustment were verified through the generation of the full resolution panchromatic ortho chips over the ground control points for the data sortie. The ortho chips were inspected by the photogrammetric technician to identify any errors in the adjustment to ensure the accuracy meets project specification. The technician also generated and visually reviewed ortho strips covers across all flight lines to ensure edge matching between flight lines. Documentation of the methodology and AT report containing the RMSE and residual calculations of the tie and ground control points used in block adjustment was prepared and delivered to NOAA OCM.

Process Date/Time: 2011-01-18 00:00:00

Process Step 3

CC ID: 1301297

The following section describes the Pixel Factory digital image production sequence. This workflow is unique to Fugro EarthData, Inc. and has been developed specifically for push-broom sensors like the ADS40-SH52. This is a mature, stable workflow and incorporates all production components into an integrated series of tools to accomplish elevation model development, ortho production, and finishing. 1) The digital elevation data was correlated using the stereoscopic CCDs that are part of the ADS40 camera system. Using several tools that are part of the Pixel Factory workflow, a digital surface model (DSM) was correlated at an appropriate post spacing for the final accuracy requirement. The Pixel Factory correlation algorithm computed the X,Y,Z value for each DSM post utilizing every stereo angle that was available. A series of DSM files were created for acquisition block, one for each stereo look angle. A mosaic was then created from the separate DSM files where the best vertical value for each posting was selected from all look angles compared against the aerotriangulation adjustment which is incorporated into the mosaic. 2) The digital imagery for each acquisition sortie was differentially rectified to produce 4-band ortho-imagery at the appropriate pixel resolution. The Pixel Factory used the cubic convolution algorithm in its processing to remove image displacement due to topographic relief, tip and tilt of the aircraft at the moment of acquisition. Each individual strip of imagery from each flight line was rectified and radiometrically processed. 3) In order to achieve maximum efficiency in data processing, the digital orthophoto technician produced quicklooks for automated seamline generation and radiometric processing of the imagery. Quicklooks are a rendition of each scale of imagery at 1/64 of the actual resolution of the orthophotography. The goal of the radiometric adjustment is to minimize tonal changes of ground features on adjacent strips of imagery giving a balanced look across the entire project. 4) The results of the radiometric adjustment and seamline generation were used to create a mosaic for each block. The seamlines were then reviewed to ensure that the aesthetic impact on features and the final product was minimized. The data for all blocks was then processed to create a uniform and seamless appearance for the entire area. 5) The final ortho-image tiles were processed to the required projection and datum and are clipped out using the approved tiling grid and naming convention. 6) Fugro EarthData provided NOAA OCM with the pilot ortho-imagery for selected portions of the overflight at full resolution for review and approval of tone (color) and contrast of the imagery. 7) Digital ortho-imagery was then quality controlled internally. Based on the feedback from QC procedures, Fugro EarthData performed final corrections to the orthoimage, depending on the nature of the artifacts to be corrected. Minor artifacts were corrected using Adobe Photoshop in an interactive editing session. 8) Final digital ortho-imagery tiles were written out into GeoTIFF deliverable format with internal corresponding georeferencing and copied to hard drives for delivery.

Process Date/Time: 2011-09-06 00:00:00

Catalog Details

Catalog Item ID: 48416
GUID: gov.noaa.nmfs.inport:48416
Metadata Record Created By: Anne Ball
Metadata Record Created: 2017-11-14 14:46+0000
Metadata Record Last Modified By: Brianna Key
Metadata Record Last Modified: 2024-02-05 17:15+0000
Metadata Record Published: 2024-02-05
Owner Org: OCM
Metadata Publication Status: Published Externally
Do Not Publish?: N
Metadata Last Review Date: 2018-03-13
Metadata Review Frequency: 1 Year
Metadata Next Review Date: 2019-03-13