Short Citation:
Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, 2021: Pacific Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program: Towed-diver Surveys of Benthic Habitat, Key Benthic Species, including Marine Debris Sightings, of the U.S. Pacific Reefs from 2000 to 2012, https://www.fisheries.noaa.gov/inport/item/35618.

Item Identification

Title: Pacific Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program: Towed-diver Surveys of Benthic Habitat, Key Benthic Species, including Marine Debris Sightings, of the U.S. Pacific Reefs from 2000 to 2012
Short Name: RAMP: Benthic Towed-diver Surveys from 2000-2012
Status: Completed
Publication Date: 2016
Abstract:

The towed-diver method is used to conduct benthic surveys, assessing large-scale disturbances (e.g., bleaching) and quantifying benthic components such as habitat complexity/type and the general distribution and abundance patterns of live coral, CCA, macroalgae, and macroinvertebrates. Surveys are conducted in the Hawaiian and Mariana Archipelagos, American Samoa, and the Pacific Remote Island Areas as part of the NOAA National Coral Reef Monitoring Program (NCRMP). A suitable method for assessing relatively large areas of reef habitat, the method involves towing a pair of SCUBA divers—one benthic and one fish—behind a small boat for approximately 50 min following the ~15-m depth contour and covering about 2–3 km of habitat. Each diver is equipped with a towboard and attempts to maintain a constant elevation above the surface of the reef (~1 m) for the duration of the survey. A complete towed-diver survey is divided into 10, 5-min segments, with visual observations recorded by 5-min segment.

The visual estimate data provided in this dataset were collected during towed-diver surveys which includes percentage cover of total live hard corals, stressed hard corals, soft corals, sand, coralline algae, and macroalgae, and the number of individual macroinvertebrates (crown of thorns starfish (COTS), sea urchins, and giant clams). Benthic habitat complexity and type data are also collected as part of the survey with the following habitat type categories: continuous reef, spur and groove, patch reefs, rock boulders, pavement, rubble flat, sand flats, pinnacle, and wall.

The data were collected at coral reefs across all U.S.-affiliated regions as part of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC), Coral Reef Ecosystem Program (CREP) led missions since 2000. These data can be accessed online via the NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) Ocean Archive.

Purpose:

The Pacific Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (Pacific RAMP), established by the NOAA Coral Reef Ecosystem Program (CREP) and supported by NOAA's Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP), is tasked with documenting and understanding the status and trends of coral reef ecosystems in the U.S. Pacific. Pacific RAMP involves interdisciplinary monitoring of oceanographic conditions and biological surveys of organisms associated with hard-bottomed habitats in the 0 - 30 m depth range. Regions are surveyed on a biennial cycle and aims to support integrated, consistent and comparable monitoring of coral reefs across all U.S.-affiliated regions.

