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Short Citation:
Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, 2022: National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Assessing and Monitoring Cryptic Reef Diversity of Colonizing Marine Invertebrates using Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structures (ARMS) Deployed at Coral Reef Sites across the Pacific Remote Island Areas from 2011 to 2018, https://www.fisheries.noaa.gov/inport/item/22465.

Item Identification

Title: National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Assessing and Monitoring Cryptic Reef Diversity of Colonizing Marine Invertebrates using Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structures (ARMS) Deployed at Coral Reef Sites across the Pacific Remote Island Areas from 2011 to 2018
Short Name: NCRMP: ARMS PRIAs
Status: In Work
Creation Date: 2017
Revision Date: 2020-01-07
Publication Date: 2020
Abstract:

This dataset includes species identification data gathered from Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structures (ARMS). These ARMS are used by the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC), Ecosystem Sciences Division (formerly the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division) to assess and monitor cryptic reef diversity in the Pacific Remote Island Areas as part of the ongoing National Coral Reef Monitoring Program (NCRMP). Developed in collaboration with the Census of Marine Life (CoML) Census of Coral Reef Ecosystems (CReefs), ARMS are designed to mimic the structural complexity of a reef and attract/collect colonizing marine invertebrates. The key innovation of the ARMS method is that biodiversity is sampled over precisely the same surface area in the exact same manner.

This data was gathered at specific reef sites across the Pacific Remote Island Areas. At these sites, divers entered the water and deployed and/or recovered the ARMS unit. Each unit used to gather this data consists of 23 cm x 23 cm gray, PVC plates stacked in alternating series of 4 open and 4 obstructed layers and attached to a base plate of 35 cm x 45 cm which is affixed to the reef. They are designed to mimic the structural complexity of a reef and attract colonizing invertebrates. Soak times are approximately 3 years. Refer to the specific dataset to determine how long a particular unit was underwater as soak times can vary by location.

Upon recovery, each ARMS unit was encapsulated, brought to the surface, and disassembled and processed on-board the research ship. Disassembled plates were photographed to document recruited sessile organisms, scraped clean and preserved in 95% ethanol for future DNA processing. Recruited motile organisms were then sieved into 3 size fractions: 2 mm, 500 um, and 100 um. The 500-um and 100-um fraction was bulked and preserved in 95% ethanol for future DNA processing. The 2-mm fraction was sorted into morphospecies. These DNA sequencing data are not included in this dataset.

Purpose:

The use of ARMS is a systematic, consistent, and comparable method for monitoring the marine cryptobiota community in coral reef ecosystems over time.

The NOAA National Coral Reef Monitoring Program (NCRMP) details a long term approach to provide an ecosystem perspective via monitoring climate, fish, benthic, and socioeconomic variables in a consistent and integrated manner. The NCRMP is intended to coordinate various NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) biological, physical, and human dimensions activities into a cohesive NOAA-wide effort. Through the implementation of the NCRMP, NOAA will be able to clearly and concisely communicate results of national-scale monitoring to national, state, and territorial policy makers, resource managers, and the public on a periodic basis.

Supplemental Information:

NCRMP is a framework for conducting sustained observations of biological, climate, and socioeconomic indicators at 10 priority coral reefs across the U.S. and its territories. This integrated approach consolidates monitoring of coral reefs under a uniform method in the Pacific, Atlantic, Caribbean, and the Gulf of Mexico for the first time. NCRMP is funded by the CRCP and supported by NOAA Fisheries, NOAA National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS), and many other partners.

