Short Citation:
Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, 2021: Identifying coral reef resilience potential in Tutuila, American Samoa based on NOAA coral reef monitoring data from 2010 to 2016, https://www.fisheries.noaa.gov/inport/item/50521.

Item Identification

Title: Identifying coral reef resilience potential in Tutuila, American Samoa based on NOAA coral reef monitoring data from 2010 to 2016
Short Name: Reef Resilience Analysis - Tutuila
Status: Completed
Publication Date: 2018
Abstract:

Declines in the health of coral reef ecosystems lead scientists to search for factors that support reef resilience: the ability of reefs to resist environmental stress and recover when they have been impacted, and to maintain key ecosystem functions throughout. Scientists have identified eleven measurable factors that affect the resilience of coral reefs. Reef resilience factors include characteristics of the coral assemblage, populations of fish that live on the reef, land-based influences, and sea surface temperature variability. NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Ecosystem Sciences Division (ESD) used these factors to quantitatively assess the resilience potential of reefs around Tutuila and Aunu‘u Islands in American Samoa.

Locations of monitoring surveys conducted by ESD from 2010 to 2016 were used to designate study zones. The monitoring surveys provided data to evaluate biological/ecological resilience factors, and external data sources were used to inform physical and environmental factors not directly measured by ESD. Data for each metric was compiled, normalized, and averaged to produce a composite resilience score for each of zone. The primary resilience analysis includes all 11 metrics for 10 study zones around Tutuila and Aunu'u, excluding Taema Bank. The secondary resilience analysis includes the 8 metrics available for 11 study zones around Tutuila and Aunu'u, including Taema Bank.

The information provided with this analysis includes the individual datasets for the 11 metrics used in the analysis (data tables), the survey sites and study zones (data tables), and the resilience scores resulting from the analysis (data tables and maps).

Purpose:

Structural, ecological, and physical processes including, diversity, recruitment, herbivory, disease, and thermal tolerance have been identified as key elements contributing to reef resilience. This analysis, funded by the NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program, integrates interdisciplinary data sets collected by NOAA Ecosystem Sciences Division and its partners to operationalize reef resilience in the U.S.-affiliated Pacific Islands. It is important to identify and understand these factors, so that management strategies can be tailored to maintaining or restoring coral communities to maximize their chances of survival in a changing climate. This analysis contributes to the local jurisdiction's capacity to meaningfully assess reef ecosystem condition in relation to a range of threats. A key aspect of the reef resilience framework is that it can empower local action to improve resilience of coral reefs because some drivers of resilience are heavily influenced by large-scale climatic forces, while others can be directly affected by local management.

Other Citation Details:

Schumacher BD, Vargas-Ángel B and SF Heron. 2018. Identifying coral reef resilience potential in Tutuila, American Samoa based on NOAA coral reef monitoring data. NOAA Special Publication. NMFS-PIFSC-SP-18-03, 15 pp.

https://doi.org/10.7289/V5/SP-PIFSC-18-003

Supplemental Information:

Reef resilience factors as described by McClanahan et al. (2012) include:

