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Short Citation:
OCM Partners, 2023: 2018 Virginia NAIP Digital Ortho Photo Imagery,

Item Identification

Title: 2018 Virginia NAIP Digital Ortho Photo Imagery
Status: Completed
Publication Date: 2019-12-26

This data set contains imagery from the National Agriculture

Imagery Program (NAIP). The NAIP program is administered by

USDA FSA and has been established to support two main FSA

strategic goals centered on agricultural production.

These are, increase stewardship of America's natural resources

while enhancing the environment, and to ensure commodities

are procured and distributed effectively and efficiently to

increase food security. The NAIP program supports these goals by

acquiring and providing ortho imagery that has been collected

during the agricultural growing season in the U.S. The NAIP

ortho imagery is tailored to meet FSA requirements and is a

fundamental tool used to support FSA farm and conservation

programs. Ortho imagery provides an effective, intuitive

means of communication about farm program administration

between FSA and stakeholders.

New technology and innovation is identified by fostering and

maintaining a relationship with vendors and government

partners, and by keeping pace with the broader geospatial

community. As a result of these efforts the NAIP program

provides three main products: DOQQ tiles,

Compressed County Mosaics (CCM), and Seamline shape files

The Contract specifications for NAIP imagery have changed

over time reflecting agency requirements and improving

technologies. These changes include image resolution,

horizontal accuracy, coverage area, and number of bands.

In general, flying seasons are established by FSA and are

targeted for peak crop growing conditions. The NAIP

acquisition cycle is based on a minimum 3 year refresh of base

ortho imagery. The tiling format of the NAIP imagery is based

on a 3.75' x 3.75' quarter quadrangle with a 300 pixel buffer

on all four sides. NAIP quarter quads are formatted to the UTM

coordinate system using the North American Datum of 1983.

NAIP imagery may contain as much as 10% cloud cover per tile.

Original contact information:

Contact Org: Aerial Photography Field Office (APFO)

Phone: 801-844-2922



NAIP imagery is available for distribution within 60 days

of the end of a flying season and is intended to provide current

information of agricultural conditions in support of USDA farm

programs. For USDA Farm Service Agency, the 1 meter and 1/2 meter

GSD product provides an ortho image base for Common Land Unit

boundaries and other data sets. The 100, 50, and 30 centimeter NAIP

imagery is generally acquired in projects covering full states in

cooperation with state government and other federal agencies that

use the imagery for a variety of purposes including land use

planning and natural resource assessment. The NAIP is also used

for disaster response. While suitable for a variety of uses,

prior to 2007 the 2 meter GSD NAIP imagery was primarily intended

to assess "crop condition and compliance" to USDA farm program

conditions. The 2 meter imagery was generally acquired only

for agricultural areas within state projects.


Theme Keywords

Thesaurus Keyword
ISO 19115 Topic Category
None Aerial Compliance
None Compliance
None Digital Ortho rectified Image
None farming
None Ortho Rectification
None Quarter Quadrangle

Spatial Keywords

Thesaurus Keyword
Geographic Names Information System VA
Geographic Names Information System Virginia

Physical Location

Organization: Office for Coastal Management
City: Charleston
State/Province: SC

Data Set Information

Data Set Scope Code: Data Set
Maintenance Frequency: Irregular
Data Presentation Form: Image (digital)
Entity Attribute Overview:

32-bit pixels, 4 band color(RGBIR) values 0 - 255

Entity Attribute Detail Citation:


Distribution Liability:

Users must assume responsibility to determine the appropriate use of these data. DATA SHOULD NOT BE USED FOR LEGALLY BINDING APPLICATIONS.

