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Title: NOAA/NSF ECOHAB Heterosigma CTD
Short Name: NOAA/NSF ECOHAB Heterosigma CTD
Status: Planned
Abstract:

Over one half of the worlds fish production for human consumption currently comes from aquaculture, while wild fisheries yields are either stable or declining. Recurring threats from the raphidophyte, Heterosigma akashiwo Hada (Sournia) have caused extensive damage ($2-6 million per episode) to wild and net-penned fish of Puget Sound, Washington, and are believed to be increasing in scope and magnitude in this region, and elsewhere in the world over the past two decades. The mechanism of H. akashiwo toxicity is not well understood. The toxic activity of H. akashiwo has been attributed to the production of reactive oxygen species, brevetoxin-like compound(s), excessive mucus, or hemolytic activity; however these mechanisms are not confirmed consistently in all fish-killing events or cultured strains. The difficulty of conducting research with active, toxin-producing field populations of H. akashiwo have resulted in conflicting findings from those obtained in lab culture studies, thereby limiting the ability of fish farmers to respond to these episodic blooms. Collaborators in this project are: Vera Trainer (NWFSC), William Cochlan (San Francisco State University), Charles Trick (University of Western Ontario), and Mark Wells (University of Maine). The overall goal of this project is to identify the primary toxic element and the specific environmental factors that stimulate fish-killing H. akashiwo blooms, and thereby provide managers with the fundamental tools needed to help reduce the frequency and toxic magnitude of these harmful algal events. Studies to date have provided incomplete and conflicting observations on the mode of toxicity and the environmental stimulation of toxification. We propose a three-pronged approach to study the environmental controls of H. akashiwo growth and toxin production; laboratory culture experiments, field observations, and bottle and mesocosm manipulation experiments.The project objectives are to: 1. identify the element(s) of toxic activity (inorganic, organic, or synergistic) associated with blooms of H. akashiwo and the various cellular morphologies of this alga, 2. determine the environmental parameters that stimulate the growth success and expression of cell toxicity in the H. akashiwo populations of Puget Sound. Because previous studies have used H. akashiwo cultures with little or no toxic activity, our approach is to use a living laboratory to study H. akashiwo bloom ecology and toxicity using natural assemblages. Using a mobile lab at field sites where H. akashiwo cells are regularly found will enable us to fully characterize the toxic element(s) responsible for fish mortality, and the environmental factors influencing toxicity. Findings from annual field studies in June and two rapid response deployments during major bloom events will be confirmed using laboratory studies with fresh ( 6 mo. old) isolates. The expected results are: 1. determination of the key elements of toxicity of H. akashiwo, 2. characterization of the environmental variables that influence either the induction or depression of elements of toxic activity in H. akashiwo, 3. characterization of environmentally-induced metabolites corresponding to condition of toxin production (metabolomics) and 4. design of a strategy for realistic mitigation of H. akashiwo activities in Puget Sound, Washington. This is a stand-alone project funded for 3 years through the NOAA/NSF ECOHAB program.

Entity Information

Entity Type: Spreadsheet
Active Version?: Yes
Schema Name: PARR
Description:

Over one half of the worlds fish production for human consumption currently comes from aquaculture, while wild fisheries yields are either stable or declining. Recurring threats from the raphidophyte, Heterosigma akashiwo Hada (Sournia) have caused extensive damage ($2-6 million per episode) to wild and net-penned fish of Puget Sound, Washington, and are believed to be increasing in scope and magnitude in this region, and elsewhere in the world over the past two decades. The mechanism of H. akashiwo toxicity is not well understood. The toxic activity of H. akashiwo has been attributed to the production of reactive oxygen species, brevetoxin-like compound(s), excessive mucus, or hemolytic activity; however these mechanisms are not confirmed consistently in all fish-killing events or cultured strains. The difficulty of conducting research with active, toxin-producing field populations of H. akashiwo have resulted in conflicting findings from those obtained in lab culture studies, thereby limiting the ability of fish farmers to respond to these episodic blooms. Collaborators in this project are: Vera Trainer (NWFSC), William Cochlan (San Francisco State University), Charles Trick (University of Western Ontario), and Mark Wells (University of Maine). The overall goal of this project is to identify the primary toxic element and the specific environmental factors that stimulate fish-killing H. akashiwo blooms, and thereby provide managers with the fundamental tools needed to help reduce the frequency and toxic magnitude of these harmful algal events. Studies to date have provided incomplete and conflicting observations on the mode of toxicity and the environmental stimulation of toxification. We propose a three-pronged approach to study the environmental controls of H. akashiwo growth and toxin production; laboratory culture experiments, field observations, and bottle and mesocosm manipulation experiments.The project objectives are to: 1. identify the element(s) of toxic activity (inorganic, organic, or synergistic) associated with blooms of H. akashiwo and the various cellular morphologies of this alga, 2. determine the environmental parameters that stimulate the growth success and expression of cell toxicity in the H. akashiwo populations of Puget Sound. Because previous studies have used H. akashiwo cultures with little or no toxic activity, our approach is to use a living laboratory to study H. akashiwo bloom ecology and toxicity using natural assemblages. Using a mobile lab at field sites where H. akashiwo cells are regularly found will enable us to fully characterize the toxic element(s) responsible for fish mortality, and the environmental factors influencing toxicity. Findings from annual field studies in June and two rapid response deployments during major bloom events will be confirmed using laboratory studies with fresh ( 6 mo. old) isolates. The expected results are: 1. determination of the key elements of toxicity of H. akashiwo, 2. characterization of the environmental variables that influence either the induction or depression of elements of toxic activity in H. akashiwo, 3. characterization of environmentally-induced metabolites corresponding to condition of toxin production (metabolomics) and 4. design of a strategy for realistic mitigation of H. akashiwo activities in Puget Sound, Washington. This is a stand-alone project funded for 3 years through the NOAA/NSF ECOHAB program.