The Ecosystem Sciences Division at NOAA Fisheries is leading climate monitoring in the U.S. Pacific Islands Region. The climate component of NCRMP in the Pacific provides a comprehensive view of climate change impacts on coral reef ecosystems and helps identify areas of resilience and vulnerability. The key indicators used to identify and monitor climate-driven trends include 1) thermal stress caused by changes in sea temperature, 2) ocean acidification resulting from changes in carbonate chemistry, and 3) ecological impacts by collecting data on coral growth rates, erosion, and community structure to understand the impacts of thermal stress and ocean acidification on the ecosystem. Each year, ESD scientists work closely with CRCP and partners during Pacific RAMP missions to collect data using moored oceanographic (subsurface temperature recorders) and ecological (calcification accretion units [CAUs] and autonomous reef monitoring structures [ARMS]) instruments stationed at fixed sites in the Pacific Ocean, and water samples collected by divers. The in-situ data (along with satellite-based observations) are also used in modeling efforts. Innovative analysis techniques are used to develop products that give fellow scientists, managers, decision makers and the public a better understanding of a region's resources and how they are changing over time.

DOI (Digital Object Identifier): 10.7289/v54x563c
DOI Registration Authority: NOAA

Keywords

Theme Keywords

Thesaurus Keyword
UNCONTROLLED
CoRIS Discovery Thesaurus Numeric Data Sets > Biology
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Aquatic Habitat > Benthic Habitat
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Aquatic Habitat > Reef Habitat
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef Monitoring and Assessment
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef Monitoring and Assessment > Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structure (ARMS)
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef Monitoring and Assessment > In Situ Biological
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Coastal Processes > Coral Reefs
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Coastal Processes > Coral Reefs > Coral Reef Ecology
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Marine Biology > Brachyura
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Marine Biology > Cryptobiota
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Marine Biology > Marine Invertebrates
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Marine Biology > Marine Invertebrates > Biodiversity
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Marine Biology > Marine Invertebrates > Census
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Marine Biology > Marine Invertebrates > Macroinvertebrates
CRCP Project 743
CRCP Project National Coral Reef Monitoring Program
ISO 19115 Topic Category 002
ISO 19115 Topic Category 014
ISO 19115 Topic Category biota
ISO 19115 Topic Category oceans
NODC DATA TYPES THESAURUS INVERTEBRATE SPECIES
NODC DATA TYPES THESAURUS SPECIES IDENTIFICATION
NODC DATA TYPES THESAURUS SPECIES IDENTIFICATION - COUNT
NODC OBSERVATION TYPES THESAURUS biological
NODC OBSERVATION TYPES THESAURUS in situ
NODC OBSERVATION TYPES THESAURUS visual estimate
NODC PLATFORM NAMES THESAURUS HI'IALAKAI
NODC PROJECT NAMES THESAURUS Coral Reef Conservation Program
NODC PROJECT NAMES THESAURUS CORAL REEF STUDIES
NODC PROJECT NAMES THESAURUS National Coral Reef Monitoring Program
NODC SUBMITTING INSTITUTION NAMES THESAURUS US DOC; NOAA; NMFS; Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center; Ecosystem Sciences Division
None ARMS
None Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structure
None Coral Reef Ecosystem Division
None Coral Reef Ecosystem Program
None CRED
None CREP
None Ecosystem Sciences Division
None ESD
None Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center
None PIFSC
None RAMP
None Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program

Temporal Keywords

Thesaurus Keyword
UNCONTROLLED
None Triennial

Spatial Keywords

Thesaurus Keyword
UNCONTROLLED
CoRIS Place Thesaurus COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > USA Minor Outlying Islands > Jarvis Island (00S160W0001)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > USA Minor Outlying Islands > Kingman Reef (06N162W0001)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > USA Minor Outlying Islands > Palmyra Atoll (05N162W0001)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > USA Minor Outlying Islands > Wake Atoll (19N167E0001)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Central Pacific Ocean > Line Islands > Jarvis Island (00S160W0001)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Central Pacific Ocean > Line Islands > Kingman Reef (06N162W0001)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Central Pacific Ocean > Line Islands > Palmyra Atoll (05N162W0001)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Central Pacific Ocean > Wake Atoll > Wake Atoll (19N167E0001)
NODC Sea Area Names Thesaurus Equatorial Pacific Ocean
NODC Sea Area Names Thesaurus Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monument
None Pacific Remote Island Areas
None PRIA
None PRIMNM

