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Short Citation:
OCM Partners, 2024: 2019 Pennsylvania NAIP Digital Ortho Photo Imagery,

Item Identification

Title: 2019 Pennsylvania NAIP Digital Ortho Photo Imagery
Status: Completed
Publication Date: 2019-09-27

This data set contains imagery from the National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP). The NAIP program is administered by USDA FSA and has been established to support two main FSA strategic goals centered on agricultural production. These are, increase stewardship of America's natural resources while enhancing the environment, and to ensure commodities are procured and distributed effectively and efficiently to increase food security. The NAIP program supports these goals by acquiring and providing ortho imagery that has been collected during the agricultural growing season in the U.S. The NAIP ortho imagery is tailored to meet FSA requirements and is a fundamental tool used to support FSA farm and conservation programs. Ortho imagery provides an effective, intuitive means of communication about farm program administration between FSA and stakeholders. New technology and innovation is identified by fostering and maintaining a relationship with vendors and government partners, and by keeping pace with the broader geospatial community. As a result of these efforts the NAIP program provides three main products: DOQQ tiles, Compressed County Mosaics (CCM), and Seamline shape files The Contract specifications for NAIP imagery have changed over time reflecting agency requirements and improving technologies. These changes include image resolution, horizontal accuracy, coverage area, and number of bands. In general, flying seasons are established by FSA and are targeted for peak crop growing conditions. The NAIP acquisition cycle is based on a minimum 3 year refresh of base ortho imagery. The tiling format of the NAIP imagery is based on a 3.75' x 3.75' quarter quadrangle with a 300 pixel buffer on all four sides. NAIP quarter quads are formatted to the UTM coordinate system using the North American Datum of 1983. NAIP imagery may contain as much as 10% cloud cover per tile.


NAIP imagery is available for distribution within 60 days

of the end of a flying season and is intended to provide current

information of agricultural conditions in support of USDA farm

programs. For USDA Farm Service Agency, the 1 meter and 1/2 meter

GSD product provides an ortho image base for Common Land Unit

boundaries and other data sets. The 1 meter and 1/2 meter NAIP

imagery is generally acquired in projects covering full states in

cooperation with state government and other federal agencies that

use the imagery for a variety of purposes including land use

planning and natural resource assessment. The NAIP is also used

for disaster response. While suitable for a variety of uses,

prior to 2007 the 2 meter GSD NAIP imagery was primarily intended

to assess "crop condition and compliance" to USDA farm program

conditions. The 2 meter imagery was generally acquired only

for agricultural areas within state projects.




Theme Keywords

Thesaurus Keyword
ISO 19115 Topic Category
None Aerial Compliance
None Compliance
None Digital Ortho rectified Image
None farming
None Ortho Rectification
None Quarter Quadrangle

Spatial Keywords

Thesaurus Keyword
Geographic Names Information System PA
Geographic Names Information System Pennsylvania

Physical Location

Organization: Office for Coastal Management
City: Charleston
State/Province: SC

Data Set Information

Data Set Scope Code: Data Set
Maintenance Frequency: Irregular
Data Presentation Form: Image (digital)
Entity Attribute Overview:

32-bit pixels, 4 band color(RGBIR) values 0 - 255

Entity Attribute Detail Citation:


Distribution Liability:

Users must assume responsibility to determine the appropriate use of these data. DATA SHOULD NOT BE USED FOR LEGALLY BINDING APPLICATIONS.

Support Roles

Data Steward

CC ID: 1177023
Date Effective From: 2020-06-26
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): NOAA Office for Coastal Management (NOAA/OCM)
Address: 2234 South Hobson Ave
Charleston, SC 29405-2413
Email Address:
Phone: (843) 740-1202


CC ID: 1177025
Date Effective From: 2020-06-26
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): NOAA Office for Coastal Management (NOAA/OCM)
Address: 2234 South Hobson Ave
Charleston, SC 29405-2413
Email Address:
Phone: (843) 740-1202

Metadata Contact

CC ID: 1177026
Date Effective From: 2020-06-26
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): NOAA Office for Coastal Management (NOAA/OCM)
Address: 2234 South Hobson Ave
Charleston, SC 29405-2413
Email Address:
Phone: (843) 740-1202

Point of Contact

CC ID: 1177024
Date Effective From: 2020-06-26
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): NOAA Office for Coastal Management (NOAA/OCM)
Address: 2234 South Hobson Ave
Charleston, SC 29405-2413
Email Address:
Phone: (843) 740-1202


Currentness Reference: Ground Condition

Extent Group 1

Extent Group 1 / Geographic Area 1

CC ID: 1318114
W° Bound: -80.66805555556
E° Bound: -74.73111111111
N° Bound: 42.6175
S° Bound: 39.59555555556

Extent Group 1 / Time Frame 1

CC ID: 1318113
Time Frame Type: Range
Start: 2019-08-02
End: 2019-10-19

Spatial Information

Spatial Representation

Representations Used

Grid: Yes

Grid Representation 1

CC ID: 1177038
Dimension Count: 2
Cell Geometry: Point
Transformation Parameters Available?: No

Axis Dimension 1

Dimension Type: Row
Size: 1

Axis Dimension 2

Dimension Type: Column
Size: 1

Reference Systems

Reference System 1

CC ID: 1318111

Coordinate Reference System

CRS Type: Projected
EPSG Code: EPSG:6347
EPSG Name: NAD83(2011) / UTM zone 18N
See Full Coordinate Reference System Information

Access Information

Security Class: Unclassified
Data Access Constraints:

There are no limitations for access.

