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Short Citation:
OCM Partners, 2023: 2017 USFS Lidar DEM: Swauk Pine, WA,

Item Identification

Title: 2017 USFS Lidar DEM: Swauk Pine, WA
Short Name: Swauk_Pine_DEM_inport.xml
Status: Completed
Publication Date: 2023-04-25

Product: Bare Earth Elevation Model (Digital Terrain Model, DTM)

The United States Forest Service, Region 6, (USFS) required leaf-on airborne lidar surveys to be collected over of national forestry in Oregon and Washington State. The following areas were requested to be covered: Gifford Pinchot National Forest (GIP) in Vancouver, Washington; Okanogan-Wenatchee National Forest (OKA) in Wenatchee, Washington; Malheur National Forest (MAL) in John Day, Oregon; Deschutes National Forest (DES) in Bend, Oregon, Willamette National Forest (WIL) in Eugene, Oregon, Umpqua National Forest (UMP) in Douglas, Lane, and Jackson Counties, Oregon. The following report applies to the Swauk Pine AOIs, which encompasses fifty-two (52) square miles of the Deschutes National Forest in Oregon.

Aerial lidar data for this task order was planned, acquired, processed and produced at an aggregate nominal pulse spacing (ANPS) of 0.35 meters and aggregate nominal pulse density of 8 pulses per square meter.


The primary goals of this project are to provide high accuracy Light Detection and Ranging (lidar) data to enhance project planning and implementation; identify areas for the implementation of forest restoration treatments designed to restore forest structure in young-growth stands; and to provide engineering and resource specialists more information for on-the-ground project planning. In addition, these data will be used by researchers and scientists to characterize vegetation type and structure as it currently exists on the landscape and to provide a detailed, accurate, and precise benchmark for future change detection work. The data products specified herein may also be used for vegetation mapping, road identification and mapping, hydrologic feature delineation, and landcover characterization applications including a canopy height model, understory vegetation prediction, and other stand metrics.

Supplemental Information:

Tiling Scheme and Filenaming Convention

Tile Coverage: Tiles which lie completely within the project area will be complete to the tile edges. Tiles which lie partially outside the project boundary will be complete to the project boundary with enough overlap beyond the project boundary to ensure that no parts of the project are omitted.

Tile Size:

- Tile dimensions shall be 1,500 meters x 1,500 meters

- Tiled deliverables shall conform to the tiling scheme, without added overlap

- The tiling scheme shall be used for all tiled deliverables

- Tiled deliverables shall edge-match seamlessly in both the horizontal and vertical

Tile Naming: All tile-based deliverables shall be named according to the US National Grid naming convention. All

tile names shall include a project indicator and date of data collection, such as GIP for the Gifford Pinchot National

Forest and YYYYMMDD. Tiles shall also include indicator of data type, e.g. DTM for Digital Terrain Model (bare

earth). A general description of filenaming requirements is as follows:

Note: specific project site abbreviations will be provided post-award.


DTM_DESSWP_420000_943500_ 20170716

DTM: Data Type Abbreviation, e.g. digital terrain model

DES: Forest Abbreviation, e.g. Deschutes

SWP: Project Site Abbreviation, e.g. Swauk Pine

420000_943500: lower left coordinate identifier

20170716: collection date of July 16, 2017

YYYY: year, e.g. 2017

MM: month, e.g. 07 for July

DD: day, e.g. 16

Forest Abbreviations:

Deschutes: DES

Gifford Pinchot: GIP

Okanogan-Wenatchee: OKA

Malheur: MAL

Data Abbreviations:

DTM: digital terrain model

DSM: digital surface model

INT: intensity

FPC: full point cloud

GPC: ground point cloud


Theme Keywords

Thesaurus Keyword
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Science Keywords
ISO 19115 Topic Category

Spatial Keywords

Thesaurus Keyword
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords

Instrument Keywords

Thesaurus Keyword
Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Instrument Keywords
LIDAR > Light Detection and Ranging

Physical Location

Organization: Office for Coastal Management
City: Charleston
State/Province: SC

Data Set Information

Data Set Scope Code: Data Set
Data Set Type: Elevation
Maintenance Frequency: Unknown
Data Presentation Form: raster digital data
Entity Attribute Detail Citation:

All derived products for Forest Service R6 Data Resources Management

Distribution Liability:

The data represented is the result of data collection and processing per contract specifications and indicates the general existing conditions at the time of data collection. As such, it is only valid for its intended use, content, time, and accuracy specifications. The user is responsible for the results of any application of the data for other than its intended purpose.

