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Short Citation:
OCM Partners, 2024: 2018 Indiana NAIP Digital Ortho Photo Imagery,

Item Identification

Title: 2018 Indiana NAIP Digital Ortho Photo Imagery
Status: Completed
Publication Date: 2020-06-26

This data set contains imagery from the National Agriculture

Imagery Program (NAIP). The NAIP program is administered by

USDA FSA and has been established to support two main FSA

strategic goals centered on agricultural production.

These are, increase stewardship of America's natural resources

while enhancing the environment, and to ensure commodities

are procured and distributed effectively and efficiently to

increase food security. The NAIP program supports these goals by

acquiring and providing ortho imagery that has been collected

during the agricultural growing season in the U.S. The NAIP

ortho imagery is tailored to meet FSA requirements and is a

fundamental tool used to support FSA farm and conservation

programs. Ortho imagery provides an effective, intuitive

means of communication about farm program administration

between FSA and stakeholders.

New technology and innovation is identified by fostering and

maintaining a relationship with vendors and government

partners, and by keeping pace with the broader geospatial

community. As a result of these efforts the NAIP program

provides three main products: DOQQ tiles,

Compressed County Mosaics (CCM), and Seamline shape files

The Contract specifications for NAIP imagery have changed

over time reflecting agency requirements and improving

technologies. These changes include image resolution,

horizontal accuracy, coverage area, and number of bands.

In general, flying seasons are established by FSA and are

targeted for peak crop growing conditions. The NAIP

acquisition cycle is based on a minimum 3 year refresh of base

ortho imagery. The tiling format of the NAIP imagery is based

on a 3.75' x 3.75' quarter quadrangle with a 300 pixel buffer

on all four sides. NAIP quarter quads are formatted to the UTM

coordinate system using the North American Datum of 1983.

NAIP imagery may contain as much as 10% cloud cover per tile.


NAIP imagery is available for distribution within 60 days

of the end of a flying season and is intended to provide current

information of agricultural conditions in support of USDA farm

programs. For USDA Farm Service Agency, the 1 meter and 1/2 meter

GSD product provides an ortho image base for Common Land Unit

boundaries and other data sets. The 1 meter and 1/2 meter NAIP

imagery is generally acquired in projects covering full states in

cooperation with state government and other federal agencies that

use the imagery for a variety of purposes including land use

planning and natural resource assessment. The NAIP is also used

for disaster response. While suitable for a variety of uses,

prior to 2007 the 2 meter GSD NAIP imagery was primarily intended

to assess "crop condition and compliance" to USDA farm program

conditions. The 2 meter imagery was generally acquired only

for agricultural areas within state projects.




Theme Keywords

Thesaurus Keyword
ISO 19115 Topic Category
None Aerial Compliance
None Compliance
None Digital Ortho rectified Image
None farming
None Ortho Rectification
None Quarter Quadrangle

Spatial Keywords

Thesaurus Keyword
Geographic Names Information System IN
Geographic Names Information System Indiana

Physical Location

Organization: Office for Coastal Management
City: Charleston
State/Province: SC

Data Set Information

Data Set Scope Code: Data Set
Maintenance Frequency: Irregular
Data Presentation Form: Image (digital)
Entity Attribute Overview:

32-bit pixels, 4 band color(RGBIR) values 0 - 255

Entity Attribute Detail Citation:


Distribution Liability:

Users must assume responsibility to determine the appropriate use of these data. DATA SHOULD NOT BE USED FOR LEGALLY BINDING APPLICATIONS.

Support Roles

Data Steward

CC ID: 913238
Date Effective From: 2020-06-26
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): NOAA Office for Coastal Management (NOAA/OCM)
Address: 2234 South Hobson Ave
Charleston, SC 29405-2413
Email Address:
Phone: (843) 740-1202


CC ID: 913240
Date Effective From: 2020-06-26
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): NOAA Office for Coastal Management (NOAA/OCM)
Address: 2234 South Hobson Ave
Charleston, SC 29405-2413
Email Address:
Phone: (843) 740-1202

Metadata Contact

CC ID: 913241
Date Effective From: 2020-06-26
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): NOAA Office for Coastal Management (NOAA/OCM)
Address: 2234 South Hobson Ave
Charleston, SC 29405-2413
Email Address:
Phone: (843) 740-1202

Point of Contact

CC ID: 913239
Date Effective From: 2020-06-26
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): NOAA Office for Coastal Management (NOAA/OCM)
Address: 2234 South Hobson Ave
Charleston, SC 29405-2413
Email Address:
Phone: (843) 740-1202


