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Short Citation:
OCM Partners, 2023: 1999 USACE Bathymetric LiDAR: Hawaiian Islands,

Item Identification

Title: 1999 USACE Bathymetric LiDAR: Hawaiian Islands
Short Name: hi1999_usace_hawaii_m1457_metadata
Status: Completed
Publication Date: 2013-03

These data were collected by the SHOALS (Scanning Hydrographic Operational Airborne Lidar Survey) system which consists of an airborne laser transmitter/receiver

capable of measuring 400 soundings per second. The system operates from a deHavilland DHC-6 Twin Otter flying at altitudes between 200 and 400 meters with a

ground speed of about 100 knots. The SHOALS system also includes a ground-based data processing system for calculating accurate horizontal position and water depth.

Lidar is an acronym for LIght Detection And Ranging. The system operates by emitting a pulse of light that travels from an airborne platform to the water surface where a small

portion of the laser energy is backscattered to the airborne receiver. The remaining energy at the water's surface propagates through the water column and reflects off the

sea bottom and back to the airborne detector. The time difference between the surface return and the bottom return corresponds to water depth. The maximum depth

the system is able to sense is related to the complex interaction of radiance of bottom material, incident sun angle and intensity, and the type and quantity of organics

or sediments in the water column. As a rule-of-thumb, the SHOALS system should be capable of sensing bottom to depths equal to two or three times the Secchi depth.

Original contact information:

Contact Org: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers JALBTCX

Phone: 251-690-3467


The purpose of the survey was to investigate the near-shore bathymetry and coral reefs near the west shore of Oahu, the south shore of Moloka'i and all the shores of Maui.



Supplemental Information:

A footprint of this data set may be viewed in Google Earth at:


Theme Keywords

Thesaurus Keyword
ISO 19115 Topic Category
None Hydrographic Survey

Physical Location

Organization: Office for Coastal Management
City: Charleston
State/Province: SC

Data Set Information

Data Set Scope Code: Data Set
Maintenance Frequency: As Needed
Data Presentation Form: las
Entity Attribute Overview:

LiDAR points in LAS 1.2 format

Entity Attribute Detail Citation:


Distribution Liability:

Any conclusions drawn from the analysis of this information are not the responsibility

of JALBTCX, NOAA, the Office for Coastal Management or its partners.

Data Set Credit: U.S. Army Engineer Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise (JALBTCX)

Support Roles

Data Steward

CC ID: 674918
Date Effective From: 2013-03
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): NOAA Office for Coastal Management (NOAA/OCM)
Address: 2234 South Hobson Ave
Charleston, SC 29405-2413
Email Address:
Phone: (843) 740-1202


CC ID: 674920
Date Effective From: 2013-03
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): NOAA Office for Coastal Management (NOAA/OCM)
Address: 2234 South Hobson Ave
Charleston, SC 29405-2413
Email Address:
Phone: (843) 740-1202

Metadata Contact

CC ID: 674921
Date Effective From: 2013-03
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): NOAA Office for Coastal Management (NOAA/OCM)
Address: 2234 South Hobson Ave
Charleston, SC 29405-2413
Email Address:
Phone: (843) 740-1202

Point of Contact

CC ID: 674919
Date Effective From: 2013-03
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): NOAA Office for Coastal Management (NOAA/OCM)
Address: 2234 South Hobson Ave
Charleston, SC 29405-2413
Email Address:
Phone: (843) 740-1202


Currentness Reference: Ground Condition

Extent Group 1

Extent Group 1 / Geographic Area 1

CC ID: 1133515
W° Bound: -159.80245
E° Bound: -155.969318
N° Bound: 22.255076
S° Bound: 20.567028

Extent Group 1 / Time Frame 1

CC ID: 1133514
Time Frame Type: Range
Start: 1999-03
End: 1999-04

Spatial Information

Spatial Representation

Representations Used

Vector: Yes

Access Information

Security Class: Unclassified
Data Access Procedure:

This data can be obtained on-line at the following URL:


Data Access Constraints:


Data Use Constraints:

Users should be aware that temporal changes may have occurred since this data set was collected and some parts of this data may no longer represent actual surface conditions. Users should not use

this data for critical applications without a full awareness of its limitations. These data depict the heights at the time of the survey and are only accurate for that time.

Distribution Information

Distribution 1

CC ID: 741062
Download URL:
File Name: Customized Download

Create custom data files by choosing data area, product type, map projection, file format, datum, etc.