Any conclusions drawn from the analysis of this information are not the responsibility of NOAA, the Office for Coastal Management or its partners

Data Set Credit: US Forest Service Region 6; The Atlantic Group, LLC

Support Roles

Data Steward

CC ID: 1228998
Date Effective From: 2023
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): NOAA Office for Coastal Management (NOAA/OCM)
Address: 2234 South Hobson Ave
Charleston, SC 29405-2413
Email Address:
Phone: (843) 740-1202


CC ID: 1228997
Date Effective From: 2023
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): NOAA Office for Coastal Management (NOAA/OCM)
Address: 2234 South Hobson Ave
Charleston, SC 29405-2413
Email Address:
Phone: (843) 740-1202

Metadata Contact

CC ID: 1228999
Date Effective From: 2023
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): NOAA Office for Coastal Management (NOAA/OCM)
Address: 2234 South Hobson Ave
Charleston, SC 29405-2413
Email Address:
Phone: (843) 740-1202

Point of Contact

CC ID: 1229000
Date Effective From: 2023
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): NOAA Office for Coastal Management (NOAA/OCM)
Address: 2234 South Hobson Ave
Charleston, SC 29405-2413
Email Address:
Phone: (843) 740-1202


Currentness Reference: Ground Condition

Extent Group 1

Extent Group 1 / Geographic Area 1

CC ID: 1229002
W° Bound: -120.697561
E° Bound: -120.5884
N° Bound: 47.31131
S° Bound: 47.241821

Extent Group 1 / Time Frame 1

CC ID: 1229014
Time Frame Type: Discrete
Start: 2017-10-16

Spatial Information

Spatial Resolution

Horizontal Distance: 1.0 Meter

Spatial Representation

Representations Used

Grid: Yes

Reference Systems

Reference System 1

CC ID: 1229019

Coordinate Reference System

CRS Type: Vertical
EPSG Code: EPSG:5703
EPSG Name: NAVD88 height
See Full Coordinate Reference System Information

Reference System 2

CC ID: 1229018

Coordinate Reference System

CRS Type: Projected
EPSG Code: EPSG:9674
EPSG Name: NAD83 / USFS R6 Albers
See Full Coordinate Reference System Information

Access Information

Security Class: Unclassified
Data Access Procedure:

Data is available online for bulk or custom downloads

Data Access Constraints:


Data Use Constraints:

Users should be aware that temporal changes may have occurred since this data set was collected and some parts of this data may no longer represent actual surface conditions. Users should not use this data for critical applications without a full awareness of its limitations.

Distribution Information

Distribution 1

CC ID: 1229004
Start Date: 2023-04-25
End Date: Present
Download URL:
Distributor: NOAA Office for Coastal Management (NOAA/OCM) (2023 - Present)
File Name: Bulk Download

Bulk download of data files in the original coordinate system.

File Type (Deprecated): GeoTIFF
Distribution Format: GeoTIFF

Distribution 2

CC ID: 1229003
Start Date: 2023-04-25
End Date: Present
Download URL:
Distributor: NOAA Office for Coastal Management (NOAA/OCM) (2023 - Present)
File Name: Customized Download

Create custom data files by choosing data area, map projection, file format, etc. A new metadata will be produced to reflect your request using this record as a base.

File Type (Deprecated): Zip
Compression: Zip



CC ID: 1228994
Name: NOAA's Office for Coastal Management (OCM) Data Access Viewer (DAV)
URL Type:
Online Resource
File Resource Format: HTML

The Data Access Viewer (DAV) allows a user to search for and download elevation, imagery, and land cover data for the coastal U.S. and its territories. The data, hosted by the NOAA Office for Coastal Management, can be customized and requested for free download through a checkout interface. An email provides a link to the customized data, while the original data set is available through a link within the viewer.