Keywords

Theme Keywords

Thesaurus Keyword
CoRIS Discovery Thesaurus Numeric Data Sets > Biology
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Aquatic Habitat > Reef Habitat
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Coral Mortality
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Photic Zone Corals
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef Monitoring and Assessment
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Coastal Processes > Coral Reefs
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Coastal Processes > Coral Reefs > Coral Reef Ecology > Benthic biology
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Coastal Processes > Coral Reefs > Coral Reef Ecology > Coral Cover
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Coastal Processes > Coral Reefs > Coral Reef Ecology > Habitats
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Coastal Processes > Coral Reefs > Coral Reef Ecology > Hard Coral Cover
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Coastal Processes > Coral Reefs > Coral Reef Ecology > Hard Coral Cover Dead percentage
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Coastal Processes > Coral Reefs > Coral Reef Ecology > Hard Coral Cover Live percentage
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Marine Biology > Coral
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Marine Biology > Coral Communities
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Marine Biology > Macroinvertebrates
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Marine Biology > Marine Invertebrates
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Marine Biology > Marine Invertebrates > Census
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Marine Biology > Marine Invertebrates > Census > Macroinvertebrates
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Marine Biology > Marine Invertebrates > Census > Population Density
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Marine Biology > Marine Invertebrates > Macroinvertebrates
CRCP Project 1221
CRCP Project 587
CRCP Project C204 Pacific Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (Pacific RAMP): Biennial monitoring for the US Pacific Islands and Atolls
CRCP Project Pacific Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program: Monitoring coral reef ecosystems of the US Pacific Islands and Atolls
ISO 19115 Topic Category 002
ISO 19115 Topic Category Biota
NODC DATA TYPES THESAURUS CORAL
NODC DATA TYPES THESAURUS DEBRIS
NODC DATA TYPES THESAURUS DEPTH - SENSOR
NODC DATA TYPES THESAURUS HABITAT - BENTHIC
NODC DATA TYPES THESAURUS MACROINVERTEBRATE CENSUS
NODC DATA TYPES THESAURUS REEF AND/OR BOTTOM REGIME - PERCENT COVER
NODC DATA TYPES THESAURUS TEMPERATURE
NODC OBSERVATION TYPES THESAURUS survey
NODC OBSERVATION TYPES THESAURUS survey - biological
NODC OBSERVATION TYPES THESAURUS survey - coral reef
NODC OBSERVATION TYPES THESAURUS survey - swimmer/diver
NODC OBSERVATION TYPES THESAURUS tows
NODC OBSERVATION TYPES THESAURUS visual estimate
NODC PLATFORM NAMES THESAURUS HI'IALAKAI
NODC PLATFORM NAMES THESAURUS OSCAR ELTON SETTE
NODC PLATFORM NAMES THESAURUS TOWNSEND CROMWELL
NODC PROJECT NAMES THESAURUS Coral Reef Conservation Program
NODC PROJECT NAMES THESAURUS CORAL REEF STUDIES
NODC PROJECT NAMES THESAURUS Pacific Reef and Assessment Monitoring Program
NODC SUBMITTING INSTITUTION NAMES THESAURUS US DOC; NOAA; NMFS; Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center; Ecosystem Sciences Division; Coral Reef Ecosystem Program
None Coral Reef Ecosystem Division
None Coral Reef Ecosystem Program
None CRED
None CREP
None Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center
None PIFSC
None RAMP
None Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program
None TDS
None towboard
None towed diver
None Towed-diver surveys

Temporal Keywords

Thesaurus Keyword
None Biennial

Spatial Keywords

Thesaurus Keyword
CoRIS Place Thesaurus COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Hawaii > Hawaii > Hawaii (21N160W0000)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Hawaii > Hawaii > Hawaii Island (19N155W0003)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Hawaii > Honolulu > Oahu (21N157W0003)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Hawaii > Maui > Lanai Island (20N156W0002)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Hawaii > Maui > Maui Island (20N156W0004)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Hawaiian Islands (21N157W0027)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Central Pacific Ocean > Hawaiian Islands (21N157W0027)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Central Pacific Ocean > Hawaiian Islands > Hawaii > Hawaii (21N160W0000)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Central Pacific Ocean > Hawaiian Islands > Hawaii Island > Hawaii Island (19N155W0003)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Central Pacific Ocean > Hawaiian Islands > Lanai Island > Lanai Island (20N156W0002)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Central Pacific Ocean > Hawaiian Islands > Maui Island > Maui Island (20N156W0004)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Central Pacific Ocean > Hawaiian Islands > Oahu Island > Oahu (21N157W0003)
NODC SEA AREA NAMES THESAURUS North Pacific Ocean
None Main Hawaiian Islands
None MHI

Physical Location

Organization: Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center
City: Honolulu
State/Province: HI
Country: USA

Data Set Information

Data Set Scope Code: Data Set
Data Set Type: CSV Files
Maintenance Frequency: None Planned
Data Presentation Form: Table (digital)
Entity Attribute Overview:

Raw survey data includes metadata for each survey (where, when, who, length, duration, depth, reef type, temperature); and benthic observations.

Entity Attribute Detail URL: https://www.fisheries.noaa.gov/inport/item/36873
Distribution Liability:

While every effort has been made to ensure that these data are accurate and reliable within the limits of the current state of the art, NOAA cannot assume liability for any damages caused by errors or omissions in the data, nor as a result of the failure of the data to function on a particular system. NOAA makes no warranty, expressed or implied, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty.