Instrument Keywords

Thesaurus Keyword
UNCONTROLLED
NODC INSTRUMENT TYPES THESAURUS ARMS
NODC INSTRUMENT TYPES THESAURUS Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structures

Physical Location

Organization: Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center
City: Honolulu
State/Province: HI
Country: USA
Location Description:

NOAA IRC

Data Set Information

Data Set Scope Code: Data Set
Data Set Type: CSV Files
Maintenance Frequency: As Needed
Maintenance Note:

Updated to add 2018 data

Data Presentation Form: Table (digital)
Entity Attribute Overview:

Specimen retrieval data includes metadata for each ARMS unit (where, deployment / retrieval date) and individual specimens identified to the lowest taxonomic level possible along with a count.

Entity Attribute Detail URL: https://www.fisheries.noaa.gov/inport/item/45794
Distribution Liability:

While every effort has been made to ensure that these data are accurate and reliable within the limits of the current state of the art, NOAA cannot assume liability for any damages caused by errors or omissions in the data, nor as a result of the failure of the data to function on a particular system. NOAA makes no warranty, expressed or implied, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty.

Data Set Credit: PIFSC Ecosystem Sciences Division and partners, with support from the Census of Marine Life (2008-2010), NOAA's Ocean Acidification Program (2010-2012), and from the Coral Reef Conservation Program (2012-2019)

Support Roles

Data Set Credit

CC ID: 387624
Date Effective From: 2011
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP)
Address: 1305 East West Highway 10th Floor
Silver Spring, MD 20910-3281
Phone: (301) 713-3155
URL: https://coralreef.noaa.gov

Data Steward

CC ID: 231487
Date Effective From: 2011
Date Effective To:
Contact (Person): Timmers, Molly A
Address: 1845 Wasp Blvd.
Honolulu, HI 96818
USA
Email Address: molly.timmers@noaa.gov
Phone: (808)725-5449
Contact Instructions:

Email preffered

Distributor

CC ID: 387625
Date Effective From: 2017
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): National Centers for Environmental Information - Silver Spring, Maryland (NCEI-MD)
Address: NOAA/NESDIS E/OC SSMC3, 4th Floor, 1351 East-West Highway
Silver Spring, MD 20910-3282
Phone: (301) 713-3277

Metadata Contact

CC ID: 1048526
Date Effective From: 2021
Date Effective To:
Contact (Person): Akridge, Michael W
Address: 1845 Wasp Blvd.
Honolulu, HI 96818
USA
Email Address: michael.akridge@noaa.gov
Phone: (808)725-5483
Contact Instructions:

Email Preferred

Originator

CC ID: 231485
Date Effective From: 2011
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC)
Address: 1845 Wasp Blvd.
Honolulu, HI 96818
USA
Email Address: pifsc.info@noaa.gov
Phone: 808-725-5360
URL: https://www.pifsc.noaa.gov
Business Hours: 8:00 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.

Point of Contact

CC ID: 231488
Date Effective From: 2014
Date Effective To:
Contact (Person): Oliver, Thomas
Address: 1845 Wasp Blvd.
Honolulu, HI 96818
USA
Email Address: thomas.oliver@noaa.gov
Phone: (808)725-5444
Contact Instructions:

Email preferred

View Historical Support Roles

Extents

Currentness Reference: Ground Condition

Extent Group 1

Extent Description:

Pacific Remote Island Areas (PRIA) including Baker, Howland, and Jarvis islands, Kingman Reef, and Johnston, Palmyra, and Wake atolls.

