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Short Citation:
OCM Partners, 2024: 2018 Wisconsin NAIP Digital Ortho Photo Imagery,

Item Identification

Title: 2018 Wisconsin NAIP Digital Ortho Photo Imagery
Status: Completed
Publication Date: 2020-07-20

This data set contains imagery from the National Agriculture

Imagery Program (NAIP). The NAIP program is administered by

USDA FSA and has been established to support two main FSA

strategic goals centered on agricultural production.

These are, increase stewardship of America's natural resources

while enhancing the environment, and to ensure commodities

are procured and distributed effectively and efficiently to

increase food security. The NAIP program supports these goals by

acquiring and providing ortho imagery that has been collected

during the agricultural growing season in the U.S. The NAIP

ortho imagery is tailored to meet FSA requirements and is a

fundamental tool used to support FSA farm and conservation

programs. Ortho imagery provides an effective, intuitive

means of communication about farm program administration

between FSA and stakeholders.

New technology and innovation is identified by fostering and

maintaining a relationship with vendors and government

partners, and by keeping pace with the broader geospatial

community. As a result of these efforts the NAIP program

provides three main products: DOQQ tiles,

Compressed County Mosaics (CCM), and Seamline shape files

The Contract specifications for NAIP imagery have changed

over time reflecting agency requirements and improving

technologies. These changes include image resolution,

horizontal accuracy, coverage area, and number of bands.

In general, flying seasons are established by FSA and are

targeted for peak crop growing conditions. The NAIP

acquisition cycle is based on a minimum 3 year refresh of base

ortho imagery. The tiling format of the NAIP imagery is based

on a 3.75' x 3.75' quarter quadrangle with a 300 pixel buffer

on all four sides. NAIP quarter quads are formatted to the UTM

coordinate system using the North American Datum of 1983.

NAIP imagery may contain as much as 10% cloud cover per tile.


NAIP imagery is available for distribution within 60 days

of the end of a flying season and is intended to provide current

information of agricultural conditions in support of USDA farm

programs. For USDA Farm Service Agency, the 1 meter and 1/2 meter

GSD product provides an ortho image base for Common Land Unit

boundaries and other data sets. The 100, 50, and 30 centimeter NAIP

imagery is generally acquired in projects covering full states in

cooperation with state government and other federal agencies that

use the imagery for a variety of purposes including land use

planning and natural resource assessment. The NAIP is also used

for disaster response. While suitable for a variety of uses,

prior to 2007 the 2 meter GSD NAIP imagery was primarily intended

to assess "crop condition and compliance" to USDA farm program

conditions. The 2 meter imagery was generally acquired only

for agricultural areas within state projects.




Theme Keywords

Thesaurus Keyword
ISO 19115 Topic Category
None Aerial Compliance
None Compliance
None Digital Ortho rectified Image
None farming
None Ortho Rectification
None Quarter Quadrangle

Temporal Keywords

Thesaurus Keyword
Geographic Names Information System 2018

Spatial Keywords

Thesaurus Keyword
Geographic Names Information System WI
Geographic Names Information System Wisconsin

Physical Location

Organization: Office for Coastal Management
City: Charleston
State/Province: SC

Data Set Information

Data Set Scope Code: Data Set
Maintenance Frequency: Irregular
Data Presentation Form: Image (digital)
Entity Attribute Overview:

32-bit pixels, 4 band color(RGBIR) values 0 - 255

Entity Attribute Detail Citation:


Distribution Liability:

Users must assume responsibility to determine the appropriate use of these data. DATA SHOULD NOT BE USED FOR LEGALLY BINDING APPLICATIONS.

Support Roles

Data Steward

CC ID: 916158
Date Effective From: 2020-07-20
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): NOAA Office for Coastal Management (NOAA/OCM)
Address: 2234 South Hobson Ave
Charleston, SC 29405-2413
Email Address:
Phone: (843) 740-1202


CC ID: 916160
Date Effective From: 2020-07-20
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): NOAA Office for Coastal Management (NOAA/OCM)
Address: 2234 South Hobson Ave
Charleston, SC 29405-2413
Email Address:
Phone: (843) 740-1202

Metadata Contact

CC ID: 916161
Date Effective From: 2020-07-20
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): NOAA Office for Coastal Management (NOAA/OCM)
Address: 2234 South Hobson Ave
Charleston, SC 29405-2413
Email Address:
Phone: (843) 740-1202