Data Set Credit: PIFSC Coral Reef Ecosystem Program and funded by the NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program

Support Roles

Data Steward

CC ID: 357764
Date Effective From: 2014
Date Effective To:
Contact (Person): Ferguson, Marie H
Address: 1845 Wasp Blvd.
Honolulu, HI 96818
Email Address: marie.ferguson@noaa.gov
Phone: (808)725-5414
Contact Instructions:

email preferred

Distributor

CC ID: 357768
Date Effective From: 2016
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): National Centers for Environmental Information - Silver Spring, Maryland (NCEI-MD)
Address: NOAA/NESDIS E/OC SSMC3, 4th Floor, 1351 East-West Highway
Silver Spring, MD 20910-3282
Phone: (301) 713-3277

Distributor

CC ID: 357766
Date Effective From: 2009
Date Effective To: 2016
Contact (Person): Kanemura, Troy T
Address: 1845 Wasp Blvd.
Honolulu, HI 96818
USA
Email Address: troy.kanemura@noaa.gov
Phone: (808)725-5422

Distributor

CC ID: 357760
Date Effective From: 2007
Date Effective To: 2009
Contact (Person): Parke, Michael F
Address: 1845 Wasp Blvd.
Honolulu, HI 96818
USA
Email Address: michael.parke@noaa.gov
Phone: (808)725-5754

Metadata Contact

CC ID: 357765
Date Effective From: 2010
Date Effective To:
Contact (Person): DesRochers, Annette M
Address: 1845 Wasp Blvd.
Honolulu, HI 96818
USA
Email Address: annette.desrochers@noaa.gov
Phone: (808)725-5461
Business Hours: 8 am - 5 pm

Metadata Contact

CC ID: 357761
Date Effective From: 2008
Date Effective To: 2009
Contact (Person): Wang, Haiying
Address: 1845 Wasp Blvd.
Honolulu, HI 96818
USA
Email Address: haiying.wang@noaa.gov
Phone: (808)725-5367

Originator

CC ID: 357763
Date Effective From: 2000
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC)
Address: 1845 Wasp Blvd.
Honolulu, HI 96818
USA
Phone: 808-725-5300
URL: http://www.pifsc.noaa.gov
Business Hours: 8:00 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.

Originator

CC ID: 357767
Date Effective From: 2000
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) (CRCP)
Address: 1305 East West Highway 10th Floor
Silver Spring, MD 20910-3281
Phone: (301) 713-3155
URL: http://coralreef.noaa.gov

Point of Contact

CC ID: 357762
Date Effective From: 2014
Date Effective To:
Contact (Person): Vargas-Angel, Bernardo
Address: 1845 Wasp Blvd.
Honolulu, HI 96818
USA
Email Address: bernardo.vargasangel@noaa.gov
Phone: (808)725-5423
Contact Instructions:

email preferred

Extents

Currentness Reference: Ground Condition

Extent Group 1

Extent Description:

Mariana Archipelago

Extent Group 1 / Geographic Area 1

CC ID: 357771
W° Bound: 142.43575067
E° Bound: 145.85367032
N° Bound: 20.55415502
S° Bound: 12.80619352
Description

Mariana Archipelago including Guam, Rota, Tinian, Aguijan, Saipan, Sarigan, Guguan, Alamagan, Pagan, Agrihan, Asuncion, Maug, Farallon de Pajaros, Anatahan, Arakane, Pathfinder, Santa Rosa, Stingray, Supply, and Tatsumi.

Extent Group 1 / Time Frame 1

CC ID: 357770
Time Frame Type: Range
Start: 2003-08-22
End: 2003-09-28
Alternate Start As Of Info: OES0307

Extent Group 1 / Time Frame 2

CC ID: 360487
Time Frame Type: Range
Start: 2007-05-12
End: 2007-05-22
Alternate Start As Of Info: HI0702

Extent Group 1 / Time Frame 3

CC ID: 360488
Time Frame Type: Range
Start: 2007-05-25
End: 2007-06-08
Alternate Start As Of Info: HI0703

Extent Group 1 / Time Frame 4

CC ID: 360489
Time Frame Type: Range
Start: 2009-04-03
End: 2009-04-14
Alternate Start As Of Info: HI0902

Extent Group 1 / Time Frame 5

CC ID: 360490
Time Frame Type: Range
Start: 2009-04-15
End: 2009-05-05
Alternate Start As Of Info: HI0903

Extent Group 1 / Time Frame 6

CC ID: 360491
Time Frame Type: Range
Start: 2011-04-07
End: 2011-05-09
Alternate Start As Of Info: HA1101

Extent Group 1 / Time Frame 7

CC ID: 360457
Time Frame Type: Range
Start: 2005-09-04
End: 2005-09-30
Alternate Start As Of Info: OES0511

Extent Group 1 / Time Frame 8

CC ID: 360458
Time Frame Type: Range
Start: 2005-10-03
End: 2005-10-08
Alternate Start As Of Info: OES0512

Extent Group 2

Extent Description:

Hawaiian Archipelago including the main and Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.