Extent Group 1 / Geographic Area 1

CC ID: 389975
W° Bound: 166.59824
E° Bound: 166.65155
N° Bound: 19.31654
S° Bound: 19.27116
Description

Wake Atoll, one of the seven PRIA, is routinely surveyed as part of the Mariana Archipelago RAMP (MARAMP) missions.

Extent Group 1 / Geographic Area 2

CC ID: 389974
W° Bound: -162.3843
E° Bound: -159.99086
N° Bound: 6.3947
S° Bound: -0.3818
Description

Phoenix (Baker and Howland) and Line Islands (Jarvis, Kingman, and Palmyra), and Johnston Atoll. These six of the seven PRIA are routinely surveyed as part of the American Samoa RAMP (ASRAMP) missions (Johnston, Baker and Howland during the first leg of ASRAMP, and Jarvis, Kingman, and Palmyra during the last leg of ASRAMP).

Extent Group 1 / Time Frame 1

CC ID: 389976
Time Frame Type: Range
Start: 2011-03-23
End: 2014-03-19
Alternate Start As Of Info: HA1101
Alternate End As Of Info: HA1401
Description:

ARMS across Wake Atoll, deployed in 2011 and recovered in 2014

Extent Group 1 / Time Frame 2

CC ID: 389977
Time Frame Type: Range
Start: 2012-05-03
End: 2015-04-28
Alternate Start As Of Info: HA1201
Alternate End As Of Info: HA1501
Description:

ARMS across the Pacific Remote Island Areas (excluding Wake Atoll) deployed in 2012 and recovered in 2015

Extent Group 1 / Time Frame 3

CC ID: 776087
Time Frame Type: Range
Start: 2014-03-16
End: 2017-04-23
Alternate Start As Of Info: HA1401
Alternate End As Of Info: HA1701
Description:

ARMS across Wake Atoll, deployed in 2014 and recovered in 2017

Extent Group 1 / Time Frame 4

CC ID: 890865
Time Frame Type: Range
Start: 2015-04-08
End: 2018-08-05
Alternate Start As Of Info: HA_1501
Alternate End As Of Info: HA_1801
Description:

ARMS across the Pacific Remote Island Areas

Access Information

Security Class: Unclassified
Security Classification System:

Not applicable

Security Handling Description:

Not applicable

Data Access Policy:

NOAA Coral Reef Ecosystem Program (CREP) Data Sharing Recommendations, version 9.0 updated August 12, 2015:

CREP welcomes the opportunity to collaborate on research issues contributing to the scientific basis for better management of marine ecosystems. CREP has a very diverse set of field activities that generates large volumes of data using an array of data collection protocols.

The following recommendations are for your consideration as you use this data:

1) Data analyses should take all field exigencies into account. The most effective way to do this would be active collaboration with CREP principal investigators.

2) In all presentations, product releases, or publications using data generated by CREP, proper acknowledgement of both CREP and the individuals responsible for data collection is expected. Citing the DOI (if available) is preferred, a non-DOI example is listed below.

3) If you collect or generate data for the same study areas, CREP requests that you share relevant information on complimentary data collections.

4) Those receiving data are strongly urged to inform the CREP Data Management Team of any errors and discrepancies that are discovered during the course of using these data. They are further urged to bring to the attention of the Team all problems and difficulties encountered in using these data. This information is necessary in order to improve the collections and to facilitate more efficient and economical data processing and retrieval. The users are asked to supply copies of any missing data that may be located, and to provide information as to significant subsets and special aggregations of data that are developed in using the material provided.

Example citation:

"This publication makes use of data products provided by the Ecosystem Sciences Division (ESD), Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), with funding support from the NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) and the Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC). The analysis and interpretations presented here are solely that of the current authors.”

Data Access Procedure:

Data can be accessed online via the NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) Ocean Archive.

Data Access Constraints:

None

Data Use Constraints:

Please cite PIFSC Ecosystem Sciences Division (ESD) when using the data.