Support Roles

Data Steward

CC ID: 890102
Date Effective From: 2019-12-26
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): NOAA Office for Coastal Management (NOAA/OCM)
Address: 2234 South Hobson Ave
Charleston, SC 29405-2413
Email Address:
Phone: (843) 740-1202


CC ID: 890104
Date Effective From: 2019-12-26
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): NOAA Office for Coastal Management (NOAA/OCM)
Address: 2234 South Hobson Ave
Charleston, SC 29405-2413
Email Address:
Phone: (843) 740-1202

Metadata Contact

CC ID: 890105
Date Effective From: 2019-12-26
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): NOAA Office for Coastal Management (NOAA/OCM)
Address: 2234 South Hobson Ave
Charleston, SC 29405-2413
Email Address:
Phone: (843) 740-1202

Point of Contact

CC ID: 890103
Date Effective From: 2019-12-26
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): NOAA Office for Coastal Management (NOAA/OCM)
Address: 2234 South Hobson Ave
Charleston, SC 29405-2413
Email Address:
Phone: (843) 740-1202


Currentness Reference: Ground Condition

Extent Group 1

Extent Group 1 / Geographic Area 1

CC ID: 890124
W° Bound: -83.788
E° Bound: -75.052
N° Bound: 39.636
S° Bound: 36.441

Extent Group 1 / Time Frame 1

CC ID: 890123
Time Frame Type: Range
Start: 2018-08-27
End: 2018-12-19

Spatial Information

Spatial Representation

Representations Used

Grid: Yes

Grid Representation 1

CC ID: 890117
Dimension Count: 2
Cell Geometry: Point
Transformation Parameters Available?: No

Axis Dimension 1

Dimension Type: Row
Size: 1

Axis Dimension 2

Dimension Type: Column
Size: 1

Access Information

Security Class: Unclassified
Data Access Constraints:

There are no limitations for access.

Data Use Constraints:

None. The USDA-FSA Aerial Photography Field office

asks to be credited in derived products.

Distribution Information

Distribution 1

CC ID: 890106
Download URL:

Downloadable Data

File Type: Erdas Imagine (.img) and TIFF / BigTIFF / GeoTIFF (.tif)

Distribution 2

CC ID: 890107
Download URL:
File Name: Customized Download

Create custom data files by choosing area, map projection, file format, etc.

Distribution 3

CC ID: 890108
Download URL:
File Name: Bulk Download

Simple download of data files.



CC ID: 890109
URL Type:
Online Resource

Activity Log

Activity Log 1

CC ID: 890111
Activity Date/Time: 2017-04-14

Date that the source FGDC record was last modified.

Activity Log 2

CC ID: 890110
Activity Date/Time: 2017-11-14

Converted from Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (version FGDC-STD-001-1998) using '' script. Contact Tyler Christensen (NOS) for details.

Activity Log 3

CC ID: 890112
Activity Date/Time: 2018-02-08

Partial upload of Positional Accuracy fields only.

Activity Log 4

CC ID: 890113
Activity Date/Time: 2018-03-13

Partial upload to move data access links to Distribution Info.

Technical Environment



Data Quality

Horizontal Positional Accuracy:

NAIP horizontal accuracy specifications have evolved over

the life of the program. From 2003 to 2004 the

specifications were as follows: 1-meter GSD imagery was

to match within 3-meters, and 2-meter GSD to match within 10

meters of reference imagery. For 2005 the 1-meter GSD

specification was changed to 5 meters matching the reference

imagery. In 2006 a pilot project was performed using true

ground specifications rather than reference imagery. All

states used the same specifications as 2005 except Utah,

which required a match of +/- 6 meters to true ground.

In 2007 all specifications were the same as 2006 except

Arizona used true ground specifications and all other states

used reference imagery. In 2008 and subsequent years

no 2-meter GSD imagery was acquired and all specifications

were the same as 2007 except approximately half of the

states acquired used true ground specifications and the

other half used reference imagery. The 2008 states that

used absolute ground control where; Indiana, Minnesota,

New Hampshire, North Carolina, Texas, Vermont, and Virginia.

From 2009 to present all NAIP imagery acquisitions used

the +/- 6 meters to ground specification.

Completeness Report:


Conceptual Consistency:

NAIP 3.75 minute tile file names are based

on the USGS quadrangle naming convention.


Process Steps

Process Step 1

CC ID: 890121

DOQQ Production Process Description; USDA FSA APFO NAIP Program 2018; State: Virginia.