Extent Group 2 / Geographic Area 1

CC ID: 360493
W° Bound: -160.54516804
E° Bound: -154.83979027
N° Bound: 22.23705898
S° Bound: 18.90836853
Description

Main Hawaiian Islands (MHI), including Hawaii, Kauai, Kaula, Lanai, Maui, Molokai, Niihau, and Oahu

Extent Group 2 / Geographic Area 2

CC ID: 360502
W° Bound: -178.38542228
E° Bound: -161.91509543
N° Bound: 28.45872797
S° Bound: 23.05548364
Description

Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI), including French Frigate, Gardner, Kure, Laysan, Lisianski, Maro, Midway, Necker, Nihoa, Pearl & Hermes, and Raita

Extent Group 2 / Time Frame 1

CC ID: 360494
Time Frame Type: Range
Start: 2005-07-14
End: 2005-08-06
Alternate Start As Of Info: HI0505

Extent Group 2 / Time Frame 2

CC ID: 360495
Time Frame Type: Range
Start: 2006-07-27
End: 2006-08-19
Alternate Start As Of Info: HI0610

Extent Group 2 / Time Frame 3

CC ID: 360496
Time Frame Type: Range
Start: 2008-10-17
End: 2008-11-13
Alternate Start As Of Info: OES0810

Extent Group 2 / Time Frame 4

CC ID: 360503
Time Frame Type: Range
Start: 2000-09-09
End: 2000-10-05
Alternate Start As Of Info: TC0011

Extent Group 2 / Time Frame 5

CC ID: 360498
Time Frame Type: Range
Start: 2008-12-09
End: 2008-12-10

Extent Group 2 / Time Frame 6

CC ID: 360499
Time Frame Type: Range
Start: 2010-10-08
End: 2010-11-04
Alternate Start As Of Info: HA1008

Extent Group 2 / Time Frame 7

CC ID: 360504
Time Frame Type: Range
Start: 2001-09-13
End: 2001-09-25
Alternate Start As Of Info: TC0110

Extent Group 2 / Time Frame 8

CC ID: 360505
Time Frame Type: Range
Start: 2002-12-03
End: 2002-12-06

Extent Group 2 / Time Frame 9

CC ID: 360506
Time Frame Type: Range
Start: 2002-09-11
End: 2002-10-04
Alternate Start As Of Info: TC0207

Extent Group 2 / Time Frame 10

CC ID: 360507
Time Frame Type: Range
Start: 2003-07-14
End: 2003-08-08
Alternate Start As Of Info: OES0306

Extent Group 2 / Time Frame 11

CC ID: 360508
Time Frame Type: Range
Start: 2004-09-16
End: 2004-10-11
Alternate Start As Of Info: HI0401

Extent Group 2 / Time Frame 12

CC ID: 360509
Time Frame Type: Range
Start: 2006-09-03
End: 2006-10-01
Alternate Start As Of Info: HI0611

Extent Group 2 / Time Frame 13

CC ID: 360510
Time Frame Type: Range
Start: 2008-09-14
End: 2008-10-09
Alternate Start As Of Info: HI0809

Extent Group 2 / Time Frame 14

CC ID: 360511
Time Frame Type: Range
Start: 2010-09-07
End: 2010-09-24
Alternate Start As Of Info: HA1007

Extent Group 3

Extent Description:

American Samoa

Extent Group 3 / Geographic Area 1

CC ID: 360513
W° Bound: -171.09273053
E° Bound: -168.13673589
N° Bound: -11.04527083
S° Bound: -14.91052889
Description

American Samoa including Tutuila, Manu'a (Ofo, Olosega, and Ta'u), Rose Atoll, South Bank, and Swains.