Suggested citation:

Ecosystem Sciences Division; Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (2018). National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Assessing and Monitoring Cryptic Reef Diversity of Colonizing Marine Invertebrates using Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structures (ARMS) Deployed at Coral Reef Sites across the Pacific Remote Island Areas from 2011 to 2017. NOAA's National Center for Environmental Information, https://www.fisheries.noaa.gov/inport/item/22465.

Metadata Access Constraints:

None

Metadata Use Constraints:

None

Distribution Information

Distribution 1

CC ID: 390016
Download URL: https://accession.nodc.noaa.gov/0162464
Distributor: National Centers for Environmental Information - Silver Spring, Maryland (NCEI-MD) (2017 - Present)
File Name: ARMS_Specimens_PRIAs_2015.csv
Description:

Specimens recovered by the NOAA Coral Reef Ecosystem Program (CREP) from ARMS units deployed across the Pacific Remote Island Areas (excluding Wake Atoll) in 2012 and recovered in 2015.

File Date/Time: 2017-04-24 00:00:00
File Type: csv (comma-separated values)

Distribution 2

CC ID: 180805
Download URL: https://accession.nodc.noaa.gov/0162467
Distributor: National Centers for Environmental Information - Silver Spring, Maryland (NCEI-MD) (2017 - Present)
File Name: ARMS_Specimens_PRIAs_2014.csv
Description:

Specimens recovered by the NOAA Coral Reef Ecosystem Program (CREP) from ARMS units deployed across Wake Atoll in 2011 and recovered in 2014.

File Date/Time: 2017-04-24 00:00:00
File Type: csv (comma-separated values)

Distribution 3

CC ID: 776088
Download URL: https://accession.nodc.noaa.gov/0176227
Distributor: National Centers for Environmental Information - Silver Spring, Maryland (NCEI-MD) (2017 - Present)
File Name: ARMS_Specimens_PRIAs_2017.csv
Description:

Specimens recovered by the PIFSC Ecosystem Sciences Division (ESD) from ARMS units deployed across Wake Atoll in 2014 and recovered in 2017.

File Date/Time: 2018-09-13 00:00:00
File Type: csv (comma-separated values)

Distribution 4

CC ID: 1048530
Download URL: https://accession.nodc.noaa.gov/0226243
Distributor: National Centers for Environmental Information - Silver Spring, Maryland (NCEI-MD) (2017 - Present)
File Name: ARMS_Specimens_PRIAs_2018.csv
Description:

Specimens recovered by the PIFSC Ecosystem Sciences Division (ESD) from ARMS units deployed across the Pacific Remote Island Areas (excluding Wake Atoll) in 2015 and recovered in 2018.

File Date/Time: 2021-03-02 00:00:00
File Type: csv (comma-separated values)

Distribution 5

CC ID: 1048532
Download URL: https://accession.nodc.noaa.gov/0226243
Distributor: National Centers for Environmental Information - Silver Spring, Maryland (NCEI-MD) (2017 - Present)
File Name: LIST_OF_INVERT_SPECIES.csv
Description:

Reference table for species recovered in American Samoa in 2018.

File Date/Time: 2021-03-02 00:00:00
File Type: csv (comma-separated values)

URLs

URL 1

CC ID: 180808
URL: https://www.fisheries.noaa.gov/region/pacific-islands#science
Name: Information on NOAA PIFSC's official website
URL Type:
Online Resource

URL 2

CC ID: 180809
URL: http://origin-apps-pifsc.fisheries.noaa.gov/cred/images/arms_install_sm.jpg
Name: A NOAA diver installing an ARMS unit
URL Type:
Browse Graphic
A NOAA diver installing an ARMS unit
File Resource Format: JPEG

URL 3

CC ID: 180810
URL: http://origin-apps-pifsc.fisheries.noaa.gov/cred/images/arms_deployed4_sm.jpg
Name: ARMS recruitment after 2 years
URL Type:
Browse Graphic
ARMS recruitment after 2 years
File Resource Format: JPEG

URL 4

CC ID: 890869
URL: https://www.coris.noaa.gov/monitoring/
Name: NOAA's National Coral Reef Monitoring Program
URL Type:
Online Resource

Technical Environment

Description:

Microsoft Access

Data Quality

Accuracy:

All species identifications are made visually by a trained analyst and subsequently reviewed by a taxonomic expert or through molecular processing for accuracy.

