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Short Citation:
OCM Partners, 2024: 2018 Texas NAIP 4-Band 8 Bit Imagery,

Item Identification

Title: 2018 Texas NAIP 4-Band 8 Bit Imagery
Status: Completed
Publication Date: 2021-10-31

This data set contains imagery from the National Agriculture

Imagery Program (NAIP). The NAIP program is administered by

USDA FSA and has been established to support two main FSA

strategic goals centered on agricultural production.

These are, increase stewardship of America's natural resources

while enhancing the environment, and to ensure commodities

are procured and distributed effectively and efficiently to

increase food security. The NAIP program supports these goals by

acquiring and providing ortho imagery that has been collected

during the agricultural growing season in the U.S. The NAIP

ortho imagery is tailored to meet FSA requirements and is a

fundamental tool used to support FSA farm and conservation

programs. Ortho imagery provides an effective, intuitive

means of communication about farm program administration

between FSA and stakeholders.

New technology and innovation is identified by fostering and

maintaining a relationship with vendors and government

partners, and by keeping pace with the broader geospatial

community. As a result of these efforts the NAIP program

provides three main products: DOQQ tiles,

Compressed County Mosaics (CCM), and Seamline shape files

The Contract specifications for NAIP imagery have changed

over time reflecting agency requirements and improving

technologies. These changes include image resolution,

horizontal accuracy, coverage area, and number of bands.

In general, flying seasons are established by FSA and are

targeted for peak crop growing conditions. The NAIP

acquisition cycle is based on a minimum 3 year refresh of base

ortho imagery. The tiling format of the NAIP imagery is based

on a 3.75' x 3.75' quarter quadrangle with a 300 pixel buffer

on all four sides. NAIP quarter quads are formatted to the UTM

coordinate system using the North American Datum of 1983.

NAIP imagery may contain as much as 10% cloud cover per tile.


NAIP imagery is available for distribution within 60 days

of the end of a flying season and is intended to provide current

information of agricultural conditions in support of USDA farm

programs. For USDA Farm Service Agency, the 1 meter and 1/2 meter

GSD product provides an ortho image base for Common Land Unit

boundaries and other data sets. The 1 meter and 1/2 meter NAIP

imagery is generally acquired in projects covering full states in

cooperation with state government and other federal agencies that

use the imagery for a variety of purposes including land use

planning and natural resource assessment. The NAIP is also used

for disaster response. While suitable for a variety of uses,

prior to 2007 the 2 meter GSD NAIP imagery was primarily intended

to assess "crop condition and compliance" to USDA farm program

conditions. The 2 meter imagery was generally acquired only

for agricultural areas within state projects.




Theme Keywords

Thesaurus Keyword
ISO 19115 Topic Category
None Aerial Compliance
None Compliance
None Digital Ortho rectified Image
None farming
None Ortho Rectification
None Quarter Quadrangle

Temporal Keywords

Thesaurus Keyword
None 2018

Spatial Keywords

Thesaurus Keyword
Geographic Names Information System Texas
Geographic Names Information System TX

Physical Location

Organization: Office for Coastal Management
City: Charleston
State/Province: SC

Data Set Information

Data Set Scope Code: Data Set
Maintenance Frequency: Irregular
Data Presentation Form: Image (digital)
Entity Attribute Overview:

32-bit pixels, 4 band color(RGBIR) values 0 - 255

Entity Attribute Detail Citation:


Distribution Liability:

Users must assume responsibility to determine the appropriate use of these data. DATA SHOULD NOT BE USED FOR LEGALLY BINDING APPLICATIONS.

Support Roles

Data Steward

CC ID: 1096684
Date Effective From: 2021-10-31
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): NOAA Office for Coastal Management (NOAA/OCM)
Address: 2234 South Hobson Ave
Charleston, SC 29405-2413
Email Address:
Phone: (843) 740-1202


CC ID: 1096686
Date Effective From: 2021-10-31
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): NOAA Office for Coastal Management (NOAA/OCM)
Address: 2234 South Hobson Ave
Charleston, SC 29405-2413
Email Address:
Phone: (843) 740-1202

Metadata Contact

CC ID: 1096687
Date Effective From: 2021-10-31
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): NOAA Office for Coastal Management (NOAA/OCM)
Address: 2234 South Hobson Ave
Charleston, SC 29405-2413
Email Address:
Phone: (843) 740-1202