Extent Group 3 / Time Frame 1

CC ID: 360518
Time Frame Type: Range
Start: 2010-02-23
End: 2010-03-20
Alternate Start As Of Info: HA1001

Extent Group 3 / Time Frame 2

CC ID: 360519
Time Frame Type: Range
Start: 2012-03-21
End: 2012-04-25
Alternate Start As Of Info: HA1201

Extent Group 3 / Time Frame 3

CC ID: 360514
Time Frame Type: Range
Start: 2002-02-09
End: 2002-03-03
Alternate Start As Of Info: TC0201

Extent Group 3 / Time Frame 4

CC ID: 360515
Time Frame Type: Range
Start: 2004-02-04
End: 2004-02-25
Alternate Start As Of Info: OES0402

Extent Group 3 / Time Frame 5

CC ID: 360516
Time Frame Type: Range
Start: 2006-02-11
End: 2006-03-09
Alternate Start As Of Info: HI0602

Extent Group 3 / Time Frame 6

CC ID: 360517
Time Frame Type: Range
Start: 2008-02-18
End: 2008-03-18
Alternate Start As Of Info: HI0802

Extent Group 4

Extent Description:

Pacific Remote Island Areas (PRIA)

Extent Group 4 / Geographic Area 1

CC ID: 360521
W° Bound: 166.59345657
E° Bound: 166.66057
N° Bound: 19.32606047
S° Bound: 19.26696409
Description

Wake Island, one of the seven PRIA, is routinely surveyed as part of the Mariana Archipelago RAMP (MARAMP) missions.

Extent Group 4 / Geographic Area 2

CC ID: 360522
W° Bound: -176.6269294
E° Bound: -159.97143455
N° Bound: 16.78843124
S° Bound: -0.38304574
Description

Phoenix (Baker and Howland) and Line Islands (Jarvis, Kingman, and Palmyra), and Johnston Atoll. These six of the seven PRIA are routinely surveyed as part of the American Samoa RAMP (ASRAMP) missions (Johnston, Baker and Howland during the first leg of ASRAMP, and Jarvis, Kingman, and Palmyra during the last leg of ASRAMP).

Extent Group 4 / Time Frame 1

CC ID: 360523
Time Frame Type: Range
Start: 2005-10-18
End: 2005-10-21
Alternate Start As Of Info: OES0513

Extent Group 4 / Time Frame 2

CC ID: 360524
Time Frame Type: Range
Start: 2007-04-30
End: 2007-05-03
Alternate Start As Of Info: HI0701

Extent Group 4 / Time Frame 3

CC ID: 360525
Time Frame Type: Range
Start: 2009-03-22
End: 2009-03-26
Alternate Start As Of Info: HI0901

Extent Group 4 / Time Frame 4

CC ID: 360526
Time Frame Type: Range
Start: 2011-03-23
End: 2011-03-27
Alternate Start As Of Info: HA1101

Extent Group 4 / Time Frame 5

CC ID: 360527
Time Frame Type: Range
Start: 2001-02-07
End: 2001-02-23
Alternate Start As Of Info: TC0101

Extent Group 4 / Time Frame 6

CC ID: 360528
Time Frame Type: Range
Start: 2002-01-29
End: 2002-02-01
Alternate Start As Of Info: TC0201

Extent Group 4 / Time Frame 7

CC ID: 360529
Time Frame Type: Range
Start: 2004-01-12
End: 2004-01-24
Alternate Start As Of Info: OES0401

Extent Group 4 / Time Frame 8

CC ID: 360530
Time Frame Type: Range
Start: 2004-03-26
End: 2004-04-04
Alternate Start As Of Info: OES0404

Extent Group 4 / Time Frame 9

CC ID: 360531
Time Frame Type: Range
Start: 2006-01-18
End: 2006-02-01
Alternate Start As Of Info: HI0601

Extent Group 4 / Time Frame 10

CC ID: 360532
Time Frame Type: Range
Start: 2006-03-20
End: 2006-04-02
Alternate Start As Of Info: HI0604

Extent Group 4 / Time Frame 11

CC ID: 360533
Time Frame Type: Range
Start: 2008-01-27
End: 2008-02-09
Alternate Start As Of Info: HI0801

Extent Group 4 / Time Frame 12

CC ID: 360534
Time Frame Type: Range
Start: 2008-03-26
End: 2008-04-07
Alternate Start As Of Info: HI0803

