Slide Menu
Search Help Show/Hide Menu
Short Citation:
OCM Partners, 2023: 2015 Lake Superior NERR NAIP Digital Ortho Photo Imagery,

Item Identification

Title: 2015 Lake Superior NERR NAIP Digital Ortho Photo Imagery
Short Name: 2015_superior_nerr
Status: Completed
Publication Date: 2016-01-11

This data set contains imagery from the National Agriculture

Imagery Program (NAIP). The NAIP program is administered by

USDA FSA and has been established to support two main FSA

strategic goals centered on agricultural production.

These are, increase stewardship of America's natural resources

while enhancing the environment, and to ensure commodities

are procured and distributed effectively and efficiently to

increase food security. The NAIP program supports these goals by

acquiring and providing ortho imagery that has been collected

during the agricultural growing season in the U.S. The NAIP

ortho imagery is tailored to meet FSA requirements and is a

fundamental tool used to support FSA farm and conservation

programs. Ortho imagery provides an effective, intuitive

means of communication about farm program administration

between FSA and stakeholders.

New technology and innovation is identified by fostering and

maintaining a relationship with vendors and government

partners, and by keeping pace with the broader geospatial

community. As a result of these efforts the NAIP program

provides three main products: DOQQ tiles,

Compressed County Mosaics (CCM), and Seamline shape files

The Contract specifications for NAIP imagery have changed

over time reflecting agency requirements and improving

technologies. These changes include image resolution,

horizontal accuracy, coverage area, and number of bands.

In general, flying seasons are established by FSA and are

targeted for peak crop growing conditions. The NAIP

acquisition cycle is based on a minimum 3 year refresh of base

ortho imagery. The tiling format of the NAIP imagery is based

on a 3.75' x 3.75' quarter quadrangle with a 300 pixel buffer

on all four sides. NAIP quarter quads are formatted to the UTM

coordinate system using the North American Datum of 1983.

NAIP imagery may contain as much as 10% cloud cover per tile.

Original contact information:

Contact Org: Aerial Photography Field Office (APFO)

Phone: 801-844-2922



NAIP imagery is available for distribution within 60 days

of the end of a flying season and is intended to provide current

information of agricultural conditions in support of USDA farm

programs. For USDA Farm Service Agency, the 1 meter and 1/2 meter

GSD product provides an ortho image base for Common Land Unit

boundaries and other data sets. The 1 meter and 1/2 meter NAIP

imagery is generally acquired in projects covering full states in

cooperation with state government and other federal agencies that

use the imagery for a variety of purposes including land use

planning and natural resource assessment. The NAIP is also used

for disaster response. While suitable for a variety of uses,

prior to 2007 the 2 meter GSD NAIP imagery was primarily intended

to assess "crop condition and compliance" to USDA farm program

conditions. The 2 meter imagery was generally acquired only

for agricultural areas within state projects.




Theme Keywords

Thesaurus Keyword
ISO 19115 Topic Category
None Aerial Compliance
None Compliance
None Digital Ortho rectified Image
None farming
None Ortho Rectification
None Quarter Quadrangle

Spatial Keywords

Thesaurus Keyword
Geographic Names Information System 27137
Geographic Names Information System 4609109
Geographic Names Information System LAKEWOOD
Geographic Names Information System LAKEWOOD, NW
Geographic Names Information System MN
Geographic Names Information System MN137
Geographic Names Information System ST LOUIS CO MN FSA
Geographic Names Information System St. Louis

Physical Location

Organization: Office for Coastal Management
City: Charleston
State/Province: SC

Data Set Information

Data Set Scope Code: Data Set
Maintenance Frequency: Irregular
Data Presentation Form: Image (digital)
Entity Attribute Overview:

32-bit pixels, 4 band color(RGBIR) values 0 - 255

Entity Attribute Detail Citation:


Distribution Liability:

Users must assume responsibility to determine the appropriate use of these data. DATA SHOULD NOT BE USED FOR LEGALLY BINDING APPLICATIONS.