Completeness Report:

All ARMS units that are recovered are disassembled, photographed, and sorted by size. Taxonomic classification occurs for materials greater than 2 mm. The research and development of the genetic analysis of ARMS samples is being done in collaboration with partners and data may exist for a subset of locations. ARMS that have been deployed may not have been recovered due to logistical constraints of the following mission or could not be found when divers returned to the site.

Conceptual Consistency:

ARMS sample biodiversity over precisely the same surface area in the exact same manner. Thus, the use of ARMS is a systematic, consistent, and comparable method for monitoring the cryptobiota community over time. Three units are deployed at each site to allow for replicate measurements. Divers typically record ARMS metadata into the master Microsoft Access database within a few days of the field operations and/or ARMS processing. QA/QC procedures by the ARMS team and the Cruise Data Manager are typically completed during the field mission.

Quality Control Procedures Employed:

The data entered in the MS Access database is quality controlled following data entry.

Data Management

Have Resources for Management of these Data Been Identified?: Yes
Approximate Percentage of Budget for these Data Devoted to Data Management: Unknown
Do these Data Comply with the Data Access Directive?: Yes
Is Access to the Data Limited Based on an Approved Waiver?: No
Approximate Delay Between Data Collection and Dissemination: Unknown
Actual or Planned Long-Term Data Archive Location: NCEI-MD
Approximate Delay Between Data Collection and Archiving: Unknown
How Will the Data Be Protected from Accidental or Malicious Modification or Deletion Prior to Receipt by the Archive?:

The MS Access database is stored on the PIFSC network and regularly backed up by ITS.

Lineage

Lineage Statement:

Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structures (ARMS) are assembled, deployed on the benthos for 1-3 years during which they are colonized with marine organisms, recovered and processed as described below. The > 2-mm organisms are identified and counted, and the data is recorded in an MS Access database. The smaller fractions are sent for genomic analysis, although those data are not included with this dataset. This data can be found through it’s respective metadata record in the “Related Items” section below.

Sources

Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structures (ARMS) Overview

CC ID: 890864
Contact Role Type: Originator
Contact Type: Person
Contact Name: Molly Timmers
Citation URL: https://origin-apps-pifsc.fisheries.noaa.gov/cred/survey_methods.php#arms
Citation URL Name: Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center
Source Contribution:

Protocol

Process Steps

Process Step 1

CC ID: 384920
Description:

ARMS Deployment - The ARMS platform consists of 23 cm x 23 cm grey, type 1 PVC plates stacked in alternating series of 4 open and 4 obstructed layers and attached to a base plate of 35 cm x 45 cm which is affixed to the reef. They are affixed to the sea floor with either four stainless steel stakes or weights and zip ties and are typically deployed on mid-depth (10-15 meters) forereef habitats in replicate sets of three. Each ARMS unit is typically separated by 2-5 meters. A GPS waypoint of the site is obtained by swimming over the site to get a point directly above the ARMS unit.

The ARMS site and ARMS units are photo documented; pictures of the surrounding habitat as well as the deployed ARMS are captured. Close-up images of the dominant benthic cover around the ARMS units are captured. ARMS remain on the bottom for a set period of time during which they become colonized with marine organisms. The soak time varies by unit model. Please see the data to determine how long a particular unit was underwater.