Data Attributes

Attribute Summary

Rubric Score Primary Key? Name Type Description
100
Event VARCHAR2 The name of the individual cruise or event in which samples were collected for the overall project.
100
Event start date DATE The date on which the individual cruise or event began (local time).
100
Event end date DATE The date on which the individual cruise or event ended (local time).
100
Station VARCHAR2 The name or identification number of a given station at which samples were collected.
100
Sampling Date DATE The date (local time) on which as sample was collected.
100
Sampling Start Time DATE The time (local time) on the date in which a sample began to be collected.
100
Sampling End Time DATE The time (local time) on the date in which a sample was finished being collected.
100
Latitude NUMBER The latitude of the sampling station in decmal degrees. Units for values are decimal degrees.
100
Longitude NUMBER The longitude of the sampling station in decimal degrees. Units for values are decimal degrees.
100
Station Depth (m) NUMBER The water depth at a given station. Units for values are meters.
100
CastNum NUMBER The number of the CTD cast performed on a specific date.
100
Depth(m) NUMBER The depth at which the data were collected. Units for values are meters.
100
Pr(db) NUMBER The pressure reading at which the data were collected. Units for values are decibars.
100
dm NUMBER A relative measurement of the depth at which the samples were collected using a specified reference depth. Units for values are meters.
100
scans NUMBER The number of data scans that were averaged to determine the data value for a given depth bin.
100
FL NUMBER The fluorescence reading from the chlorophyll fluourometer. Units for values are volts.
100
Calib_Chl_a NUMBER Chlorophyll a values determined using the equation of a line derived from a regression of extracted chlorphyll a analyses and fluorometer voltage.
100
T NUMBER Water temperature. Units for values are degrees celsius.
100
S NUMBER Seawater salinity. Units for values are unitless.
100
Cond NUMBER Seawater conductivity. Units for values are microsiemens per centimeter.
100
ST NUMBER Seawater density. Units for values are Sigma-t units_kilograms per cubic meter.

Attribute Details

Event

CC ID: 731163
Seq. Order: 1
Data Storage Type: VARCHAR2
Required: No
Primary Key: No
Status: Active
Description:

The name of the individual cruise or event in which samples were collected for the overall project.

General Data Type: VARCHAR2
Allowed Values: As provided

Event start date

CC ID: 731164
Seq. Order: 2
Data Storage Type: DATE
Required: No
Primary Key: No
Status: Active
Description:

The date on which the individual cruise or event began (local time).

General Data Type: DATE
Format Mask: mm/dd/yyyy
Allowed Values: As provided

Event end date

CC ID: 731165
Seq. Order: 3
Data Storage Type: DATE
Required: No
Primary Key: No
Status: Active
Description:

The date on which the individual cruise or event ended (local time).

General Data Type: DATE
Format Mask: mm/dd/yyyy
Allowed Values: As provided

Station

CC ID: 731166
Seq. Order: 4
Data Storage Type: VARCHAR2
Required: No
Primary Key: No
Status: Active
Description:

The name or identification number of a given station at which samples were collected.

General Data Type: VARCHAR2
Allowed Values: As provided

Sampling Date

CC ID: 731167
Seq. Order: 5
Data Storage Type: DATE
Required: No
Primary Key: No
Status: Active
Description:

The date (local time) on which as sample was collected.

General Data Type: DATE
Format Mask: mm/dd/yyyy
Allowed Values: As provided

Sampling Start Time

CC ID: 731168
Seq. Order: 6
Data Storage Type: DATE
Required: No
Primary Key: No
Status: Active
Description:

The time (local time) on the date in which a sample began to be collected.

General Data Type: DATE
Format Mask: mm/dd/yyyy hh24:mi
Allowed Values: As provided

Sampling End Time

CC ID: 731169
Seq. Order: 7
Data Storage Type: DATE
Required: No
Primary Key: No
Status: Active
Description:

The time (local time) on the date in which a sample was finished being collected.