Point of Contact

CC ID: 1096685
Date Effective From: 2021-10-31
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): NOAA Office for Coastal Management (NOAA/OCM)
Address: 2234 South Hobson Ave
Charleston, SC 29405-2413
Email Address:
Phone: (843) 740-1202


Currentness Reference: Ground Condition

Extent Group 1

Extent Group 1 / Geographic Area 1

CC ID: 1318053
W° Bound: -106.93527777778
E° Bound: -92.81305555556
N° Bound: 34.28194444444
S° Bound: 25.84777777778

Extent Group 1 / Time Frame 1

CC ID: 1318052
Time Frame Type: Range
Start: 2018-05-30
End: 2019-01-26

Spatial Information

Spatial Representation

Representations Used

Grid: Yes

Grid Representation 1

CC ID: 1096697
Dimension Count: 2
Cell Geometry: Point
Transformation Parameters Available?: No

Axis Dimension 1

Dimension Type: Row
Size: 1

Axis Dimension 2

Dimension Type: Column
Size: 1

Reference Systems

Reference System 1

CC ID: 1318049

Coordinate Reference System

CRS Type: Projected
EPSG Code: EPSG:26914
EPSG Name: NAD83 / UTM zone 14N
See Full Coordinate Reference System Information

Reference System 2

CC ID: 1318050

Coordinate Reference System

CRS Type: Projected
EPSG Code: EPSG:26915
EPSG Name: NAD83 / UTM zone 15N
See Full Coordinate Reference System Information

Access Information

Security Class: Unclassified
Data Access Constraints:

There are no limitations for access.

Data Use Constraints:

None. The USDA-FSA Aerial Photography Field office

asks to be credited in derived products.

Distribution Information

Distribution 1

CC ID: 1096688
Download URL:

Downloadable Data

File Type (Deprecated): Erdas Imagine (.img) and TIFF / BigTIFF / GeoTIFF (.tif)
Distribution Format: IMG - ERDAS Imagine



CC ID: 1096689
URL Type:
Online Resource


CC ID: 1096691
URL Type:
Online Resource

Activity Log

Activity Log 1

CC ID: 1096692
Activity Date/Time: 2017-11-13

Converted from Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (version FGDC-STD-001-1998) using '' script. Contact Tyler Christensen (NOS) for details.

Activity Log 2

CC ID: 1096693
Activity Date/Time: 2018-07-22

Date that the source FGDC record was last modified.

Technical Environment



Data Quality

Horizontal Positional Accuracy:

NAIP horizontal accuracy specifications have evolved over

the life of the program. From 2003 to 2004 the

specifications were as follows: 1-meter GSD imagery was

to match within 3-meters, and 2-meter GSD to match within 10

meters of reference imagery. For 2005 the 1-meter GSD

specification was changed to 5 meters matching the reference

imagery. In 2006 a pilot project was performed using true

ground specifications rather than reference imagery. All

states used the same specifications as 2005 except Utah,

which required a match of +/- 6 meters to true ground.

In 2007 all specifications were the same as 2006 except

Arizona used true ground specifications and all other states

used reference imagery. In 2008 and subsequent years

no 2-meter GSD imagery was acquired and all specifications

were the same as 2007 except approximately half of the

states acquired used true ground specifications and the

other half used reference imagery. The 2008 states that

used absolute ground control where; Indiana, Minnesota,

New Hampshire, North Carolina, Texas, Vermont, and Virginia.

From 2009 to present all NAIP imagery acquisitions used

the +/- 6 meters to ground specification.

Completeness Report:


Conceptual Consistency:

NAIP 3.75 minute tile file names are based

on the USGS quadrangle naming convention.


Process Steps

Process Step 1

CC ID: 1318045

Digital imagery was collected at a nominal GSD of 40cm using 10 Cessna 441's, one Cessna 414, one

Reims F406, three Piper PA31's, one Piper PAY2 and one Swearingen Merlin-3 aircraft flying at an

average flight height of 8400m AGL for the SH120 acquisition and 4400m AGL for SH100 acquisition.