The imagery was collected using the following digital sensors: Leica ADS-100 (Serial Number

10510), Leica ADS-100 (Serial Number 10515), Leica ADS-100 (Serial Number 10522), Leica

ADS-100 (Serial Number 10530), Leica ADS-100 (Serial Number 10552), with Flight and Sensor

Control Management System (FCMS) firmware: v4.54, Cameras are calibrated radiometrically

and geometrically by the manufacturer and are all certified by the USGS. Collection was

performed using a combination of the following twin-engine aircraft with turbines flying at

16,457 ft above mean terrain. Plane types: C441, Tail numbers: N2NQ, N414EH, N440EH,

N441EH, N441FS, With these flying heights, there is a 30% sidelap, giving the collected data

nominal ground sampling distance of 0.40 meters at 16,457 feet. Based-upon the CCD Array

configuration present in the ADS digital sensor, imagery for each flight line is 20,000-pixels in

width. Red, Green, Blue, Near-Infrared and Panchromatic image bands were collected. The

ADS 100 has the following band specifications: Red 619-651, Green 525-585, Blue 435-495,

Near Infrared 808-882, all values are in nanometers. Collected data was downloaded to

portable hard drives and shipped to the processing facility daily. Raw flight data was extracted

from external data drives using XPro software. Airborne GPS / IMU data was post-processed

using Inertial Explorer software and reviewed to ensure sufficient accuracy for project

requirements. Using Xpro software, planar rectified images were generated from the

collected data for use in image quality review. The planar rectified images were generated at

native resolution using a two standard deviation histogram stretch. Factors considered during

this review included but were not limited to the presence of smoke and/or cloud cover,

contrails, light conditions, sun glint and any sensor or hardware-related issues that potentially

could result in faulty data. When necessary, image strips identified as not meeting image

quality specifications were re-flown to obtain suitable imagery.

Process Date/Time: 2019-06-13 00:00:00

Process Step 2

CC ID: 890125

Aero triangulation blocks

were defined primarily by order of acquisition and consisted of four to seventeen strips.

Image tie points providing the observations for the least squares bundle adjustment were

selected from the images using an auto correlation algorithm. Photogrammetric control

points consisted of photo identifiable control points, collected using GPS field survey

techniques. The control points were loaded into a softcopy workstation and measured in the

acquired image strips. A least squares bundle adjustment of image pass points, control points

and the ABGPS was performed to develop an aero triangulation solution for each block using

XPro software. Upon final bundle adjustment, the triangulated strips were ortho-rectified to

the digital elevation model (DEM). The most recent USGS 10-meter DEMs were used in the

rectification process. Positional accuracy was reviewed in the rectified imagery by visually

verifying the horizontal positioning of the known photo-identifiable survey locations using

ArcGIS software. The red, green, blue, and infrared bands were combined to generate a final

ortho-rectified image strip. The ADS sensor collects fourteen bit image data which requires

radiometric adjustment for output in standard eight bit image channels. The ortho-rectified

image strips were produced with the full 16 bit data range, allowing radiometric adjustment

to the 8 bit range to be performed on a strip by strip basis during the final mosaicking steps.

The 16 bit data range was adjusted for display in standard eight bit image channels by

defining a piecewise histogram stretch using OrthoVista Radiometrix software. A constant

stretch was defined for each image collection period, and then strip by strip adjustments

were made as needed to account for changes in sun angle and azimuth during the collection

period. Strip adjustments were also made to match the strips histograms as closely as

possible to APFO specified histogram metrics and color balance requirements. Automated

balancing algorithms were applied to account for bi-directional reflectance as a final step

before the conversion to 8 bit data range. The imagery was mosaicked using manual seam

line generation in OrthoVista

Process Date/Time: 2019-06-13 00:00:00

Catalog Details

Catalog Item ID: 58386
GUID: gov.noaa.nmfs.inport:58386
Metadata Record Created By: Erik Hund
Metadata Record Created: 2019-12-26 08:45+0000
Metadata Record Last Modified By: SysAdmin InPortAdmin
Metadata Record Last Modified: 2023-05-30 18:09+0000
Metadata Record Published: 2019-12-26
Owner Org: OCMP
Metadata Publication Status: Published Externally
Do Not Publish?: N
Metadata Last Review Date: 2019-12-26
Metadata Review Frequency: 1 Year
Metadata Next Review Date: 2020-12-26