General Data Type: DATE
Format Mask: mm/dd/yyyy hh24:mi
Allowed Values: As provided

Latitude

CC ID: 731170
Seq. Order: 8
Data Storage Type: NUMBER
Required: No
Primary Key: No
Status: Active
Description:

The latitude of the sampling station in decmal degrees. Units for values are decimal degrees.

General Data Type: NUMBER
Unit of Measure: decimal degrees
Allowed Values: As provided

Longitude

CC ID: 731171
Seq. Order: 9
Data Storage Type: NUMBER
Required: No
Primary Key: No
Status: Active
Description:

The longitude of the sampling station in decimal degrees. Units for values are decimal degrees.

General Data Type: NUMBER
Unit of Measure: decimal degrees
Allowed Values: As provided

Station Depth (m)

CC ID: 731172
Seq. Order: 10
Data Storage Type: NUMBER
Required: No
Primary Key: No
Status: Active
Description:

The water depth at a given station. Units for values are meters.

General Data Type: NUMBER
Unit of Measure: meters
Allowed Values: As provided

CastNum

CC ID: 731173
Seq. Order: 11
Data Storage Type: NUMBER
Required: No
Primary Key: No
Status: Active
Description:

The number of the CTD cast performed on a specific date.

General Data Type: NUMBER
Allowed Values: As provided

Depth(m)

CC ID: 731174
Seq. Order: 12
Data Storage Type: NUMBER
Required: No
Primary Key: No
Status: Active
Description:

The depth at which the data were collected. Units for values are meters.

General Data Type: NUMBER
Unit of Measure: meters
Allowed Values: As provided

Pr(db)

CC ID: 731175
Seq. Order: 13
Data Storage Type: NUMBER
Required: No
Primary Key: No
Status: Active
Description:

The pressure reading at which the data were collected. Units for values are decibars.

General Data Type: NUMBER
Unit of Measure: decibars
Allowed Values: As provided

dm

CC ID: 731176
Seq. Order: 14
Data Storage Type: NUMBER
Required: No
Primary Key: No
Status: Active
Description:

A relative measurement of the depth at which the samples were collected using a specified reference depth. Units for values are meters.

General Data Type: NUMBER
Unit of Measure: meters
Allowed Values: As provided

scans

CC ID: 731177
Seq. Order: 15
Data Storage Type: NUMBER
Required: No
Primary Key: No
Status: Active
Description:

The number of data scans that were averaged to determine the data value for a given depth bin.

General Data Type: NUMBER
Allowed Values: As provided

FL

CC ID: 731178
Seq. Order: 16
Data Storage Type: NUMBER
Required: No
Primary Key: No
Status: Active
Description:

The fluorescence reading from the chlorophyll fluourometer. Units for values are volts.

General Data Type: NUMBER
Unit of Measure: volts
Allowed Values: 0-5

Calib_Chl_a

CC ID: 731179
Seq. Order: 17
Data Storage Type: NUMBER
Required: No
Primary Key: No
Status: Active
Description:

Chlorophyll a values determined using the equation of a line derived from a regression of extracted chlorphyll a analyses and fluorometer voltage.

General Data Type: NUMBER
Allowed Values: less than the limit of detection to the measured value

T

CC ID: 731180
Seq. Order: 18
Data Storage Type: NUMBER
Required: No
Primary Key: No
Status: Active
Description:

Water temperature. Units for values are degrees celsius.

General Data Type: NUMBER
Unit of Measure: degrees celsius
Allowed Values: zero to measured value

S

CC ID: 731181
Seq. Order: 19
Data Storage Type: NUMBER
Required: No
Primary Key: No
Status: Active
Description:

Seawater salinity. Units for values are unitless.

General Data Type: NUMBER
Unit of Measure: unitless
Allowed Values: zero to measured value

Cond

CC ID: 731182
Seq. Order: 20
Data Storage Type: NUMBER
Required: No
Primary Key: No
Status: Active
Description:

Seawater conductivity. Units for values are microsiemens per centimeter.

General Data Type: NUMBER
Unit of Measure: microsiemens per centimeter
Allowed Values: zero to measured value

ST

CC ID: 731183
Seq. Order: 21
Data Storage Type: NUMBER
Required: No
Primary Key: No
Status: Active
Description:

Seawater density. Units for values are Sigma-t units_kilograms per cubic meter.

General Data Type: NUMBER
Unit of Measure: Sigma-t units_kilograms per cubic meter
Allowed Values: zero to measured value

Catalog Details

Catalog Item ID: 36788
GUID: gov.noaa.nmfs.inport:36788
Metadata Record Created By: Jeffrey W Cowen
Metadata Record Created: 2017-02-13 16:57+0000
Metadata Record Last Modified By: SysAdmin InPortAdmin
Metadata Record Last Modified: 2019-06-04 13:14+0000
Metadata Record Published: 2018-02-27
Owner Org: NWFSC
Metadata Publication Status: Published Externally
Do Not Publish?: N
Metadata Next Review Date: 2019-02-28