CC ID: 1228995
Name: Browse graphic
URL Type:
Browse Graphic
File Resource Format: KML

This graphic displays the footprint for this lidar data set.


CC ID: 1228996
Name: Dataset report
URL Type:
Online Resource
File Resource Format: PDF

Link to data set report.

Data Quality

Vertical Positional Accuracy:

Below are the vertical accuracy reporting requirements for this project:*The terms NVA (Non-vegetated Vertical Accuracy) and VVA (Vegetated Vertical Accuracy) are from the ASPRS Positional Accuracy Standards for Digital Geospatial Data v1.3 (2014). The term NVA refers to assessments in clear, open areas (which typically produce only single lidar returns); the term VVA refers to assessments in vegetated areas (typically characterized by multiple return lidar).

The Vertical Accuracy Assessment utilized the required parameters for Vertical Data Accuracy Class IV.

Qualitative value:0.1142, Test that produced the value: 95% confidence level in non-vegetated areas as defined by the National Standards for Spatial Data Accuracy (NSSDA) using RMSE(z) x 1.96 where RMSE(z) was 0.0583 meters calculated using 18 independent checkpoints located in the Bare Earth and Urban land cover categories.

Completeness Report:

Area of interest covers project area. A visual qualitative assessment was performed to ensure data completeness. No void areas or missing data exist. The raw point cloud is of good quality and data passes NVA specifications. Void areas (i.e., areas outside the project boundary but within the tiling scheme) are coded using a unique NODATA value. This value is identified in the appropriate location within the file header.

Conceptual Consistency:

All lidar data and lidar derived data covers the entire area of interest. All lidar point cloud tiles show no edge artifacts or mismatches from tile to tile. Void areas (i.e. areas outside the project boundary but within the tiling scheme) are coded using a unique NODATA value. This value is identified in the appropriate location within the file header. Data cover the entire area specified for this project.



DEM data for Swauk Pine

CC ID: 1229015
Contact Role Type: Originator
Contact Type: Organization
Contact Name: USFS

Process Steps

Process Step 1

CC ID: 1228986

Flight Plan Execution

Atlantic operated a Leica ALS70-HP lidar system on a Cessna (N732JE) during July 16, 2017 for the project area. Atlantic acquired 40 passes of the AOI as a series of perpendicular and/or adjacent flight-lines executed in 1 flight missions conducted between July 16, 2017 and July 16, 2017. Onboard differential Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) unit(s) recorded sample aircraft positions at 2 hertz (Hz) or more frequency. Lidar data was only acquired when a minimum of six (6) satellites were in view.

Process Date/Time: 2019-07-16 00:00:00

Process Step 2

CC ID: 1228987

Ground Control Survey

A total of 27 Non-vegetated Vertical Accuracy (NVA) points were collected in support of this project.

Point cloud data accuracy was tested against a Triangulated Irregular Network (TIN) constructed from lidar points in clear and open areas. A clear and open area can be characterized with respect to topographic and ground cover variation such that a minimum of five (5) times the Nominal Pulse Spacing (NPS) exists with less than 1/3 of the RMSEZ deviation from a low-slope plane. Slopes that exceed ten (10) percent were avoided.

Each land cover type representing ten (10) percent or more of the total project area were tested and reported with a VVA. In land cover categories other than dense urban areas, the tested points did not have obstructions forty-five (45) degrees above the horizon to ensure a satisfactory TIN surface. The VVA value is provided as a target. It is understood that in areas of dense vegetation, swamps, or extremely difficult terrain, this value may be exceeded.

The NVA value is a requirement that must be met, regardless of any allowed “busts” in the VVA(s) for individual land cover types within the project. Checkpoints for each assessment (NVA and VVA) are required to be well-distributed throughout the land cover type, for the entire project area.

