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Short Citation:
OCM Partners, 2023: NAIP Digital Ortho Photo Image,

Item Identification

Title: NAIP Digital Ortho Photo Image
Short Name: 2012_tijuana_nerr
Status: Completed
Publication Date: 2012-11-29

This data set contains imagery from the National Agriculture

Imagery Program (NAIP). The NAIP program is administered by

USDA FSA and has been established to support two main FSA

strategic goals centered on agricultural production.

These are, increase stewardship of America's natural resources

while enhancing the environment, and to ensure commodities

are procured and distributed effectively and efficiently to

increase food security. The NAIP program supports these goals by

acquiring and providing ortho imagery that has been collected

during the agricultural growing season in the U.S. The NAIP

ortho imagery is tailored to meet FSA requirements and is a

fundamental tool used to support FSA farm and conservation

programs. Ortho imagery provides an effective, intuitive

means of communication about farm program administration

between FSA and stakeholders.

New technology and innovation is identified by fostering and

maintaining a relationship with vendors and government

partners, and by keeping pace with the broader geospatial

community. As a result of these efforts the NAIP program

provides three main products: DOQQ tiles,

Compressed County Mosaics (CCM), and Seamline shape files

The Contract specifications for NAIP imagery have changed

over time reflecting agency requirements and improving

technologies. These changes include image resolution,

horizontal accuracy, coverage area, and number of bands.

In general, flying seasons are established by FSA and are

targeted for peak crop growing conditions. The NAIP

acquisition cycle is based on a minimum 3 year refresh of base

ortho imagery. The tiling format of the NAIP imagery is based

on a 3.75' x 3.75' quarter quadrangle with a 300 pixel buffer

on all four sides. NAIP quarter quads are formatted to the UTM

coordinate system using the North American Datum of 1983.

NAIP imagery may contain as much as 10% cloud cover per tile.

Original contact information:

Contact Org: Aerial Photography Field Office (APFO)

Phone: 801-844-2922



NAIP imagery is available for distribution within 60 days

of the end of a flying season and is intended to provide current

information of agricultural conditions in support of USDA farm

programs. For USDA Farm Service Agency, the 1 meter and 1/2 meter

GSD product provides an ortho image base for Common Land Unit

boundaries and other data sets. The 1 meter and 1/2 meter NAIP

imagery is generally acquired in projects covering full states in

cooperation with state government and other federal agencies that

use the imagery for a variety of purposes including land use

planning and natural resource assessment. The NAIP is also used

for disaster response. While suitable for a variety of uses,

prior to 2007 the 2 meter GSD NAIP imagery was primarily intended

to assess "crop condition and compliance" to USDA farm program

conditions. The 2 meter imagery was generally acquired only

for agricultural areas within state projects.




Theme Keywords

Thesaurus Keyword
ISO 19115 Topic Category
NOS Data Explorer Topic Category Remotely Sensed Imagery/Photography
None Aerial Compliance
None Compliance
None Digital Ortho rectified Image
None farming
None Ortho Rectification
None Quarter Quadrangle

Spatial Keywords

Thesaurus Keyword
Geographic Names Information System 06073
Geographic Names Information System 3211732
Geographic Names Information System CA
Geographic Names Information System CA073
Geographic Names Information System IMPERIAL BEACH
Geographic Names Information System IMPERIAL BEACH, NW
Geographic Names Information System San Diego
Geographic Names Information System SAN DIEGO CO CA FSA

Physical Location

Organization: Office for Coastal Management
City: Charleston
State/Province: SC

Data Set Information

Data Set Scope Code: Data Set
Maintenance Frequency: Irregular
Data Presentation Form: Image (digital)
Entity Attribute Overview:

32-bit pixels, 4 band color(RGBIR) values 0 - 255

Entity Attribute Detail Citation:


Distribution Liability:

In no event shall the creators, custodians, or distributors

of this information be liable for any damages arising out

of its use (or the inability to use it).