Currentness Reference: Ground Condition

Extent Group 1

Extent Group 1 / Geographic Area 1

CC ID: 1316386
W° Bound: -88.23333333333
E° Bound: -84.63166666667
N° Bound: 41.83861111111
S° Bound: 37.65861111111

Extent Group 1 / Time Frame 1

CC ID: 1316385
Time Frame Type: Range
Start: 2018-06-30
End: 2018-09-24

Spatial Information

Spatial Representation

Representations Used

Grid: Yes

Grid Representation 1

CC ID: 913253
Dimension Count: 2
Cell Geometry: Point
Transformation Parameters Available?: No

Axis Dimension 1

Dimension Type: Row
Size: 1

Axis Dimension 2

Dimension Type: Column
Size: 1

Reference Systems

Reference System 1

CC ID: 1316383

Coordinate Reference System

CRS Type: Projected
EPSG Code: EPSG:6345
EPSG Name: NAD83(2011) / UTM zone 16N
See Full Coordinate Reference System Information

Access Information

Security Class: Unclassified
Data Access Constraints:

There are no limitations for access.

Data Use Constraints:

None. The USDA-FSA Aerial Photography Field office

asks to be credited in derived products.

Distribution Information

Distribution 1

CC ID: 913242
Download URL:

Downloadable Data

File Type (Deprecated): Erdas Imagine (.img) and TIFF / BigTIFF / GeoTIFF (.tif)
Distribution Format: IMG - ERDAS Imagine

Distribution 2

CC ID: 913243
Download URL:
File Name: Customized Download

Create custom data files by choosing area, map projection, file format, etc.

Distribution 3

CC ID: 913244
Download URL:
File Name: Bulk Download

Simple download of data files.



CC ID: 913245
URL Type:
Online Resource

Activity Log

Activity Log 1

CC ID: 913247
Activity Date/Time: 2017-02-22

Date that the source FGDC record was last modified.

Activity Log 2

CC ID: 913246
Activity Date/Time: 2017-11-14

Converted from Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (version FGDC-STD-001-1998) using '' script. Contact Tyler Christensen (NOS) for details.

Activity Log 3

CC ID: 913248
Activity Date/Time: 2018-02-08

Partial upload of Positional Accuracy fields only.

Activity Log 4

CC ID: 913249
Activity Date/Time: 2018-03-13

Partial upload to move data access links to Distribution Info.

Technical Environment



Data Quality

Horizontal Positional Accuracy:

NAIP horizontal accuracy specifications have evolved over

the life of the program. From 2003 to 2004 the

specifications were as follows: 1-meter GSD imagery was

to match within 3-meters, and 2-meter GSD to match within 10

meters of reference imagery. For 2005 the 1-meter GSD

specification was changed to 5 meters matching the reference

imagery. In 2006 a pilot project was performed using true

ground specifications rather than reference imagery. All

states used the same specifications as 2005 except Utah,

which required a match of +/- 6 meters to true ground.

In 2007 all specifications were the same as 2006 except

Arizona used true ground specifications and all other states

used reference imagery. In 2008 and subsequent years

no 2-meter GSD imagery was acquired and all specifications

were the same as 2007 except approximately half of the

states acquired used true ground specifications and the

other half used reference imagery. The 2008 states that

used absolute ground control where; Indiana, Minnesota,

New Hampshire, North Carolina, Texas, Vermont, and Virginia.

From 2009 to present all NAIP imagery acquisitions used

the +/- 6 meters to ground specification.

Completeness Report:


Conceptual Consistency:

NAIP 3.75 minute tile file names are based

on the USGS quadrangle naming convention.




CC ID: 1316377
Contact Role Type: Originator
Contact Type: Organization
Contact Name: USDA-FSA-APFO Aerial Photography Field Office
Publish Date: 2019-10-02
Source Contribution:

Digital Georectified Image. | Source Geospatial Form: remote-sensing image | Type of Source Media: UnKnown

Process Steps

Process Step 1

CC ID: 1316378

Flight planning was performed in Leica MissionPro over a

buffered boundary covering DOQQ extents provided by the USDA.

A 500m reduced resolution DEM file was used to determine

ground heights. A targeted flight altitude of approximately

21,000 feet above ground level for native 60cm image

acquisition with sidelap of 27% was used

for flight planning parameters. Five Cessna Conquests and

a Cessna 414 were utilized for acquisition, the seamline

shapefile clarifies which aircraft were used for a given area.

All aircraft were equipped with Leica

ADS100 systems where utilized for data

capture. The Leica ADS100 pushbroom sensor

has been calibrated by the manufacturer as well as validated

against a local calibration range. The calibration includes

measuring the radiometric and geometric properties of the

camera. These data are used in the Post Processing Software

to eliminate the radiometric and geometric distortion.