Data Use Constraints:

None. The USDA-FSA Aerial Photography Field office

asks to be credited in derived products.

Distribution Information

Distribution 1

CC ID: 1177027
Download URL:

Downloadable Data

File Type (Deprecated): Erdas Imagine (.img) and TIFF / BigTIFF / GeoTIFF (.tif)
Distribution Format: IMG - ERDAS Imagine

Distribution 2

CC ID: 1177028
Download URL:
File Name: Customized Download

Create custom data files by choosing area, map projection, file format, etc.

Distribution 3

CC ID: 1177029
Download URL:
File Name: Bulk Download

Simple download of data files.



CC ID: 1177030
URL Type:
Online Resource

Activity Log

Activity Log 1

CC ID: 1177032
Activity Date/Time: 2017-02-22

Date that the source FGDC record was last modified.

Activity Log 2

CC ID: 1177031
Activity Date/Time: 2017-11-14

Converted from Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (version FGDC-STD-001-1998) using '' script. Contact Tyler Christensen (NOS) for details.

Activity Log 3

CC ID: 1177033
Activity Date/Time: 2018-02-08

Partial upload of Positional Accuracy fields only.

Activity Log 4

CC ID: 1177034
Activity Date/Time: 2018-03-13

Partial upload to move data access links to Distribution Info.

Technical Environment



Data Quality

Horizontal Positional Accuracy:

NAIP horizontal accuracy specifications have evolved over the life of the program. From 2003 to 2004 the specifications were as follows: 1-meter GSD imagery was to match within 3-meters, and 2-meter GSD to match within 10 meters of reference imagery. For 2005 the 1-meter GSD specification was changed to 5 meters matching the reference imagery. In 2006 a pilot project was performed using true ground specifications rather than reference imagery. All states used the same specifications as 2005 except Utah, which required a match of +/- 6 meters to true ground. In 2007 all specifications were the same as 2006 except Arizona used true ground specifications and all other states used reference imagery. In 2008 and subsequent years no 2-meter GSD imagery was acquired and all specifications were the same as 2007 except approximately half of the states acquired used true ground specifications and the other half used reference imagery. The 2008 states that used absolute ground control where; Indiana, Minnesota, New Hampshire, North Carolina, Texas, Vermont, and Virginia. From 2009 to present all NAIP imagery acquisitions used the +/- 6 meters to ground specification.

Completeness Report:


Conceptual Consistency:

NAIP 3.75 minute tile file names are based

on the USGS quadrangle naming convention.




CC ID: 1318105
Contact Role Type: Originator
Contact Type: Organization
Contact Name: USDA-FSA-APFO Aerial Photography Field Office
Publish Date: 2017-12-12
Source Contribution:

Digital Georectified Image. | Source Geospatial Form: remote-sensing image | Type of Source Media: UnKnown

Process Steps

Process Step 1

CC ID: 1318106

The imagery was collected using the following digital sensors: Leica ADS-100 (Serial Number 10530) ,Leica ADS-100 (Serial Number 10510),Leica ADS-100 (Serial Number 10515) ,Leica ADS-100 (Serial Number 10522),Leica ADS-100 (Serial Number 10552) with Flight and Sensor Control Management System (FCMS) firmware:v4.57, Cameras are calibrated radiometrically and Geometrically by the manufacturer and are all certified by the USGS. Collection was performed using a combination of the following twin-engine aircraft with turbines flying at 27,100 ft above mean terrain. Plane types:C441, C414Tail numbers:N441EH,N414EH,N440EH,N441FS,N2NQ,With these flying heights, there is a 27% sidelap, giving the collected data nominal ground sampling distance of 0.60 meters. Based-upon the CCD Array configuration present in the ADS digital sensor, imagery for each flight line is 20,000-pixels in width. Red, Green, Blue, Near-Infrared and Panchromatic image bands were collected. The ADS 100 has the following band specifications:Red 619-651, Green 525-585,Blue 435-495,Near Infrared 808-882,all values are in nanometers. Flight planning was performed in Leica MissionPro over a buffered boundary covering DOQQ extents provided by the USDA.A 500m reduced resolution DEM file was used to determine ground heights. A targeted flight altitude of approximately27,000 feet above ground level for native 60cm image acquisition with sidelap of 27% was used for flight planning parameters. Four Cessna Conquests were utilized for acquisition, the seamline shapefile clarifies which aircraft were used for a given area. All aircraft were equipped with LeicaADS100 systems where utilized for data capture. The Leica ADS100 pushbroom sensor has been calibrated by the manufacturer as well as validated against a local calibration range. The calibration includes measuring the radiometric and geometric properties of the camera. These data are used in the Post Processing Software to eliminate the radiometric and geometric distortion. All aerial imagery was collected with associated GPS/IMU data. ADS collection requires high quality IMU data for processing and was critical for early access hosting of digital data to the web for USDA interim access and review. After early access web delivery was complete, all imagery was triangulated using Leica XPro in which the airborne GPS data was constrained to expected limits. To validate the accuracy of the block adjustment derived from GPS/IMU, sensor parameters and conjugate point measurements, photo identifiable ground control points were field surveyed within each State. These points were surveyed using GPS techniques to produce coordinates that are accurate to +/- 0.25 meters RMSE in XYZ.