Support Roles

Data Steward

CC ID: 665798
Date Effective From: 2012-11-29
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): NOAA Office for Coastal Management (NOAA/OCM)
Address: 2234 South Hobson Ave
Charleston, SC 29405-2413
Email Address:
Phone: (843) 740-1202


CC ID: 665800
Date Effective From: 2012-11-29
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): NOAA Office for Coastal Management (NOAA/OCM)
Address: 2234 South Hobson Ave
Charleston, SC 29405-2413
Email Address:
Phone: (843) 740-1202

Metadata Contact

CC ID: 665801
Date Effective From: 2012-11-29
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): NOAA Office for Coastal Management (NOAA/OCM)
Address: 2234 South Hobson Ave
Charleston, SC 29405-2413
Email Address:
Phone: (843) 740-1202

Point of Contact

CC ID: 665799
Date Effective From: 2012-11-29
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): NOAA Office for Coastal Management (NOAA/OCM)
Address: 2234 South Hobson Ave
Charleston, SC 29405-2413
Email Address:
Phone: (843) 740-1202


Currentness Reference: Ground Condition

Extent Group 1

Extent Group 1 / Geographic Area 1

CC ID: 665804
W° Bound: -117.2
E° Bound: -116.802
N° Bound: 32.634
S° Bound: 32.492

Extent Group 1 / Time Frame 1

CC ID: 665803
Time Frame Type: Discrete
Start: 2012-05-19

Spatial Information

Spatial Representation

Representations Used

Grid: Yes

Grid Representation 1

CC ID: 665790
Dimension Count: 2
Cell Geometry: Point
Transformation Parameters Available?: No

Axis Dimension 1

Dimension Type: Row
Size: 1

Axis Dimension 2

Dimension Type: Column
Size: 1

Access Information

Security Class: Unclassified
Data Access Constraints:

There are no limitations for access.

Data Use Constraints:

None. The USDA-FSA Aerial Photography Field office

asks to be credited in derived products.

Distribution Information

Distribution 1

CC ID: 665805
Download URL:

Downloadable Data

File Type: GeoTIFF

Distribution 2

CC ID: 739930
Download URL:
File Name: Customized Download

Create custom data files by choosing area, map projection, file format, etc.

Distribution 3

CC ID: 739931
Download URL:
File Name: Bulk Download

Simple download of data files.



CC ID: 739933
URL Type:
Online Resource

Activity Log

Activity Log 1

CC ID: 665824
Activity Date/Time: 2016-06-07

Date that the source FGDC record was last modified.

Activity Log 2

CC ID: 665823
Activity Date/Time: 2017-11-14

Converted from Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (version FGDC-STD-001-1998) using '' script. Contact Tyler Christensen (NOS) for details.

Activity Log 3

CC ID: 718055
Activity Date/Time: 2018-02-08

Partial upload of Positional Accuracy fields only.

Activity Log 4

CC ID: 739932
Activity Date/Time: 2018-03-13

Partial upload to move data access links to Distribution Info.

Technical Environment



Data Quality

Horizontal Positional Accuracy:

NAIP horizontal accuracy specifications have evolved over

the life of the program. From 2003 to 2004 the

specifications were as follows: 1-meter GSD imagery was

to match within 3-meters, and 2-meter GSD to match within 10

meters of reference imagery. For 2005 the 1-meter GSD

specification was changed to 5 meters matching the reference

imagery. In 2006 a pilot project was performed using true

ground specifications rather than reference imagery. All

states used the same specifications as 2005 except Utah,

which required a match of +/- 6 meters to true ground.

In 2007 all specifications were the same as 2006 except

Arizona used true ground specifications and all other states

used reference imagery. In 2008 and subsequent years

no 2-meter GSD imagery was acquired and all specifications

were the same as 2007 except approximately half of the

states acquired used true ground specifications and the

other half used reference imagery. The 2008 states that

used absolute ground control where; Indiana, Minnesota,

New Hampshire, North Carolina, Texas, Vermont, and Virginia.

From 2009 to present all NAIP imagery acquisitions used

the +/- 6 meters to ground specification.

Completeness Report:


Conceptual Consistency:

NAIP 3.75 minute tile file names are based

on the USGS quadrangle naming convention.