Process Contact: Timmers, Molly A
Phone (Voice): (808)725-5449
Email Address: molly.timmers@noaa.gov

Process Step 2

CC ID: 384921
Description:

ARMS Recovery and Processing - Photo documentation occurs of the ARMS and recovery site before the ARMS units are removed off of the benthos. The ARMS unit is detached from the substrate, encapsulated, brought to the surface, and disassembled and processed onboard the research ship.

Disassembled plates are photographed to document recruited sessile organisms. The plates are rinsed lightly in a container to remove sand particles thereby providing a cleaner surface for imaging the sessile organisms on the plates. Each plate is placed in a shallow tray containing seawater to be photographed. An initial photo of the plate is obtained along with a close up image of each quarter of the plate, the center, and of anything of interest. Photos are obtained of the top and bottom of each plate in the unit. Images are used for analyses of sessile recruitment and composition.

When all of the plate layers in the ARMS unit have been photographed and set aside (in seawater), the seawater from the disassembly tub, photo tray, and rinse bucket is sieved through adjoining 2 mm and 500 um sieve pans and an attachable 100 um mesh hand net. Material collected in the 500 um sieve and 100 um net are bulk preserved into two separate jars. Jars are filled with EtOH and labeled accordingly. The preserved 500 and 100 um sample fractions undergo mass sequencing techniques. The > 2 mm size fraction can either be bulked preserved, like the 500 and 100 um fractions, with the understanding that they will be sorted at a later date or can be sorted at the time of processing into morphospecies.

Sorting the > 2 mm size fraction is more efficient immediately after processing because the organisms are alive, intact, and colorful. Ethanol, as a preservative, fades away specimen coloration, can separate annelid segments and can detach crustacean limbs when bulk preserved. Immediate processing of the > 2 mm size fraction also provides you with the opportunity to photograph the specimens for vouchering. When photographing specimens, the first image has the unique specimen label in the image. Subsequent images may be taken without the label for finer details. When images and identifications are complete, the specimen(s) are preserved in ethanol.

All plates from an individual ARMS unit are scrapped en masse. Once all plates have been scraped, all the scrapings are transferred into a blender (Brevill; BBL600XL). The scrapings are blended for 45-60 seconds on maximum power until sample is homogenized. The sample is then transferred from the blender to a 40 um net. The sample in the net is rinsed with filtered (< 40 um) seawater until all discharge from net is clear (takes ~2 gal). Four ~10 ml samples are preserved in 50 ml falcon tubes with DMSO or 95% EtOH, secure lid and shake. The remaining sample is stored in a sterile whirlpak at -20C. Between the processing of each ARMS unit the blender is rinsed in fresh water to remove any remaining homogenate. The blender is then placed in a 10% bleach solution for 15 minutes. Finally all parts thoroughly rinsed with DI water if available or fresh water.

All recovered ARMS units are processed to the above step. When possible, ARMS samples are analyzed molecularly and taxonomically. The data resulting from genetic analysis of ARMS samples using 454 Illumina mass sequencing techniques through partnerships with the Smithsonian, San Diego State University, Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, and the Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, can be found through it’s respective metadata record in the “Related Items” section below.

Process Contact: Timmers, Molly A
Phone (Voice): (808)725-5449
Email Address: molly.timmers@noaa.gov

Child Items

Rubric scores updated every 15m

Rubric Score Type Title
Entity ARMS Specimens

Catalog Details

Catalog Item ID: 22465
GUID: gov.noaa.nmfs.inport:22465
Metadata Record Created By: Annette M DesRochers
Metadata Record Created: 2014-11-07 18:15+0000
Metadata Record Last Modified By: Sarah Kunkel
Metadata Record Last Modified: 2022-10-20 03:15+0000
Metadata Record Published: 2021-03-10
Owner Org: PIFSC
Metadata Publication Status: Published Externally
Do Not Publish?: N
Metadata Last Review Date: 2021-03-10
Metadata Review Frequency: 1 Year
Metadata Next Review Date: 2022-03-10