1. Pollution,

2. Sedimentation,

3. Herbivore biomass,

4. Macroalgae cover,

5. Coral diversity,

6. Coral recruitment,

7. Disease prevalence,

8. Bleaching resistance,

9. Physical impacts,

10. Fishing pressure, and

11. Sea surface temperature variability.

Keywords

Theme Keywords

Thesaurus Keyword
CoRIS Discovery Thesaurus Geographic Information > Ecological Characterization
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Atmosphere > Precipitation > Precipitation Amount
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Vegetation > Algae > Algal Cover
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Vegetation > Algae > Fleshy Macroalgae
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Coral biodiversity
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Coral Diseases
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Coral Diseases > Black Band Disease
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Photic Zone Corals
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef Damage Assessment > Human physical
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef Monitoring and Assessment > Reef Fish Census > Stationary
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Atmosphere > Atmospheric Phenomena > Global Change
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Atmosphere > Atmospheric Phenomena > Global Warming
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Aquatic Habitat > Benthic Habitat
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Aquatic Habitat > Reef Habitat
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Aquatic Habitat > Reef Habitat > Recovery
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Ecological Dynamics > Herbivory
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Microbiota > Bacteria
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Microbiota > Blue-green Algae
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Vegetation > Algae
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Vegetation > Algae > Algae Cover
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Coral Diseases > Bleaching
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Coral Diseases > Bleaching > Degree Heating Week (DHW)
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Coral Diseases > Bleaching > Sea Surface Temperature (SST)
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef Monitoring and Assessment
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef Monitoring and Assessment > Benthos Analysis
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef Monitoring and Assessment > Benthos Analysis > Quadrat Monitoring
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef Monitoring and Assessment > Benthos Analysis > Quadrat Monitoring > Photograph Analysis
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef Monitoring and Assessment > Benthos Analysis > Transect monitoring
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef Monitoring and Assessment > Benthos Analysis > Transect Monitoring > Belt Transect
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef Monitoring and Assessment > Benthos Analysis > Transect Monitoring > Linear Transect (line)
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef Monitoring and Assessment > In Situ Biological
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef Monitoring and Assessment > Photographic Analysis
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef Monitoring and Assessment > Rapid Assessment Studies
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef Monitoring and Assessment > Reef Fish Census
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef Monitoring and Assessment > Remote Sensing
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef Monitoring and Assessment > Remote Sensing > Satellite (digital scans)
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Quadrat Monitoring > Photograph Analysis
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Hydrosphere > Surface Water > Runoff
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Coastal Processes > Coral Reefs
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Coastal Processes > Coral Reefs > Marine Protected Areas
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Marine Biology > Fish > Fish Assemblages
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Marine Biology > Fish > Fish Census
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Marine Biology > Fish > Fishing
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Ocean Temperature > Sea Surface Temperature
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Ocean Temperature > Water Temperature
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Ocean Temperature > Water Temperature > Anomaly
CRCP Project 810
CRCP Project Reefs for the future: Identifying coral reef resilience in the US Pacific islands based on CRED coral reef monitoring data
ISO 19115 Topic Category 002
ISO 19115 Topic Category 014
ISO 19115 Topic Category Biota
ISO 19115 Topic Category oceans
NODC PROJECT NAMES THESAURUS Coral Reef Conservation Program
NODC PROJECT NAMES THESAURUS CORAL REEF STUDIES
NODC PROJECT NAMES THESAURUS National Coral Reef Monitoring Program
NODC PROJECT NAMES THESAURUS Pacific Reef and Assessment Monitoring Program (Pacific RAMP)
NODC SUBMITTING INSTITUTION NAMES THESAURUS US DOC; NOAA; NMFS; Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center; Ecosystem Sciences Division; Coral Reef Ecosystem Program
None Coral Reef Ecosystem Division
None Coral Reef Ecosystem Program
None CRED
None CREP
None Ecosystem Sciences Division
None ESD
None Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center
None PIFSC
None Resilience

Spatial Keywords

Thesaurus Keyword
CoRIS Place Thesaurus COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > American Samoa > American Samoa > American Samoa (14S170W0000)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > American Samoa > American Samoa > Aunu'u Island (14S170W0035)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > American Samoa > American Samoa > Tutuila Island (14S170W0016)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > American Samoa > Tutuila Island > Faga'alu (14S170W0005)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > American Samoa > Tutuila Island > Fagamalo (14S170W0047)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > American Samoa > Tutuila Island > Fagatele Bay (14S170W0002)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > American Samoa > Tutuila Island > Pago Pago (14S170W0008)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > American Samoa > Tutuila Island > Vatia Bay (14S170W0028)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > American Samoa > American Samoa (14S170W0000)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > American Samoa > Tutuila Island (14S170W0016)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Pago Pago Harbor > Faga'alu (14S170W0005)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Tutuila > Aunu'u Island (14S170W0035)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Tutuila Island > Fagamalo (14S170W0047)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Tutuila Island > Fagatele Bay (14S170W0002)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Tutuila Island > Pago Pago (14S170W0008)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Tutuila Island > Vatia Bay (14S170W0028)
NODC SEA AREA NAMES THESAURUS South Pacific Ocean

Physical Location

Organization: Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center
City: Honolulu
State/Province: HI
Country: USA

Data Set Information

Data Set Scope Code: Data Set
Data Set Type: Mixed
Maintenance Frequency: None Planned
Data Presentation Form: tabular digital data, and digital map
Entity Attribute Overview:

See download document "Tutuila Reef Resilience Files.docx" (data dictionary).

