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Short Citation:
OCM Partners, 2024: 2008-2009 Great Lakes Border Ortho Imagery,

Item Identification

Title: 2008-2009 Great Lakes Border Ortho Imagery
Short Name: 2009_great_lakes
Status: Completed
Publication Date: 2010

An orthoimage is remotely sensed image data in which displacement of features in the image caused by terrain relief and sensor orientation have been mathematically removed. Orthoimagery combines the image characteristics of a photograph with the geometric qualities of a map. For this dataset, the natural color orthoimages were produced at 0.3-meter pixel resolution (approximately 1-foot). The design accuracy is estimated not to exceed 6 meter horizontal RMSE for locations within the United States. Each orthoimage provides imagery for a 1500-meter by 1500-meter block on the ground. The projected coordinate system is UTM with a NAD83 datum, spheroid GRS80. There is no image overlap between adjacent files. The naming convention is based on the U.S. National Grid (USNG), taking the coordinates of the SW corner of the orthoimage.


These data have been created as a result of the need for having geospatial data immediately available and easily accessible in order to provide geographic reference for federal, state, and local emergency responders, as well as for homeland security efforts. Orthoimages also serve a variety of purposes, from interim maps to field references for earth science investigations and analysis. The digital orthoimage is useful as a layer of a geographic information system. These data can be used to provide reference information for web browsers and for map applications at a scale of 1:100,000 or smaller.




Theme Keywords

Thesaurus Keyword
ISO 19115 Topic Category
None 0.3 meter orthoimage
None digital orthophoto image map (DOI)
None digital spatial data
None image map
None natural color orthophoto
None orthoimage
None orthophoto
None rectified image
None Remotely Sensed Imagery/Photos

Physical Location

Organization: Office for Coastal Management
City: Charleston
State/Province: SC

Data Set Information

Data Set Scope Code: Data Set
Maintenance Frequency: As Needed
Data Presentation Form: Map (digital)
Entity Attribute Overview:

Natural color orthoimagery is organized in three color bands or channels which represent the red, green, and blue (RGB) portions of the spectrum. Each image pixel is assigned a triplet of numeric values, one for each color band. Numeric values range from 0 to 255. Pixels outside the project boundary are represented with the numeric value of 0,0,0.

Entity Attribute Detail Citation:

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, 1996, Standards for Digital Orthophotos: Reston, VA.

Distribution Liability:

Users must assume responsibility to determine the usability of these data.

Support Roles

Data Steward

CC ID: 665172
Date Effective From: 2010
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): NOAA Office for Coastal Management (NOAA/OCM)
Address: 2234 South Hobson Ave
Charleston, SC 29405-2413
Email Address:
Phone: (843) 740-1202


CC ID: 665174
Date Effective From: 2010
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): NOAA Office for Coastal Management (NOAA/OCM)
Address: 2234 South Hobson Ave
Charleston, SC 29405-2413
Email Address:
Phone: (843) 740-1202

Metadata Contact

CC ID: 665175
Date Effective From: 2010
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): NOAA Office for Coastal Management (NOAA/OCM)
Address: 2234 South Hobson Ave
Charleston, SC 29405-2413
Email Address:
Phone: (843) 740-1202

Point of Contact

CC ID: 665173
Date Effective From: 2010
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): NOAA Office for Coastal Management (NOAA/OCM)
Address: 2234 South Hobson Ave
Charleston, SC 29405-2413
Email Address:
Phone: (843) 740-1202


Currentness Reference: Ground Condition

Extent Group 1

Extent Group 1 / Geographic Area 1

CC ID: 1303992
W° Bound: -91.673611
E° Bound: -82.166389
N° Bound: 47.461389
S° Bound: 41.169167

Extent Group 1 / Time Frame 1

CC ID: 1303991
Time Frame Type: Discrete
Start: 2008-09-17

Spatial Information

Spatial Representation

Representations Used

Grid: Yes

Grid Representation 1

CC ID: 665164
Dimension Count: 2
Cell Geometry: Point
Transformation Parameters Available?: No

Axis Dimension 1

Dimension Type: Row
Size: 5000

Axis Dimension 2

Dimension Type: Column
Size: 5000

Access Information

Security Class: Unclassified
Data Access Constraints:

Any downloading and use of these data signifies a users agreement to comprehension and compliance of the U.S. Government Standard Disclaimer. Insure all portions of metadata are read and clearly understood before using these data in order to protect both user and U.S. Government interests.

Data Use Constraints:

There is no guarantee of warranty concerning the accuracy of the data. Users should be aware that temporal changes may have occurred since this data set was collected and that some parts of this data may no longer represent actual surface conditions. Users should not use this data for critical applications without a full awareness of its limitations. Acknowledgment of the originating agencies would be appreciated in products derived from these data. Any user who modifies the data is obligated to describe the types of modifications they perform. User specifically agrees not to misrepresent the data, nor to imply that changes made were approved or endorsed by the U.S. Government.