Point of Contact

CC ID: 916159
Date Effective From: 2020-07-20
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): NOAA Office for Coastal Management (NOAA/OCM)
Address: 2234 South Hobson Ave
Charleston, SC 29405-2413
Email Address:
Phone: (843) 740-1202


Currentness Reference: Ground Condition

Extent Group 1

Extent Group 1 / Geographic Area 1

CC ID: 1316544
W° Bound: -92.66972222222
E° Bound: -87.00666666667
N° Bound: 46.92027777778
S° Bound: 42.35166666667

Extent Group 1 / Time Frame 1

CC ID: 1316543
Time Frame Type: Range
Start: 2018-07-23
End: 2018-10-24

Spatial Information

Spatial Representation

Representations Used

Grid: Yes

Grid Representation 1

CC ID: 916173
Dimension Count: 2
Cell Geometry: Point
Transformation Parameters Available?: No

Axis Dimension 1

Dimension Type: Row
Size: 1

Axis Dimension 2

Dimension Type: Column
Size: 1

Reference Systems

Reference System 1

CC ID: 1316541

Coordinate Reference System

CRS Type: Projected
EPSG Code: EPSG:6344
EPSG Name: NAD83(2011) / UTM zone 15N
See Full Coordinate Reference System Information

Reference System 2

CC ID: 1316540

Coordinate Reference System

CRS Type: Projected
EPSG Code: EPSG:6345
EPSG Name: NAD83(2011) / UTM zone 16N
See Full Coordinate Reference System Information

Access Information

Security Class: Unclassified
Data Access Constraints:

There are no limitations for access.

Data Use Constraints:

None. The USDA-FSA Aerial Photography Field office

asks to be credited in derived products.

Distribution Information

Distribution 1

CC ID: 916162
Download URL:

Downloadable Data

File Type (Deprecated): Erdas Imagine (.img) and TIFF / BigTIFF / GeoTIFF (.tif)
Distribution Format: IMG - ERDAS Imagine

Distribution 2

CC ID: 916163
Download URL:
File Name: Customized Download

Create custom data files by choosing area, map projection, file format, etc.

Distribution 3

CC ID: 916164
Download URL:
File Name: Bulk Download

Simple download of data files.



CC ID: 916165
URL Type:
Online Resource

Activity Log

Activity Log 1

CC ID: 916167
Activity Date/Time: 2017-11-02

Date that the source FGDC record was last modified.

Activity Log 2

CC ID: 916166
Activity Date/Time: 2017-11-14

Converted from Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (version FGDC-STD-001-1998) using '' script. Contact Tyler Christensen (NOS) for details.

Activity Log 3

CC ID: 916168
Activity Date/Time: 2018-02-08

Partial upload of Positional Accuracy fields only.

Activity Log 4

CC ID: 916169
Activity Date/Time: 2018-03-13

Partial upload to move data access links to Distribution Info.

Technical Environment



Data Quality

Horizontal Positional Accuracy:

NAIP horizontal accuracy specifications have evolved over

the life of the program. From 2003 to 2004 the

specifications were as follows: 1-meter GSD imagery was

to match within 3-meters, and 2-meter GSD to match within 10

meters of reference imagery. For 2005 the 1-meter GSD

specification was changed to 5 meters matching the reference

imagery. In 2006 a pilot project was performed using true

ground specifications rather than reference imagery. All

states used the same specifications as 2005 except Utah,

which required a match of +/- 6 meters to true ground.

In 2007 all specifications were the same as 2006 except

Arizona used true ground specifications and all other states

used reference imagery. In 2008 and subsequent years

no 2-meter GSD imagery was acquired and all specifications

were the same as 2007 except approximately half of the

states acquired used true ground specifications and the

other half used reference imagery. The 2008 states that

used absolute ground control where; Indiana, Minnesota,

New Hampshire, North Carolina, Texas, Vermont, and Virginia.

From 2009 to present all NAIP imagery acquisitions used

the +/- 6 meters to ground specification.

Completeness Report:


Conceptual Consistency:

NAIP 3.75 minute tile file names are based

on the USGS quadrangle naming convention.


Process Steps

Process Step 1

CC ID: 1316536

DOQQ Production Process Description; USDA FSA APFO NAIP Program 2018; State: Wisconsin.