CC ID: 665787
Contact Name: USDA-FSA-APFO Aerial Photography Field Office
Publish Date: 2012-11-29
Extent Type: Discrete
Extent Start Date/Time: 2012-05-19
Source Contribution:

Digital Georectifed Image. | Source Geospatial Form: remote-sensing image | Type of Source Media: UnKnown

Process Steps

Process Step 1

CC ID: 665788

DOQQ Production Process Description


State: California

Digital imagery was collected at a nominal GSD of 1.0m

using seven Cessna 441 aircrafts flying at an average

flight height of 9052m AGL. All aircraft flew with

Leica Geosystem's ADS80/SH82 digital sensors with

firmware 3.20 or newer. Each sensor collected 11

image bands. PanF27A,PanF02A and PanB14A panchromatic

bands with a spectral range of 465-676nm. RedN00a and

RedB16a with a spectral range of 604-664nm. GrnN00a

and GrnB16a with a spectral range of 533-587nm.

BluN00a and BluB16a with a spectral range of 420-492nm

and Near-infrared bands NirN00a and NirB16a with a

spectral range of 833-920nm. The CCD arrays have a

pixel size of 6.5 microns in a 12000x1 format. Both

the CCD's and the A/D convertors have a dynamic

range of 12bits. The data is stored in 16bit format.

The ADS is a push-broom sensor and the ground

footprint of the imagery at NAIP scale is 12km wide

by the length flightline. The maximum flightline

length is limited to approximately 240km.

The factory calibrations and IMU alignments for each

sensor (Serial Numbers: 1321, 30011, 30012, 30014,

30017, 30022, 30034, and 30103) were tested and

verified by in-situ test flights before the start

of the project. The Leica ADS Flight Planning and

Evaluation Software (FPES) is used to develop the

flight acquisition plans.

Flight acquisition sub blocks are designed first to

define the GNSS base station logistics, and to break

the project up into manageable acquisition units. The

flight acquisition sub blocks are designed based on

the specified acquisition season, native UTM zone of

the DOQQs, flight line length limitations (to ensure

sufficient performance of the IMU solution) as well

as air traffic restrictions in the area. Once the sub

blocks have been delineated they are brought into FPES

for flight line design. The design parameters used in

FPES will be 30% lateral overlap and 1.0m resolution.

The flight lines have been designed with a north/south

orientation. The design takes into account the

latitude of the state, which affects line spacing due

to convergence as well as the terrain. SRTM elevation

data is used in the FPES design to ensure the 1m GSD

is achieved over all types of terrain.

The raw data was downloaded from the sensors after

each flight using Leica XPro software. The imagery was

then georeferenced using the 200Hz GPS/INS data

creating an exterior orientation for each scan line

(x/y/z/o/p/k). Technicians precisely measured tie

points in 3 bands/looks (Back/Nadir/Forward) for each

line using Leica Xpro software. The resulting point

data and exterior orientation data were used to

perform a full bundle adjustment with ORIMA software.

Blunders were removed, and additional tie points

measured in weak areas to ensure a robust solution.

Once the point data was clean and point coverage was

acceptable, photo-identifiable GPS-surveyed ground

control points were introduced into the block

adjustment. The bundle adjustment process produces

revised exterior orientation data for the sensor with

GPS/INS, datum, and sensor calibration errors modeled

and removed. Using the revised exterior orientation

from the bundle adjustment, orthorectified image

strips were created with Xpro software and the April

2012 USGS 10m NED DEM. The Xpro orthorectification

software applies an atmospheric-BRDF radiometric

correction to the imagery. This correction compensates

for atmospheric absorption, solar illumination angle

and bi-directional reflectance. The orthorectified

strips were then overlaid with each other and the

ground control to check accuracy. Once the accuracy of

the orthorectified image strips were validated the

strips were then imported into Inpho's OrthoVista 4.6

package which was used for the final radiometric

balance, mosaic, and DOQQ sheet creation of the final

DOQQ sheets, with a 300m buffer and a ground pixel

resolution of 1m.

Process Date/Time: 2012-11-29 00:00:00

Catalog Details

Catalog Item ID: 49499
GUID: gov.noaa.nmfs.inport:49499
Metadata Record Created By: Anne Ball
Metadata Record Created: 2017-11-15 15:15+0000
Metadata Record Last Modified By: SysAdmin InPortAdmin
Metadata Record Last Modified: 2023-05-30 18:09+0000
Metadata Record Published: 2018-03-13
Owner Org: OCMP
Metadata Publication Status: Published Externally
Do Not Publish?: N
Metadata Last Review Date: 2018-03-13
Metadata Review Frequency: 1 Year
Metadata Next Review Date: 2019-03-13