Distribution Liability:

While every effort has been made to ensure that these data are accurate and reliable within the limits of the current state of the art, NOAA cannot assume liability for any damages caused by errors or omissions in the data, nor as a result of the failure of the data to function on a particular system. NOAA makes no warranty, expressed or implied, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty.

Data Set Credit: Brett Schumacher, Coral Reef Researcher at NOAA Ecosystem Sciences Division (ESD)

Support Roles

Data Set Credit

CC ID: 700507
Date Effective From: 2017
Date Effective To:
Contact (Person): Schumacher, Brett D
Address: 1845 Wasp Blvd
Honolulu, HI 96818
USA
Email Address: brett.schumacher@noaa.gov
Phone: (808)725-5405
Contact Instructions:

E-mail preferred

Data Steward

CC ID: 700509
Date Effective From: 2017
Date Effective To:
Contact (Person): Schumacher, Brett D
Address: 1845 Wasp Blvd
Honolulu, HI 96818
USA
Email Address: brett.schumacher@noaa.gov
Phone: (808)725-5405
Contact Instructions:

E-mail preferred

Distributor

CC ID: 700513
Date Effective From: 2018-01
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): National Centers for Environmental Information - Silver Spring, Maryland (NCEI-MD)
Address: NOAA/NESDIS E/OC SSMC3, 4th Floor, 1351 East-West Highway
Silver Spring, MD 20910-3282
Phone: (301) 713-3277

Distributor

CC ID: 700510
Date Effective From: 2017-01
Date Effective To: 2017-12
Contact (Person): Schumacher, Brett D
Address: 1845 Wasp Blvd
Honolulu, HI 96818
USA
Email Address: brett.schumacher@noaa.gov
Phone: (808)725-5405
Contact Instructions:

E-mail preferred

Metadata Contact

CC ID: 700506
Date Effective From: 2017
Date Effective To:
Contact (Person): DesRochers, Annette M
Address: 1845 Wasp Blvd.
Honolulu, HI 96818
USA
Email Address: annette.desrochers@noaa.gov
Phone: (808)725-5461
Business Hours: 8 am - 5 pm
Contact Instructions:

E-mail preferred

Originator

CC ID: 708592
Date Effective From: 2017
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) (CRCP)
Address: 1305 East West Highway 10th Floor
Silver Spring, MD 20910-3281
Phone: (301) 713-3155
URL: http://coralreef.noaa.gov

Originator

CC ID: 700511
Date Effective From: 2017
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC)
Address: 1845 Wasp Blvd.
Honolulu, HI 96818
USA
Phone: 808-725-5300
URL: http://www.pifsc.noaa.gov
Business Hours: 8:00 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.

Point of Contact

CC ID: 700508
Date Effective From: 2017
Date Effective To:
Contact (Person): Vargas-Angel, Bernardo
Address: 1845 Wasp Blvd.
Honolulu, HI 96818
USA
Email Address: bernardo.vargasangel@noaa.gov
Phone: (808)725-5423
Contact Instructions:

E-mail preferred

Process Contact

CC ID: 700512
Date Effective From: 2017
Date Effective To:
Contact (Person): Schumacher, Brett D
Address: 1845 Wasp Blvd
Honolulu, HI 96818
USA
Email Address: brett.schumacher@noaa.gov
Phone: (808)725-5405
Contact Instructions:

E-mail preferred

Extents

Currentness Reference: Ground Condition

Extent Group 1

Extent Description:

Islands of Tutuila and Aunu'u, American Samoa

Extent Group 1 / Geographic Area 1

CC ID: 700612
W° Bound: -170.92
E° Bound: -170.431
N° Bound: -14.15
S° Bound: -14.45
Description

Islands of Tutuila and Aunu'u, American Samoa

Extent Group 1 / Time Frame 1

CC ID: 704575
Time Frame Type: Range
Start: 2010-02-17
End: 2016-04-30
Description:

Temporal coverage of NOAA Ecosystem Sciences Division survey data.

Extent Group 1 / Time Frame 2

CC ID: 704576
Time Frame Type: Range
Start: 1917
End: 2017
Description:

Base period used for mean rainfall

Extent Group 1 / Time Frame 3

CC ID: 700502
Time Frame Type: Range
Start: 1985
End: 2012
Description:

Temporal coverage of Pathfinder v5.2 sea surface temperature data.