Extent Group 4 / Time Frame 13

CC ID: 360535
Time Frame Type: Range
Start: 2002-03-10
End: 2002-03-19
Alternate Start As Of Info: TC0201

Extent Group 4 / Time Frame 14

CC ID: 360536
Time Frame Type: Range
Start: 2010-01-24
End: 2010-02-08
Alternate Start As Of Info: HA1001

Extent Group 4 / Time Frame 15

CC ID: 360537
Time Frame Type: Range
Start: 2010-04-01
End: 2010-04-17
Alternate Start As Of Info: HA1001

Extent Group 4 / Time Frame 16

CC ID: 360538
Time Frame Type: Range
Start: 2012-03-02
End: 2012-03-16
Alternate Start As Of Info: HA1201

Extent Group 4 / Time Frame 17

CC ID: 360539
Time Frame Type: Range
Start: 2012-05-03
End: 2012-05-19
Alternate Start As Of Info: HA1201

Access Information

Security Class: Unclassified
Security Classification System:

Not applicable

Security Handling Description:

Not applicable

Data Access Policy:

NOAA Coral Reef Ecosystem Program (CREP) Data Sharing Recommendations, version 9.0 updated August 12, 2015:

CREP welcomes the opportunity to collaborate on research issues contributing to the scientific basis for better management of marine ecosystems. CREP has a very diverse set of field activities that generates large volumes of data using an array of data collection protocols.

The following recommendations are for your consideration as you use this data:

1) Data analyses should take all field exigencies into account. The most effective way to do this would be active collaboration with CREP principal investigators.

2) In all presentations, product releases, or publications using data generated by CREP, proper acknowledgement of both CREP and the individuals responsible for data collection is expected. Citing the DOI (if available) is preferred, a non-DOI example is listed below.

3) If you collect or generate data for the same study areas, CREP requests that you share relevant information on complimentary data collections.

4) Those receiving data are strongly urged to inform the CREP Data Management Team of any errors and discrepancies that are discovered during the course of using these data. They are further urged to bring to the attention of the Team all problems and difficulties encountered in using these data. This information is necessary in order to improve the collections and to facilitate more efficient and economical data processing and retrieval. The users are asked to supply copies of any missing data that may be located, and to provide information as to significant subsets and special aggregations of data that are developed in using the material provided.

Example citation:

"This publication makes use of data products provided by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Program (CREP), Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), with funding support from the NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP). The analysis and interpretations presented here are solely that of the current authors.”

Data Access Procedure:

Data can be accessed online via the NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) Ocean Archive.

Data Access Constraints:

None

Data Use Constraints:

Please cite NOAA Coral Reef Ecosystem Program (CREP) when using the data.

Suggested citation:

Coral Reef Ecosystem Program; Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (2016). Pacific Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program: Towed-diver Surveys of Benthic Habitat, Key Benthic Species, including Marine Debris Sightings, of the U.S. Pacific Reefs from 2000 to 2012. NOAA's National Center for Environmental Information, https://www.fisheries.noaa.gov/inport/item/35618.

Metadata Access Constraints:

None

Metadata Use Constraints:

None

Distribution Information

Distribution 1

CC ID: 357777
Download URL: http://accession.nodc.noaa.gov/0163745
Distributor: National Centers for Environmental Information - Silver Spring, Maryland (NCEI-MD) (2016 - Present)
File Name: VS_BENT_TDS 2000-2012.csv
Description:

Observations from towed-diver surveys of the benthic habitat conducted across the Pacific Islands Region by the PIFSC Ecosystem Sciences Division from 2000 to 2012.

File Date/Time: 2017-06-19 00:00:00
File Type: csv (comma-separated values)

URLs

URL 1

CC ID: 357773
URL: https://www.pifsc.noaa.gov/cred/benthic_monitoring.php
URL Type:
Online Resource
File Resource Format: PHP
Description:

Coral Reef Ecosystem Program website, Benthic Monitoring

URL 2

CC ID: 360439
URL: http://www.coris.noaa.gov/monitoring/
URL Type:
Online Resource
Description:

Information about the NOAA National Coral Reef Monitoring Program (NCRMP) on the NOAA Coral Reef Information System website.

URL 3

CC ID: 360440
URL: https://www.pifsc.noaa.gov/cred/img/towboard.jpg
URL Type:
Browse Graphic
File Resource Format: JPG
Description:

A diver conducting a survey of the benthos and benthic habitat using the towed diver method.

