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Short Citation:
OCM Partners, 2024: 2017 Alabama NAIP 4-Band 8 Bit Imagery,

Item Identification

Title: 2017 Alabama NAIP 4-Band 8 Bit Imagery
Status: Completed
Publication Date: 2020-07-20

This data set contains imagery from the National Agriculture

Imagery Program (NAIP). The NAIP program is administered by

USDA FSA and has been established to support two main FSA

strategic goals centered on agricultural production.

These are, increase stewardship of America's natural resources

while enhancing the environment, and to ensure commodities

are procured and distributed effectively and efficiently to

increase food security. The NAIP program supports these goals by

acquiring and providing ortho imagery that has been collected

during the agricultural growing season in the U.S. The NAIP

ortho imagery is tailored to meet FSA requirements and is a

fundamental tool used to support FSA farm and conservation

programs. Ortho imagery provides an effective, intuitive

means of communication about farm program administration

between FSA and stakeholders.

New technology and innovation is identified by fostering and

maintaining a relationship with vendors and government

partners, and by keeping pace with the broader geospatial

community. As a result of these efforts the NAIP program

provides three main products: DOQQ tiles,

Compressed County Mosaics (CCM), and Seamline shape files

The Contract specifications for NAIP imagery have changed

over time reflecting agency requirements and improving

technologies. These changes include image resolution,

horizontal accuracy, coverage area, and number of bands.

In general, flying seasons are established by FSA and are

targeted for peak crop growing conditions. The NAIP

acquisition cycle is based on a minimum 3 year refresh of base

ortho imagery. The tiling format of the NAIP imagery is based

on a 3.75' x 3.75' quarter quadrangle with a 300 pixel buffer

on all four sides. NAIP quarter quads are formatted to the UTM

coordinate system using the North American Datum of 1983.

NAIP imagery may contain as much as 10% cloud cover per tile.

Original contact information:

Contact Org: Aerial Photography Field Office (APFO)

Phone: 801-844-2922



NAIP imagery is available for distribution within 60 days

of the end of a flying season and is intended to provide current

information of agricultural conditions in support of USDA farm

programs. For USDA Farm Service Agency, the 1 meter and 1/2 meter

GSD product provides an ortho image base for Common Land Unit

boundaries and other data sets. The 1 meter and 1/2 meter NAIP

imagery is generally acquired in projects covering full states in

cooperation with state government and other federal agencies that

use the imagery for a variety of purposes including land use

planning and natural resource assessment. The NAIP is also used

for disaster response. While suitable for a variety of uses,

prior to 2007 the 2 meter GSD NAIP imagery was primarily intended

to assess "crop condition and compliance" to USDA farm program

conditions. The 2 meter imagery was generally acquired only

for agricultural areas within state projects.


Theme Keywords

Thesaurus Keyword
ISO 19115 Topic Category
None Aerial Compliance
None Compliance
None Digital Ortho rectified Image
None farming
None Ortho Rectification
None Quarter Quadrangle

Temporal Keywords

Thesaurus Keyword
None 2017

Spatial Keywords

Thesaurus Keyword
Geographic Names Information System AL
Geographic Names Information System Alabama

Physical Location

Organization: Office for Coastal Management
City: Charleston
State/Province: SC

Data Set Information

Data Set Scope Code: Data Set
Maintenance Frequency: Irregular
Data Presentation Form: Image (digital)
Entity Attribute Overview:

32-bit pixels, 4 band color(RGBIR) values 0 - 255

Entity Attribute Detail Citation:


Distribution Liability:

Users must assume responsibility to determine the appropriate use of these data. DATA SHOULD NOT BE USED FOR LEGALLY BINDING APPLICATIONS.