Process Date/Time: 2020-05-14 00:00:00

Process Step 2

CC ID: 1318107

The GPS surveying techniques utilized assured that the coordinates are derived in the required project datum and relative to an approved National Reference System. If the block does not fit the control points within specifications the pass and tie points were reviewed for blunders and weak areas. If, after these corrections were made, the block still does not fit the control well the GPS and IMU processing were reviewed. Once the block has proper statistics and fits the control to specifications, the final bundle adjustment was made. As AT points are frequently on man-made and other vertical features not included in the DEM, these orthopoints can only be used to indicate regions of error by the clusters of points that predict excessive horizontal displacement. The final adjustments assure a high quality relative adjustment and a high quality absolute adjustment limited to the airborne GPS data accuracy. This process assures the final absolute accuracy of all geopositioned imagery. Both signalized and photo identified ground control were used to QC and control the IMU/GPS based aerial triangulation bundleblock solution. Surdex Grouping Tool provides real-time updates of the USDA APFO Image Metrics. The image technician adjusts image correction parameters to bring the radiometric characteristics of large groups of images within the Image Metrics ranges. For each project area the highest resolution DEM or LiDAR was obtained and utilized for rectification of captured imagery. A visual inspection of the final DEM using color cycled classification by elevation and a shaded relief was performed to check for gaps, corruption and gross errors. The predicted horizontal error for each point was added as an attribute in the SURDEX enterprise database. An operator reviews ortho seamline areas these predicted errors indicate horizontal error in excess of the contract specifications. Any imagery errors introduced by source DEM required patching from an alternate perspective or strip of photography.

Process Date/Time: 2020-05-14 00:00:00

Process Step 3

CC ID: 1318108

Processing hardware used included various brands of survey grade GPS receivers, various brands and models of computers,RAID6 storage, calibrated monitors, various brands of monitor calibration colorimeters. Leica XPro was used for post processing of ADS pushbroom data, triangulation and orthorectification. SURDEX software was used to color correct and remove bidirectional reflectance, vignetting and other illumination trends. USDA APFO Image Metrics are measured and images corrected to conform to the Image Metrics using SURDEX software. GPS/IMU data was reduced to projected coordinates in the appropriate UTM zone using Inertial Explorer software from Novatel. Aerial Triangulation and orthorectification was performed using Leica XPro. SURDEX software was used to adjust for minor radiometric variation between adjacent images. SURDEX software was used to calculate the optimal seam path, check seam topology and create master tiles. SURDEX ortho software generates occlusion/smear polygons used during seam review of steep terrain. SURDEX software was used to visually inspect master tiles for seam and image defects. SURDEX software was used to project and cut final DOQQ image files from masters. SURDEX software was used to create CCM metadata. Lizardtech GeoExpress version was used to create the CCM image file. SURDEX software was used to perform final formatting, QC and naming of the DOQQ.USGS metadata parser software was used to validate the metadata. Various versions of Microsoft Windows were used in all phases of production. Grouping Tool was used again after DOQQ and CCM production to provide a quality assurance check. Individual DOQQ and CCM may not meet the USDA APFO Image Metrics ranges due to land cover. The goal is to have the state as a whole meet the Image Metrics. All products are reviewed by independent personnel prior to delivery. The delivery is checked for omissions, commissions, naming, formatting, specification compliance and data integrity

Process Date/Time: 2020-05-14 00:00:00

Catalog Details

Catalog Item ID: 67483
GUID: gov.noaa.nmfs.inport:67483
Metadata Record Created By: Erik Hund
Metadata Record Created: 2022-06-28 17:41+0000
Metadata Record Last Modified By: Kirk Waters
Metadata Record Last Modified: 2024-01-11 12:43+0000
Metadata Record Published: 2024-01-11
Owner Org: OCMP
Metadata Publication Status: Published Externally
Do Not Publish?: N
Metadata Last Review Date: 2022-06-28
Metadata Review Frequency: 1 Year
Metadata Next Review Date: 2023-06-28