URL 4

CC ID: 360441
URL: http://www.pifsc.noaa.gov/cred/survey_methods.php
URL Type:
Online Resource
File Resource Format: PHP
Description:

NOAA Coral Reef Ecosystem Program website, survey methods page, which includes a brief description of the towed-diver survey method used since 2000 to survey the benthic habitat.

Technical Environment

Description:

PIFSC Oracle database view: VS_BENT_TDS

The latitude and longitude coordinates of the survey track are recorded using a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver on-board the tow boat. The survey track is georeferenced and a layback model is applied (python script in ESRI ArcGIS for Desktop) that more accurately maps the positions of the recorded observations.

Data Quality

Accuracy:

Observations during each tow were made by trained divers. The visual variation throughout the tow may change drastically as well as current and surface conditions for the support vessel impacting the preferred depth contour and accompanying track lines.

Analytical Accuracy:

The different benthic elements and macroinvertebrate taxa are recorded as percentage cover. Note that the total percentage cover will not add up to 100%, as all possible benthic categories are not included.

From 2000 to 2004, benthic cover estimates are recorded to the nearest percentage and macroinvertebrate estimates are individual counts.

In 2004 (BIN_A), benthic cover and macroinvertebrate categories and the corresponding percentage range bins are as follows:

Category 1: 0 %

Category 2: 0 - 1 %

Category 3: 1 - 5 %

Category 4: 5 - 10 %

Category 5: 10 - 25 %

Category 6: 25 - 50 %

Category 7: 50 - 75 %

Category 8: 75 - 100 %

From 2004 to 2012 (BIN_B), benthic cover and macroinvertebrate categories and the corresponding percentage range bins are as follows:

Category 1: 0.1 - 1 %

Category 2: 1.1 - 5 %

Category 3: 5.1 - 10 %

Category 4: 10.1 - 20 %

Category 5: 20.1 - 30 %

Category 6: 30.1 - 40 %

Category 7: 40.1 - 50 %

Category 8: 50.1 – 62.5 %

Category 9: 62.5 – 75 %

Category 10: 75.1 – 100 %

The following is a summary of the changes in benthic cover and macroinvertebrate categories, respectively:

2000 (Perc_a) – live hard coral, dead coral, algae, sand, hard bottom/rock ; lobster, COTs, urchins

2001 (Perc_b) - live hard coral, dead coral, rubble, carbonate pavement, algae (coralline and fleshy), sand (fine, medium, coarse), hard bottom/rock (cobble, boulder, basalt pavement); lobster, COTs, urchins (boring, free), Holothurian, Asteroid

2002 (Perc_d) - hard coral (live, dead, rubble, carbonate pavement), algae (coralline and fleshy), sand (fine, medium, coarse), hard bottom/rock (cobble, boulder, basalt pavement); lobster, COTs, urchins (boring, free), Holothurian, giant clams

2002 (Perc_c) – hard coral (live, stressed, bleached, dead, rubble, carbonate pavement), algae (coralline and fleshy), sand (fine, medium, coarse), hard bottom/rock (cobble, boulder, basalt pavement); lobster/octopus, COTs, urchins (boring, free), sea cucumbers, pearl oyster

2003 to 2004 (Perc_c) - hard coral (normal, pale, white, recently dead), pavement (covered with: bare, fleshy algae, calcareous algae), rubble (covered with: bare, fleshy algae, calcareous algae), sand (fine: bare or with fleshy algae, medium: bare or with fleshy algae, coarse: bare or with fleshy algae), hard bottom/rock (covered with: bare, fleshy algae, calcareous algae); lobster/octopus, COTs, urchins (boring, free), sea cucumbers, pearl oyster, giant clams

2004 (BIN_A) - hard coral (live, stressed, dead), macroalgae, coralline algae; lobster/octopus, COTs, urchins (boring, free), sea cucumbers

2005 to 2012 (BIN_B) - hard coral (live, stressed/bleached), soft coral, sand, rubble, macroalgae, coralline algae; COTs, urchins, sea cucumbers, giant clams

Habitat complexity data is based on a six-point subjective assessment of topographical diversity and complexity of the benthic habitat. Classified according to 1 of 6 categories: low (L), medium-low (ML), medium (M), medium-high (MH), high (H), and very high (VH). Habitat type is recorded as dominant, abundant, common, occasional, rare (DACOR) from 2001 to 2002 and from 2003 to 2012 only the dominant habitat type is recorded.