The imagery was collected using the following digital sensors: Leica ADS-100 (Serial Number

10519), Leica ADS-100 (Serial Number 10537), Leica ADS-100 (Serial Number 10542), Leica

ADS-100 (Serial Number 10548), with Flight and Sensor Control Management System (FCMS)

firmware: v4.57, Cameras are calibrated radiometrically and geometrically by the

manufacturer and are all certified by the USGS. Collection was performed using a combination

of the following twin-engine aircraft with turbines flying at 16,457 ft above mean terrain. Plane

types: AC90, C441, PA31, Tail numbers: N35834, N4102J, N441CJ, N73TM, N910FC, With these

flying heights, there is a 30% sidelap, giving the collected data nominal ground sampling

distance of 0.40 meters at 16,457 feet. Based-upon the CCD Array configuration present in the

ADS digital sensor, imagery for each flight line is 20,000-pixels in width. Red, Green, Blue,

Near-Infrared and Panchromatic image bands were collected. The ADS 100 has the following

band specifications: Red 619-651, Green 525-585, Blue 435-495, Near Infrared 808-882, all

values are in nanometers. Collected data was downloaded to portable hard drives and shipped

to the processing facility daily. Raw flight data was extracted from external data drives using

XPro software. Airborne GPS / IMU data was post-processed using Inertial Explorer software

and reviewed to ensure sufficient accuracy for project requirements. Using Xpro software,

planar rectified images were generated from the collected data for use in image quality

review. The planar rectified images were generated at native resolution using a two standard

deviation histogram stretch. Factors considered during this review included but were not

limited to the presence of smoke and/or cloud cover, contrails, light conditions, sun glint and

any sensor or hardware-related issues that potentially could result in faulty data. When

necessary, image strips identified as not meeting image quality specifications were re-flown to

obtain suitable imagery. Aero triangulation blocks were defined primarily by order of

acquisition and consisted of four to seventeen strips. Image tie points providing the

observations for the least squares bundle adjustment were selected from the images using an

auto correlation algorithm.

Process Date/Time: 2019-05-30 00:00:00

Process Step 2

CC ID: 1316537

Photogrammetric control points consisted of photo identifiable

control points, collected using GPS field survey techniques. The control points were loaded

into a softcopy workstation and measured in the acquired image strips. A least squares bundle

adjustment of image pass points, control points and the ABGPS was performed to develop an

aero triangulation solution for each block using XPro software. Upon final bundle adjustment,

the triangulated strips were ortho-rectified to the digital elevation model (DEM). The most

recent USGS 10-meter DEMs were used in the rectification process. Positional accuracy was

reviewed in the rectified imagery by visually verifying the horizontal positioning of the known

photo-identifiable survey locations using ArcGIS software. The red, green, blue, and infrared

bands were combined to generate a final ortho-rectified image strip. The ADS sensor collects

fourteen bit image data which requires radiometric adjustment for output in standard eight bit

image channels. The ortho-rectified image strips were produced with the full 16 bit data range,

allowing radiometric adjustment to the 8 bit range to be performed on a strip by strip basis

during the final mosaicking steps. The 16 bit data range was adjusted for display in standard

eight bit image channels by defining a piecewise histogram stretch using OrthoVista

Radiometrix software. A constant stretch was defined for each image collection period, and

then strip by strip adjustments were made as needed to account for changes in sun angle and

azimuth during the collection period. Strip adjustments were also made to match the strips

histograms as closely as possible to APFO specified histogram metrics and color balance

requirements. Automated balancing algorithms were applied to account for bi-directional

reflectance as a final step before the conversion to 8 bit data range. The imagery was

mosaicked using manual seam line generation in OrthoVista.

Process Date/Time: 2019-05-30 00:00:00

Catalog Details

Catalog Item ID: 60444
GUID: gov.noaa.nmfs.inport:60444
Metadata Record Created By: Erik Hund
Metadata Record Created: 2020-07-20 09:58+0000
Metadata Record Last Modified By: Kirk Waters
Metadata Record Last Modified: 2024-01-11 12:35+0000
Metadata Record Published: 2024-01-11
Owner Org: OCMP
Metadata Publication Status: Published Externally
Do Not Publish?: N
Metadata Last Review Date: 2020-07-20
Metadata Review Frequency: 1 Year
Metadata Next Review Date: 2021-07-20