All aerial imagery was collected with associated GPS/IMU

data. ADS collection requires high quality IMU data for

processing and was critical for early access hosting of digital

data to the web for USDA interim access and review.

After early access web delivery was complete, all

imagery was triangulated using Leica XPro in which

the airborne GPS data was constrained to expected limits.

To validate the accuracy of the block adjustment derived from

GPS/IMU, sensor parameters and conjugate point measurements,

photo identifiable ground control points

were field surveyed within each State. These points were

surveyed using GPS techniques to produce coordinates that are

accurate to +/- 0.25 meters RMSE in XYZ. The GPS surveying

techniques utilized assured that the coordinates are derived

in the required project datum and relative to an approved

National Reference System. If the block does not fit the

control points within specifications the pass and tie

points were reviewed for blunders and weak areas. If,

after these corrections were made, the block still

does not fit the control well the GPS and IMU processing were

reviewed. Once the block has proper statistics and fits the

control to specifications, the final bundle adjustment was

made. As AT points are frequently on man-made and other

vertical features not included in the DEM, these ortho

points can only be used to indicate regions of error by the

clusters of points that predict excessive horizontal


Process Date/Time: 2019-10-02 00:00:00

Process Step 2

CC ID: 1316379

The final adjustments assure a high quality relative adjustment

and a high quality absolute adjustment limited to the

airborne GPS data accuracy. This process assures the final

absolute accuracy of all geopositioned imagery. Both

signalized and photo identified

ground control were used to QC and control the IMU/GPS

based aerial triangulation bundle block solution. Surdex

Grouping Tool provides real-time updates

of the USDA APFO Image Metrics. The image technician adjusts

image correction parameters to bring the radiometric

characteristics of large groups of images within the Image

Metrics ranges. For each

project area the highest resolution DEM or LiDAR was

obtained and utilized for rectification of captured imagery.

A visual inspection of the final DEM using color cycled

classification by elevation and a shaded relief was performed

to check for gaps, corruption and gross errors.

The predicted horizontal error for each

point was added as an attribute in the SURDEX enterprise

database. An operator reviews ortho seams

in areas these predicted errors indicate horizontal error in

excess of the contract specifications. Any imagery errors

introduced by source DEM required patching from an alternate

perspective or strip of photography.

Processing hardware used included various brands of survey grade

GPS receivers, various brands and models of computers,

RAID6 storage, calibrated monitors, various brands of monitor

calibration colorimeters. Leica XPro was used for post

processing of ADS pushbroom data, triangulation and

orthorectification. SURDEX software was used to color correct

and remove bidirectional reflectance, vignetting and other

illumination trends.

Process Date/Time: 2019-10-02 00:00:00

Process Step 3

CC ID: 1316380

USDA APFO Image Metrics are measured and

images corrected to conform to the Image Metrics using

SURDEX software. GPS/IMU data was reduced to projected

coordinates in the appropriate UTM zone using

Inertial Explorer software from Novatel. Aerial Triangulation

and orthorectification was performed using Leica XPro. SURDEX

software was used to adjust for minor radiometric

variation between adjacent images. SURDEX software was used

to calculate the optimal seam path, check seam topology and

create master tiles. SURDEX ortho software generates

occlusion/smear polygons used during seam review

of steep terrain. SURDEX software was used to

visually inspect master tiles for seam and image defects.

SURDEX software was used to project and cut final DOQQ image

files from masters. SURDEX software was used to create CCM

metadata. Lizardtech GeoExpress version was used

to create the CCM image file. SURDEX software was

used to perform final formatting, QC and naming of the DOQQ.

USGS metadata parser software was used to validate the metadata.

Various versions of Microsoft Windows were used in all phases of

production. Grouping Tool was used again after DOQQ and CCM

production to provide a quality assurance check. Individual

DOQQ and CCM may not meet the USDA APFO Image Metrics ranges

due to land cover. The goal is to have the state as a

whole meet the Image Metrics. All products are reviewed

by independent personnel prior to delivery.

The delivery is checked for omissions, commissions,

naming, formatting, specification compliance and data integrity

Process Date/Time: 2019-10-02 00:00:00

Catalog Details

Catalog Item ID: 60136
GUID: gov.noaa.nmfs.inport:60136
Metadata Record Created By: Erik Hund
Metadata Record Created: 2020-06-25 16:15+0000
Metadata Record Last Modified By: Kirk Waters
Metadata Record Last Modified: 2024-01-11 12:34+0000
Metadata Record Published: 2024-01-11
Owner Org: OCMP
Metadata Publication Status: Published Externally
Do Not Publish?: N
Metadata Last Review Date: 2020-06-26
Metadata Review Frequency: 1 Year
Metadata Next Review Date: 2021-06-26