Distribution 2

CC ID: 741063
Download URL:
File Name: Bulk Download

Simple download of data files.



CC ID: 741065
URL Type:
Online Resource


CC ID: 741066
URL Type:
Online Resource


CC ID: 741067
Name: Browse Graphic
URL Type:
Browse Graphic
File Resource Format: kmz

This graphic shows the lidar coverage for coastal regions of Oahu, Moloka'i and Maui, Hawaii.

Activity Log

Activity Log 1

CC ID: 674937
Activity Date/Time: 2016-05-23

Date that the source FGDC record was last modified.

Activity Log 2

CC ID: 674936
Activity Date/Time: 2017-11-14

Converted from FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata (version FGDC-STD-001-1998) using '' script. Contact Tyler Christensen (NOS) for details.

Activity Log 3

CC ID: 718299
Activity Date/Time: 2018-02-08

Partial upload of Positional Accuracy fields only.

Activity Log 4

CC ID: 741064
Activity Date/Time: 2018-03-13

Partial upload to move data access links to Distribution Info.

Data Quality


SHOALS has demonstrated capabilities that meet US Army Corps of Engineers Hydrographic Survey accuracy requirements for Class 1 surveys and the International

Hydrographic Organization nautical charting standards for Order 1.

Horizontal Positional Accuracy:

+/- 3 meters (1 sigma); Quantitative Value: 3.0 meters, Test that produced the value: Not tested, compiled to meet value (meters) at 1 sigma (1 standard deviation).

Vertical Positional Accuracy:

+/- 15 cm (1 sigma); Quantitative Value: 0.15 meters, Test that produced the value: Collected to meet value (meters) at 1 sigma (1 standard deviation)

Completeness Report:


Conceptual Consistency:



Process Steps

Process Step 1

CC ID: 1133511

The SHOALS airborne system acquires a tremendous volume of raw data during a single mission. The lidar data are unique and require a specialized Data Processing

System (DPS) for post-processing. The DPS main functions 1) import airborne data stored on high density data tape; 2) perform quality control checks on initial depths and

horizontal positions; 3) provide display and edit capabilities; 4) calculate depth and position (XYZ) values for each sounding; and 5) output final positions and depths for each

sounding. DPS possesses a fully automated capability to post-process the data to obtain corrected depth and horizontal positions within the specified system accuracies. This is

accomplished by accurately identifying the surface and bottom returns from the airborne data. Depths are determined by computing the time difference between the arrival of the

surface and bottom returns. Corrections are computed and applied for depth biases associated with light propagation, water level fluctuations, and various inherent system characteristics.

Surface waves are modeled and removed so that depths can be referenced to a common mean water surface. Applying tidal corrections then produces a depth reference to a known water level

datum. A manual processing capability also allows evaluation of anomalous data by providing display and edit functions of sounding data and system parameters. Video

imagery of the survey area permits visual scrutiny of the area to aid the hydrographer in deciding whether to exclude suspect data from further processing. Output from

the DPS is a digital data set of XYZ (positions/depths) for each laser sounding that is compatible with most most GIS and other contouring and mapping systems.

Process Date/Time: 1999-12-01 00:00:00

Process Step 2

CC ID: 1133512

The NOAA Office for Coastal Management (OCM) received topographic files in ASCII format. The files contained

bathymetric depth measurements. Some sections of the data were received in NAD27 Hawaii State Plane (various zones), other sections

were received in NAD27 UTM Zones 4 and 5. The data were vertically referenced to MLLW (feet or meters). OCM performed the following processing for

data storage and Digital Coast provisioning purposes:

1. The topographic las files were converted from Projected coordinates (State Plane or UTM) to Geographic coordinates.

2. If the vertical units were feet they were converted to meters.

3. The data were converted from ASCII to LAS V1.2

4. All points were classified to Class 11 (Bathymetry).

Process Date/Time: 2012-01-01 00:00:00

Catalog Details

Catalog Item ID: 49739
GUID: gov.noaa.nmfs.inport:49739
Metadata Record Created By: Anne Ball
Metadata Record Created: 2017-11-15 15:21+0000
Metadata Record Last Modified By: SysAdmin InPortAdmin
Metadata Record Last Modified: 2022-08-09 17:11+0000
Metadata Record Published: 2022-03-16
Owner Org: OCMP
Metadata Publication Status: Published Externally
Do Not Publish?: N
Metadata Last Review Date: 2022-03-16
Metadata Review Frequency: 1 Year
Metadata Next Review Date: 2023-03-16