Access Information

Security Class: Unclassified
Security Classification System:

Not applicable

Security Handling Description:

Not applicable

Data Access Policy:

Coral Reef Ecosystem Program (CREP) Data Sharing Recommendations, version 9.0 updated August 12, 2015:

CREP welcomes the opportunity to collaborate on research issues contributing to the scientific basis for better management of marine ecosystems. CREP has a very diverse set of field activities that generates large volumes of data using an array of data collection protocols.

The following recommendations are for your consideration as you use this data:

1) Data analyses should take all field exigencies into account. The most effective way to do this would be active collaboration with CREP principal investigators.

2) In all presentations, product releases, or publications using data generated by CREP, proper acknowledgement of both CREP and the individuals responsible for data collection is expected. Citing the DOI (if available) is preferred, a non-DOI example is listed below.

3) If you collect or generate data for the same study areas, CREP requests that you share relevant information on complimentary data collections.

4) Those receiving data are strongly urged to inform the CREP Data Management Team of any errors and discrepancies that are discovered during the course of using these data. They are further urged to bring to the attention of the Team all problems and difficulties encountered in using these data. This information is necessary in order to improve the collections and to facilitate more efficient and economical data processing and retrieval. The users are asked to supply copies of any missing data that may be located, and to provide information as to significant subsets and special aggregations of data that are developed in using the material provided.

Example citation:

"This publication makes use of data products provided by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Program (CREP), Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), with funding support from the NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP). The analysis and interpretations presented here are solely that of the current authors”

Data Access Procedure:

Data can be accessed online via the NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) Ocean Archive.

Data Access Constraints:

None

Data Use Constraints:

Please cite NOAA Ecosystem Sciences Division (ESD) when using these data.

Example

Cite as: Schumacher, Brett; Ecosystem Sciences Division; Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (2018). Identifying coral reef resilience potential in Tutuila, American Samoa based on NOAA coral reef monitoring data. NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Information, https://www.fisheries.noaa.gov/inport/item/50521

Metadata Access Constraints:

None

Metadata Use Constraints:

None

Distribution Information

Distribution 1

CC ID: 708593
Download URL: http://accession.nodc.noaa.gov/0169632
Distributor: National Centers for Environmental Information - Silver Spring, Maryland (NCEI-MD) (2018-01 - Present)
File Name: Reef_Resilience_Tutuila.zip
Description:

The Reef Resilience data package includes data, figures and documentation compiled into a ZIP file.

DATA: the original data sources used in the analysis and the final data (resilience scores) resulting from the analysis. The data are provided as a series of CSV files. Refer to the documentation for a description of each file.

Figures: the final maps (3) and graphs (2) produced following the reef resilience analysis. The maps are provided as PNGs, and the graphs as JPGs.

Documentation: Annotated list of metrics and associated files for the Reef Resilience analysis data package for Tutuila and Aunu'u, American Samoa. The document, in PDF format, describes each data file included in the Reef Resilience data package.

File Type: zip

URLs

URL 1

CC ID: 708594
URL: http://www.coris.noaa.gov/monitoring/
URL Type:
Online Resource
Description:

NOAA National Coral Reef Monitoring Program (NCRMP) website.

URL 2

CC ID: 708595
URL: https://www.pifsc.noaa.gov/cred/pacific_ramp.php
URL Type:
Online Resource
Description:

NOAA PIFSC Pacific Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (RAMP) website.

URL 3

CC ID: 708759
URL: http://accession.nodc.noaa.gov/0169632
URL Type:
Browse Graphic
File Resource Format: png
Description:

Map of the resilience scores/ranks for 10 study zones around Tutuila, American Samoa, based on the 11 reef resilience factors.

Filename: Browse graphic_Map wo Taema.png

Technical Environment

Description:

Data streams were compiled and analyzed by NOAA Ecosystem Sciences Division (ESD) researchers using MS Excel and Access 2010, Minitab, PRIMER version 6 with the Permanova+ add-on, and ArcMap 10.4.1.

Data Quality

Representativeness:

The foundation of the analysis was in situ ecological survey data collected by NOAA Ecosystem Sciences Division under the National Coral Reef Monitoring Program (NCRMP). These surveys were conducted around Tutuila based on a stratified random sampling protocol.

Accuracy:

Prior to conducting surveys, researchers are trained to identify and estimate/measure size of fish and corals along with other ecological metrics. Both classroom and field training and tests must be completed for all researchers (experienced and inexperienced alike) before each round of surveys begins. This training ensures that ecological surveys are conducted consistently by all researchers within survey efforts and also across periodic survey efforts.