Aircraft flew with Leica Geosystem's ADS100/SH100 digital sensors with firmware 4.57 or

ADS100/SH120 digital sensors with firmware 4.57. Each sensor collected 12 image bands Red, Green,

Blue and Near-infrared at each of three look angles; Backward 19 degrees, Forward 26 degrees and

Nadir for the SH100. Backward 10 degrees, Forward 14 degrees, and Nadir for the SH120. The Nadir

Green band was collected in high resolution mode effectively doubling the resolution for that band. The

ADS100 spectral ranges are; Red 619-651nm, Green 525-585nm, Blue 435-495nm and Near-infrared at

808-882nm. The CCD arrays have a pixel size of 5.0 microns in a 20000x1 format at nadir; a 18000x1

format at the backward look angle and a 16000x1 format at the forward look angle. The CCD's have a

dynamic range of 72db and the A/D converters have a resolution of 14bits. The ADS is a push-broom

sensor the ground footprint of the imagery is approximately 8km wide at a nominal 40cm GSD by the

length flightline. The maximum flightline length is limited to approximately 175km. The factory

calibrations and IMU alignments for each sensor (Serial Numbers: 10510, 10511, 10512, 10514, 10519,

10552, 10522, 10527, 10528, 10530, 10531, 10534, 10537, 10540, 10554, 12529) were tested and

verified by in-situ test flights before the start of the project. The Leica MissionPro Flight Planning

Software is used to develop the flight acquisition plans. Flight acquisition sub blocks are designed first

to define the GNSS base station logistics, and to break the project up into manageable acquisition units.

The flight acquisition sub blocks are designed based on the specified acquisition season, native UTM

zone of the DOQQs, flight line length limitations (to ensure sufficient performance of the IMU solution)

as well as air traffic restrictions in the area. Once the sub blocks have been delineated they are brought

into MissionPro for flight line design. The design parameters used in MissionPro will be 30% lateral

overlap and 40cm resolution. The flight lines have been designed with a north/south orientation or

east/west where required for efficiency. The design takes into account the latitude of the state, which

affects line spacing due to convergence as well as the terrain.

Process Date/Time: 2019-10-02 00:00:00

Process Step 2

CC ID: 1318046

SRTM elevation data is used in the

MissionPro design to ensure the 50cm GSD is achieved over all types of terrain. The raw data was

downloaded from the sensors after each flight using Leica XPro software. The imagery was then

georeferenced using the 200Hz GPS/INS data creating an exterior orientation for each scan line

(x/y/z/o/p/k). Leica Xpro APM software was used to automatically generate tiepoint measurements

between the forward, nadir and backward look angles for each line and to tie all flight lines together.

The resulting point data and exterior orientation data were used to perform a full bundle adjustment

using ORIMA software. Blunders were removed, and additional tie points measured in weak areas to

ensure a robust solution. Once the point data was clean and point coverage was acceptable, photo

-identifiable GPS-surveyed ground control points were introduced into the block adjustment. The bundle

adjustment process produces revised exterior orientation data for the sensor with GPS/INS, datum, and

sensor calibration errors modeled and removed. Using the revised exterior orientation from the bundle

adjustment, orthorectified image strips were created with Xpro software and the June 2018 USGS 10m

NED DEM. The Xpro orthorectification software applies an atmospheric-BRDF radiometric correction to

the imagery. This correction compensates for atmospheric absorption, solar illumination angle and bi

-directional reflectance. The orthorectified strips were then overlaid with each other and the ground

control to check accuracy. Once the accuracy of the orthorectified image strips were validated the strips

were then imported into Inpho's OrthoVista 7.1.2 package which was used for the final radiometric

balance, mosaic, and DOQQ sheet creation.

Process Date/Time: 2019-10-02 00:00:00

Catalog Details

Catalog Item ID: 65818
GUID: gov.noaa.nmfs.inport:65818
Metadata Record Created By: Erik Hund
Metadata Record Created: 2021-11-19 14:42+0000
Metadata Record Last Modified By: Kirk Waters
Metadata Record Last Modified: 2024-01-11 12:42+0000
Metadata Record Published: 2024-01-11
Owner Org: OCMP
Metadata Publication Status: Published Externally
Do Not Publish?: N
Metadata Last Review Date: 2021-11-19
Metadata Review Frequency: 1 Year
Metadata Next Review Date: 2022-11-19