Process Date/Time: 2019-07-16 00:00:00

Process Step 3

CC ID: 1228988

Lidar Point Cloud Generation

Atlantic used Leica software products to download the IPAS ABGNSS/IMU data and raw laser scan files from the airborne system. Waypoint Inertial Explorer is used to extract the raw IPAS ABGNSS/IMU data, which is further processed in combination with controlled base stations to provide the final Smoothed Best Estimate Trajectory (SBET) for each mission. The SBETs are combined with the raw laser scan files to export the LAS (*.las) formatted swath point clouds

Process Date/Time: 2019-12-13 00:00:00

Process Step 4

CC ID: 1228989

Lidar Calibration

Using a combination of GeoCue, TerraScan and TerraMatch; overlapping swath point clouds are corrected for any orientation or linear deviations to obtain the best fit swath-to-swath calibration. Relative calibration was evaluated using advanced plane-matching analysis and parameter corrections derived. This process was repeated interactively until residual errors between overlapping swaths, across all project missions, was reduced to no more than 2cm. A final analysis of the calibrated lidar is preformed using a TerraMatch tie line report for an overall statistical model of the project area.

Upon completion of the data calibration, a complete set of elevation difference intensity rasters (dZ Orthos) are produced. A user-defined color ramp is applied depicting the offsets between overlapping swaths based on project specifications. The dZ orthos provide an opportunity to review the data calibration in a qualitative manner. Atlantic assigns green to all offset values that fall below the required RMSDz requirement of the project. A yellow color is assigned for offsets that fall between the RMSDz value and 1.5x of that value. Finally, red values are assigned to all values that fall beyond 1.5x of the RMSDz requirements of the project.

Process Date/Time: 2019-12-13 00:00:00

Process Step 5

CC ID: 1228990

Lidar Classification

Multiple automated filtering routines are applied to the calibrated lidar point cloud identifying and extracting bare-earth and above ground features. GeoCue, TerraScan, and TerraModeler software was used for the initial batch processing, visual inspection and any manual editing of the lidar point clouds. Atlantic utilized collected breakline data to preform classification for classes 9 (Water) and 20 (Ignored Ground).

1 Processed, Unclassified

2 Ground

7 Low Point (Noise)

18 High Point (Noise)

Process Date/Time: 2019-12-13 00:00:00

Process Step 6

CC ID: 1228991

Bare earth Digital Elevation Models (DTMs) were derived using the bare earth (ground) lidar points. All DEMs were created with a grid spacing of 1.0-meter. DTMs for this project were cut to match the tile index and its corresponding tile names and delivered in img format.

Process Date/Time: 2019-12-13 00:00:00

Process Step 7

CC ID: 1229016

NOAA Office for Coastal Management (OCM) received the data from the U.S. Forest Service Region 6 in Imagine (*.img) format, USFS region 6 Albers projection (meters), and vertically in NAVD88 (Geoid12b) meters. The data were converted to cloud optimized geotiff (COG) format for distribution in the Digital Coast Data Access Viewer.

Process Date/Time: 2023-04-25 00:00:00
Process Contact: NOAA Office for Coastal Management (NOAA/OCM)
Phone (Voice): (843) 740-1202
Email Address:
Source: DEM data for Swauk Pine

Related Items

Item Type Relationship Type Title
Data Set (DS) Cross Reference 2017 USFS Region-6 Lidar: Swauk Pine, WA

Point cloud used to generate this DEM

Catalog Details

Catalog Item ID: 69696
GUID: gov.noaa.nmfs.inport:69696
Metadata Record Created By: Kirk Waters
Metadata Record Created: 2023-04-25 14:07+0000
Metadata Record Last Modified By: SysAdmin InPortAdmin
Metadata Record Last Modified: 2023-10-17 16:12+0000
Metadata Record Published: 2023-04-25
Owner Org: OCMP
Metadata Publication Status: Published Externally
Do Not Publish?: N
Metadata Last Review Date: 2023-04-25
Metadata Review Frequency: 3 Years
Metadata Next Review Date: 2026-04-25