The following is a summary of the changes in habitat categories:

2000 – not recorded

2001 - spur and groove, flats, patch reef, linear/reticulate reef, pinnacle, canyon, channel or pass, cave, hole or pool, artificial structure

2002 - spur and groove, patch reef, linear/aggregate reef, scattered coral in sand

2003 to 2012 - continuous reef, spur and groove, patch reef, pavement, sand flat, rubble flat, bedrock, rock boulders

Completeness Report:

The towed-diver surveys are completed in forereef, backreef, and lagoon habitats. Considering that the towed-divers are covering ~200 m during each 5-min time frame of a 50-minute survey, benthic coverage calculations are broad estimates. These data can be used to see large differences but can not be process to a fine scale.

Conceptual Consistency:

The same methods of data collection are used during each tow. Regular examination and comparisons of the data are conducted throughout each mission to check for diver bias or other discrepancies.

Quality Control Procedures Employed:

The data is entered in an MS Access database, then quality controlled against the physical data sheets prior to the data considered final. There are also several queries in the MS Access and Oracle databases to flag any errors based on pre-defined criteria.

Data Management

Have Resources for Management of these Data Been Identified?: Yes
Approximate Percentage of Budget for these Data Devoted to Data Management: Unknown
Do these Data Comply with the Data Access Directive?: Yes
Is Access to the Data Limited Based on an Approved Waiver?: No
Approximate Delay Between Data Collection and Dissemination: Unknown
Actual or Planned Long-Term Data Archive Location: NCEI-MD
Approximate Delay Between Data Collection and Archiving: Unknown
How Will the Data Be Protected from Accidental or Malicious Modification or Deletion Prior to Receipt by the Archive?:

The data is captured in several locations: physical data sheets, MS Access cruise database, and PIFSC Oracle database. The physical data sheets are housed at PIFSC. The MS Access cruise database is regularly backed up by the cruise data manager while at sea. The PIFSC Oracle database is regularly backed up by PIFSC ITS.

Lineage

Lineage Statement:

The data is captured on physical data sheets by each diver, then transferred to a MS Access database on the ship. At the conclusion of the cruise, the data is migrated to the PIFSC Oracle database, where there are several database views used to analyze the data.

Process Steps

Process Step 1

CC ID: 360442
Description:

A pair of scuba divers is towed about 1 m above the reef roughly 60 m behind a small boat at a constant speed of about 1.5 knots. One diver quantifies fish populations, and the other diver quantifies the benthos. Each diver maneuvers their own towboard. Towboards are connected to the small boat by a bridle and towline and outfitted with various survey equipment, including a video camera on the fish towboard. The benthic diver records percentage cover of total live hard corals, stressed hard corals, soft corals, sand, coralline algae, and macroalgae, and the number of individual macroinvertebrates (crown of thorns starfish (COTS), sea urchins, and giant clams) as well as benthic habitat complexity and type data.

A towed survey is typically 50 min long and covers about 2 km of habitat. Each survey is divided into 5-min segments, with data recorded separately per segment to allow for georeferencing of observations within the ~200 m covered during each segment. Throughout a survey, the latitude and longitude of its survey track are recorded at 5-s intervals on the small boat with a global positioning system (GPS). Following a survey, diver tracks are generated using this GPS data and a layback algorithm to account for position of the diver relative to the small boat.

Process Contact: Ferguson, Marie H
Phone (Voice): (808)725-5414
Email Address: marie.ferguson@noaa.gov

Child Items

Rubric scores updated every 15m

Rubric Score Type Title
Entity (ENT) View: VS_BENT_TDS

Catalog Details

Catalog Item ID: 35618
Metadata Record Created By: Annette M DesRochers
Metadata Record Created: 2016-11-14 21:27+0000
Metadata Record Last Modified By: SysAdmin InPortAdmin
Metadata Record Last Modified: 2020-08-03 16:13+0000
Metadata Record Published: 2017-06-27
Owner Org: PIFSC
Metadata Publication Status: Published Externally
Do Not Publish?: N
Metadata Next Review Date: 2018-06-28