Support Roles

Data Steward

CC ID: 666802
Date Effective From: 2016-01-11
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): NOAA Office for Coastal Management (NOAA/OCM)
Address: 2234 South Hobson Ave
Charleston, SC 29405-2413
Email Address:
Phone: (843) 740-1202


CC ID: 666804
Date Effective From: 2016-01-11
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): NOAA Office for Coastal Management (NOAA/OCM)
Address: 2234 South Hobson Ave
Charleston, SC 29405-2413
Email Address:
Phone: (843) 740-1202

Metadata Contact

CC ID: 666805
Date Effective From: 2016-01-11
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): NOAA Office for Coastal Management (NOAA/OCM)
Address: 2234 South Hobson Ave
Charleston, SC 29405-2413
Email Address:
Phone: (843) 740-1202

Point of Contact

CC ID: 666803
Date Effective From: 2016-01-11
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): NOAA Office for Coastal Management (NOAA/OCM)
Address: 2234 South Hobson Ave
Charleston, SC 29405-2413
Email Address:
Phone: (843) 740-1202


Currentness Reference: Ground Condition

Extent Group 1

Extent Group 1 / Geographic Area 1

CC ID: 666808
W° Bound: -92.911
E° Bound: -91.787
N° Bound: 46.951
S° Bound: 45.208

Extent Group 1 / Time Frame 1

CC ID: 666807
Time Frame Type: Discrete
Start: 2015-09-22

Spatial Information

Spatial Representation

Representations Used

Grid: Yes

Grid Representation 1

CC ID: 666794
Dimension Count: 2
Cell Geometry: Point
Transformation Parameters Available?: No

Axis Dimension 1

Dimension Type: Row
Size: 1

Axis Dimension 2

Dimension Type: Column
Size: 1

Access Information

Security Class: Unclassified
Data Access Constraints:

There are no limitations for access.

Data Use Constraints:

None. The USDA-FSA Aerial Photography Field office

asks to be credited in derived products.

Distribution Information

Distribution 1

CC ID: 666809
Download URL:

Downloadable Data

File Type (Deprecated): Erdas Imagine (.img) and TIFF / BigTIFF / GeoTIFF (.tif)
Distribution Format: IMG - ERDAS Imagine

Distribution 2

CC ID: 740031
Download URL:
File Name: Customized Download

Create custom data files by choosing area, map projection, file format, etc.

Distribution 3

CC ID: 740032
Download URL:
File Name: Bulk Download

Simple download of data files.



CC ID: 740034
URL Type:
Online Resource

Activity Log

Activity Log 1

CC ID: 666827
Activity Date/Time: 2016-12-09

Date that the source FGDC record was last modified.

Activity Log 2

CC ID: 666826
Activity Date/Time: 2017-11-14

Converted from Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (version FGDC-STD-001-1998) using '' script. Contact Tyler Christensen (NOS) for details.

Activity Log 3

CC ID: 718085
Activity Date/Time: 2018-02-08

Partial upload of Positional Accuracy fields only.

Activity Log 4

CC ID: 740033
Activity Date/Time: 2018-03-13

Partial upload to move data access links to Distribution Info.

Technical Environment



Data Quality

Horizontal Positional Accuracy:

NAIP horizontal accuracy specifications have evolved over

the life of the program. From 2003 to 2004 the

specifications were as follows: 1-meter GSD imagery was

to match within 3-meters, and 2-meter GSD to match within 10

meters of reference imagery. For 2005 the 1-meter GSD

specification was changed to 5 meters matching the reference

imagery. In 2006 a pilot project was performed using true

ground specifications rather than reference imagery. All

states used the same specifications as 2005 except Utah,

which required a match of +/- 6 meters to true ground.

In 2007 all specifications were the same as 2006 except

Arizona used true ground specifications and all other states

used reference imagery. In 2008 and subsequent years

no 2-meter GSD imagery was acquired and all specifications

were the same as 2007 except approximately half of the

states acquired used true ground specifications and the

other half used reference imagery. The 2008 states that

used absolute ground control where; Indiana, Minnesota,

New Hampshire, North Carolina, Texas, Vermont, and Virginia.

From 2009 to present all NAIP imagery acquisitions used

the +/- 6 meters to ground specification.

Completeness Report:


Conceptual Consistency:

NAIP 3.75 minute tile file names are based

on the USGS quadrangle naming convention.