Distribution Information

Distribution 1

CC ID: 739864
Download URL:
File Name: Customized Download

Create custom data files by choosing area, map projection, file format, etc.

Distribution 2

CC ID: 739865
Download URL:
File Name: Bulk Download

Simple download of data files.



CC ID: 739867
URL Type:
Online Resource

Activity Log

Activity Log 1

CC ID: 665193
Activity Date/Time: 2016-05-23

Date that the source FGDC record was last modified.

Activity Log 2

CC ID: 665192
Activity Date/Time: 2017-11-14

Converted from FGDC Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (version FGDC-STD-001-1998) using '' script. Contact Tyler Christensen (NOS) for details.

Activity Log 3

CC ID: 718029
Activity Date/Time: 2018-02-08

Partial upload of Positional Accuracy fields only.

Activity Log 4

CC ID: 739866
Activity Date/Time: 2018-03-13

Partial upload to move data access links to Distribution Info.

Technical Environment


ArcGIS 9.3.1; MicroStation v7; Z/I Imaging ISAT 5.3 and Orthopro 5.3

Data Quality


Sample points taken from overlapping areas of adjacent image frames along a single flight line and between strips along adjacent flight lines are typically consistent to the 2-3 pixel level. This not only ensures that a consistent mosaic can be created from the adjacent frames and image strips acquired with the DMC digital frame mapping system but also means that the images have good precision and as a group are spatially self-consistent.

Horizontal Positional Accuracy:

The accuracy value for locations within the United States was determined by measuring photo-identifiable control points collected with GPS survey methods in the orthophotos.; Quantitative Value: 6.0 meters, Test that produced the value: FGDC Geospatial Positioning Accuracy Standards, Part 3: National Standard for Spatial Data Accuracy (NSSDA)

Completeness Report:

Pixels outside the project boundary are represented with the numeric value of 0,0,0.

Conceptual Consistency:

Compliance with the accuracy standard was ensured by the use of photo identifiable ground control points and/or the collection of airborne GPS data.




CC ID: 1303986
Publish Date: 2008-01-01
Extent Type: Discrete
Extent Start Date/Time: 2008-09-17
Source Contribution:

Aerial imagery was captured with a Z/I Digital Mapping Camera. | Source Geospatial Form: raster digital data | Type of Source Media: raster digital data

Process Steps

Process Step 1

CC ID: 1303987

Ground control consisted of photo identifiable surveyed points within the United States. The imagery was collected at an average altitude of 9843 ft above mean terrain (AMT) using a frame-based Z/I Imaging Digital Mapping Camera (DMC). Overlap between adjacent frames along the flight line was approximately 60% and overlap between adjacent flight lines was approximately 30%. Corrections for camera and airplane exterior orientation (EO) variations were made with input from a combination of ground-, plane-, and space-based survey inputs (e.g., ABGPS, IMU, CORS Stations, Base Stations). The DMC collects 12-bit image data per channel which are resampled during post processing to standard 8-bit image data. The reduction in dynamic range (from 4,096 to 256) is performed in a manner designed to capture the greatest amount of information in each image, and preserve bright and dark values. Image quality was verified during the post flight review phase. Factors considered during this review included but were not limited to the presence of smoke and/or cloud cover, contrails, light conditions and sun glint. Pan-sharpened red, green, blue, and NIR bands were combined to generate digital image frames. Geometric correction of mosaicked frames of land areas within and laterally contiguous to the United States was performed via aerial triangulation and orthorectification using a recent DSM of the area provided as GFI (SRTM2, DTED2, Intermap NEXTmap USA, Canada NED, Mexican Border Lidar), and supplemented with higher resolution DSM data where readily available. The vertical accuracy of the DSM varies based on the elevation postings of GFI products and requirements thereof. Color balancing was performed to reduce radiometric variability between frames, and seamlines were generated using both automated and manual methods. Project specified tiles of the red, green, and blue bands were extracted from the mosaic to produce a natural color digital orthophoto image map. Final image tiles were reviewed for artifacts and anomalies and adjusted as part of quality control procedures. When necessary, local corrections to the imagery were performed to minimize such effects.

Process Date/Time: 2009-01-05 00:00:00

Catalog Details

Catalog Item ID: 49481
GUID: gov.noaa.nmfs.inport:49481
Metadata Record Created By: Anne Ball
Metadata Record Created: 2017-11-15 15:15+0000
Metadata Record Last Modified By: Kirk Waters
Metadata Record Last Modified: 2024-01-11 11:52+0000
Metadata Record Published: 2024-01-11
Owner Org: OCMP
Metadata Publication Status: Published Externally
Do Not Publish?: N
Metadata Last Review Date: 2018-03-13
Metadata Review Frequency: 1 Year
Metadata Next Review Date: 2019-03-13