Support Roles

Data Steward

CC ID: 762992
Date Effective From: 2020-07-20
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): NOAA Office for Coastal Management (NOAA/OCM)
Address: 2234 South Hobson Ave
Charleston, SC 29405-2413
Email Address:
Phone: (843) 740-1202


CC ID: 762994
Date Effective From: 2020-07-20
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): NOAA Office for Coastal Management (NOAA/OCM)
Address: 2234 South Hobson Ave
Charleston, SC 29405-2413
Email Address:
Phone: (843) 740-1202

Metadata Contact

CC ID: 762995
Date Effective From: 2020-07-20
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): NOAA Office for Coastal Management (NOAA/OCM)
Address: 2234 South Hobson Ave
Charleston, SC 29405-2413
Email Address:
Phone: (843) 740-1202

Point of Contact

CC ID: 762993
Date Effective From: 2020-07-20
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): NOAA Office for Coastal Management (NOAA/OCM)
Address: 2234 South Hobson Ave
Charleston, SC 29405-2413
Email Address:
Phone: (843) 740-1202


Currentness Reference: Ground Condition

Extent Group 1

Extent Group 1 / Geographic Area 1

CC ID: 1311982
W° Bound: -88.55333333333
E° Bound: -84.72222222222
N° Bound: 35.16583333333
S° Bound: 30.128

Extent Group 1 / Time Frame 1

CC ID: 1311981
Time Frame Type: Range
Start: 2017-08-21
End: 2017-10-25

Spatial Information

Spatial Representation

Representations Used

Grid: Yes

Grid Representation 1

CC ID: 763003
Dimension Count: 2
Cell Geometry: Point
Transformation Parameters Available?: No

Axis Dimension 1

Dimension Type: Column
Size: 1

Axis Dimension 2

Dimension Type: Row
Size: 1

Reference Systems

Reference System 1

CC ID: 1311979

Coordinate Reference System

CRS Type: Projected
EPSG Code: EPSG:6345
EPSG Name: NAD83(2011) / UTM zone 16N
See Full Coordinate Reference System Information

Access Information

Security Class: Unclassified
Data Access Policy:

Data is available for online custom download.

Data Access Constraints:

There are no limitations for access.

Data Use Constraints:

None. The USDA-FSA Aerial Photography Field office

asks to be credited in derived products.

Distribution Information

Distribution 1

CC ID: 762996
Download URL:
Distributor: NOAA Office for Coastal Management (NOAA/OCM) (2020-07-20 - Present)

Distribution 2

CC ID: 762997
Download URL:
Distributor: NOAA Office for Coastal Management (NOAA/OCM) (2020-07-20 - Present)



CC ID: 762998
URL Type:
Online Resource


CC ID: 762999
URL Type:
Online Resource

Technical Environment



Data Quality

Horizontal Positional Accuracy:

NAIP horizontal accuracy specifications have evolved over

the life of the program. From 2003 to 2004 the

specifications were as follows: 1-meter GSD imagery was

to match within 3-meters, and 2-meter GSD to match within 10

meters of reference imagery. For 2005 the 1-meter GSD

specification was changed to 5 meters matching the reference

imagery. In 2006 a pilot project was performed using true

ground specifications rather than reference imagery. All

states used the same specifications as 2005 except Utah,

which required a match of +/- 6 meters to true ground.

In 2007 all specifications were the same as 2006 except

Arizona used true ground specifications and all other states

used reference imagery. In 2008 and subsequent years

no 2-meter GSD imagery was acquired and all specifications

were the same as 2007 except approximately half of the

states acquired used true ground specifications and the

other half used reference imagery. The 2008 states that

used absolute ground control where; Indiana, Minnesota,

New Hampshire, North Carolina, Texas, Vermont, and Virginia.

From 2009 to present all NAIP imagery acquisitions used

the +/- 6 meters to ground specification.

Completeness Report:


Conceptual Consistency:

NAIP 3.75 minute tile file names are based

on the USGS quadrangle naming convention.


Process Steps

Process Step 1

CC ID: 1311975

The imagery was collected using the following digital sensors:

Leica ADS-100 (Serial Number 10547)

Leica ADS-100 (Serial Number 10564)

with Flight and Sensor Control Management

System (FCMS) firmware 4.54.

Cameras are calibrated radiometrically and geometrically

by the manufacturer and are all certified by the USGS.