CC ID: 666791
Contact Name: USDA-FSA-APFO Aerial Photography Field Office
Publish Date: 2016-01-11
Extent Type: Discrete
Extent Start Date/Time: 2015-09-22
Source Contribution:

Digital Georectified Image. | Source Geospatial Form: remote-sensing image | Type of Source Media: UnKnown

Process Steps

Process Step 1

CC ID: 666792

DOQQ Production Process Description


State: Minnesota

Digital imagery was collected at a nominal GSD of 40cm

using eight Cessna 441 aircraft and two Beechcraft

King Air flying at an average flight height of 5000m

AGL. All aircraft flew with Leica Geosystem's

ADS100/SH100 digital sensors with firmware 4.42. Each

sensor collected 12 image bands Red,Green,Blue and

Near-infrared at each of three look angles; Backward

19 degrees, Forward 26 degrees and Nadir. The Nadir

Green band was collected in high resolution mode

effectively doubling the resolution for that band.

The ADS100 spectral ranges are; Red 619-651nm,Green

525-585nm,Blue 435-495nm and Near-infrared at 808-882nm.

The CCD arrays have a pixel size of 5.0 microns in

a 20000x1 format at nadir; a 18000x1 format at the

backward look angle and a 16000x1 format at the

forward look angle. The CCD's have a dynamic range of

72db and the A/D converters have a resolution of 14bits.

The ADS is a push-broom sensor and the ground footprint

of the imagery at a nominal GSD of 40cm is

approximately 8km wide by the length flightline.

The maximum flightline length is limited to approximately

240km. The factory calibrations and IMU alignments for

each sensor (Serial Numbers: 10511,10512,10514,10519,

10527,10528,10531,10534,10540,10554) were tested and

verified by in-situ test flights before the start of

the project. The Leica MissionPro Flight Planning

Software is used to develop the flight acquisition plans.

Flight acquisition sub blocks are designed first to

define the GNSS base station logistics, and to break

the project up into manageable acquisition units. The

flight acquisition sub blocks are designed based on

the specified acquisition season, native UTM zone of

the DOQQs, flight line length limitations (to ensure

sufficient performance of the IMU solution) as well

as air traffic restrictions in the area. Once the sub

blocks have been delineated they are brought into

MissionPro for flight line design. The design

parameters used in MissionPro will be 27 to 35% lateral

overlap and 40cm resolution. The flight lines

have been designed with a north/south orientation.

The design takes into account the latitude of the

state, which affects line spacing due to convergence

as well as the terrain. SRTM elevation data is

used in the MissionPro design to ensure the 50cm

GSD is achieved over all types of terrain. The raw

data was downloaded from the sensors after each

flight using Leica XPro software. The imagery was

then georeferenced using the 200Hz GPS/INS data

creating an exterior orientation for each scan line

(x/y/z/o/p/k). Leica Xpro APM software was used to

automatically generate tiepoint measurements between

the forward 26 degree, nadir and backward 19 degree look

angles for each line and to tie all flight lines together.

The resulting point data and exterior orientation data

were used to perform a full bundle adjustment using ORIMA

software. Blunders were removed, and additional tie points

measured in weak areas to ensure a robust solution.

Once the point data was clean and point coverage was

acceptable, photo-identifiable GPS-surveyed ground

control points were introduced into the block

adjustment. The bundle adjustment process produces

revised exterior orientation data for the sensor with

GPS/INS, datum, and sensor calibration errors modeled

and removed. Using the revised exterior orientation

from the bundle adjustment, orthorectified image

strips were created with Xpro software and the June

2015 USGS 10m NED DEM. The Xpro orthorectification

software applies an atmospheric-BRDF radiometric

correction to the imagery. This correction compensates

for atmospheric absorption, solar illumination angle

and bi-directional reflectance. The orthorectified

strips were then overlaid with each other and the

ground control to check accuracy. Once the accuracy of

the orthorectified image strips were validated the

strips were then imported into Inpho's OrthoVista 6.0.1


Process Date/Time: 2016-01-11 00:00:00

Catalog Details

Catalog Item ID: 49524
GUID: gov.noaa.nmfs.inport:49524
Metadata Record Created By: Anne Ball
Metadata Record Created: 2017-11-15 15:15+0000
Metadata Record Last Modified By: SysAdmin InPortAdmin
Metadata Record Last Modified: 2023-10-17 16:12+0000
Metadata Record Published: 2018-03-13
Owner Org: OCMP
Metadata Publication Status: Published Externally
Do Not Publish?: N
Metadata Last Review Date: 2018-03-13
Metadata Review Frequency: 1 Year
Metadata Next Review Date: 2019-03-13