Collection was performed using a combination of the

following twin-engine aircraft:

Turbines flying at 16,410 ft above mean terrain

(tail number: AC90 N167R)

(tail number: C441 N87WS)

With these flying heights, there is a 27% sidelap,

giving the collected data nominal ground sampling distance

of 0.40 meters at 16,410.

Based-upon the CCD Array configuration present in

the ADS digital sensor, imagery for each flight

line is 20,000-pixels in width. Red, Green, Blue,

Near-Infrared and Panchromatic image bands were collected.

The ADS 100 has the following band specifications:

Red 619-651

Green 525-585

Blue 435-495

Near Infrared 808-882

all values are in nanometers

Collected data was downloaded to portable hard drives and

shipped to the processing facility daily. Raw flight data

was extracted from external data drives using XPro software.

Airborne GPS / IMU data was post-processed using INYS,

PosPac and/or TerraPos software and reviewed to ensure

sufficient accuracy for project requirements.

Using Inpho software, planar rectified images were

generated from the collected data for use in image quality

review. The planar rectified images were generated at five

meter resolution using a two standard deviation histogram

stretch. Factors considered during this review included but

were not limited to the presence of smoke and/or cloud

cover, contrails, light conditions, sun glint and any sensor

or hardware-related issues that potentially could result in

faulty data. When necessary, image strips identified as not

meeting image quality specifications were re-flown to obtain

suitable imagery.

Aero triangulation blocks were defined primarily by order of

acquisition and consisted of four to seventeen strips.

Image tie points providing the observations for the least

squares bundle adjustment were selected from the images

using an auto correlation algorithm. Photogrammetric control

points consisted of photo identifiable control points,

collected using GPS field survey techniques. The control

points were loaded in to a softcopy workstation and measured

in the acquired image strips. A least squares bundle

adjustment of image pass points, control points and the

ABGPS was performed to develop an aero triangulation

solution for each block using Pictovera software.

Process Date/Time: 2018-02-13 00:00:00

Process Step 2

CC ID: 1311976

Upon final bundle adjustment, the triangulated strips were

ortho-rectified to the digital elevation model (DEM) The most

recent USGS 10 meter DEMs were used in the rectification


Positional accuracy was reviewed in the rectified imagery by

visually verifying the horizontal positioning of the known

photo-identifiable survey locations using ArcGIS software.

The red, green, blue, and infrared bands were combined to

generate a final ortho-rectified image strip. The ADS sensor

collects twelve bit image data which requires radiometric

adjustment for output in standard eight bit image channels.

The ortho-rectified image strips were produced with the

full 12 bit data range, allowing radiometric adjustment

to 8 bit range to be performed on a strip by strip basis

during the final mosaicking steps.

The 12 bit data range was adjusted for display in standard

eight bit image channels by defining a piecewise histogram

stretch using OrthoVista Radiometrix software. A constant

stretch was defined for each image collection period, and

then strip by strip adjustments were made as needed to

account for changes in sun angle and azimuth during the

collection period. Strip adjustments were also made to

match the strips histograms as closely as possible to

APFO specified histogram metrics and color balance

requirements. Automated balancing algorithms were applied

to account for bi- directional reflectance as a final step

before the conversion to 8 bit data range. The imagery was

mosaicked using manual seam line generation in OrthoVista.

Process Date/Time: 2018-02-13 00:00:00

Catalog Details

Catalog Item ID: 53104
GUID: gov.noaa.nmfs.inport:53104
Metadata Record Created By: Erik Hund
Metadata Record Created: 2018-07-23 12:42+0000
Metadata Record Last Modified By: Kirk Waters
Metadata Record Last Modified: 2024-01-11 12:19+0000
Metadata Record Published: 2024-01-11
Owner Org: OCMP
Metadata Publication Status: Published Externally
Do Not Publish?: N
Metadata Last Review Date: 2018-07-23
Metadata Review Frequency: 1 Year
Metadata Next Review Date: 2019-07-23