Bias:

See description of training process in "Accuracy" section.

Comparability:

This project integrated NOAA Ecosystem Sciences Division (ESD) survey data with data from other, external projects. Because external projects were implemented for purposes different from ESD surveys, the spatial extent of ESD surveys does not always align with other study zones. We endeavored to group sites and delineate study zones to align to the greatest degree possible.

Completeness Report:

Eleven metrics of reef resilience were identified in the McClanahan et al. 2012 paper. This project attempted to include all metrics in the analysis, but data to support three metrics (sedimenation, pollution and fishing pressure) were not available for Taema Bank. Therefore, a separate composite metric (Composite 8), was calculated for all zones so that resilience at Taema Bank could be evaluated.

Conceptual Consistency:

Analysis is modeled after Maynard et al. 2012, "Coral reef resilience to climate change in Saipan, CNMI; field-based assessments and implications for vulnerability and future management." The current project utilized slightly different data streams in some cases (e.g. updated SST metrics), but the analysis followed the same overall procedures.

Quality Control Procedures Employed:

With some datasets, two different individuals generated summary statistics that were verified against each other. In other cases, the analysis was run two different ways or two different times and results were cross-checked. "Sanity checks" were also performed to evaluate if the results make sense and are logical.

Data Management

Have Resources for Management of these Data Been Identified?: Yes
Approximate Percentage of Budget for these Data Devoted to Data Management: Unknown
Do these Data Comply with the Data Access Directive?: Yes
Is Access to the Data Limited Based on an Approved Waiver?: No
Approximate Delay Between Data Collection and Dissemination: Unknown
Actual or Planned Long-Term Data Archive Location: NCEI-MD
Approximate Delay Between Data Collection and Archiving: Unknown
How Will the Data Be Protected from Accidental or Malicious Modification or Deletion Prior to Receipt by the Archive?:

NOAA IRC and NOAA Fisheries ITS resources and assets.

Lineage

Lineage Statement:

The principal analytical task of this project was to calculate eleven metrics of "reef resilience" as identified by McClanahan et al. (2012). These metrics account for various aspects of the coral reef ecosystem, and are derived from several data streams, as described in the process steps.

Sources

Ayotte, P., K. McCoy, A. Heenan, I. Williams, and J. Zamzow. 2015. Coral reef ecosystem program standard operating procedures: data collection for rapid ecological assessment fish surveys. Pacific Islands Fish. Sci. Cent., Natl. Mar. Fish. Serv., NOAA, Honolulu, HI 96818-5007. Pacific Islands Fish. Sci. Cent. Admin. Rep. H-15-07, 33p. doi:10.7289/V5SN06ZT

CC ID: 700530
Contact Role Type: Originator
Contact Type: Organization
Contact Name: Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, PIFSC
Citation URL: https://doi.org/10.7289/v5sn06zt
Citation URL Name: NOAA Institutional Repository

Heron SF, et al. "Warming Trends and Bleaching Stress of the World’s Coral Reefs 1985-2012." Scientific Reports 6 (2016): 38402.

CC ID: 704594
Contact Role Type: Publisher
Contact Type: Organization
Contact Name: Scientific Reports
Publish Date: 2017-12-06
Extent Type: Discrete
Extent Start Date/Time: 2016-12-06
Citation URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/srep38402
Citation URL Name: Nature Scientific Reports

Lozada-Misa P, Schumacher BD, Vargas-Angel B. 2017. Analysis of benthic survey images via CoralNet : a summary of standard operating procedures and guidelines. Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, PIFSC Administrative Report, H-17-02, 169 p. https://doi.org/10.7289/V5/AR-PIFSC-H-17-02.

CC ID: 700531
Contact Role Type: Originator
Contact Type: Organization
Contact Name: Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, PIFSC
Publish Date: 2017-01-01
Citation URL: http://doi.org/10.7289/V5/AR-PIFSC-H-17-02
Citation URL Name: NOAA Institutional Repository

Maynard, J., S. McKagan, L. Raymundo, S. Johnson, G. Ahmadia, L. Johnston, P. Houk, G. Williams, M. Kendall, S. Heron, R. van Hooidonk, and E. McLeod. 2015. Assessing relative resilience potential of coral reefs to inform management in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. Silver Spring, MD: NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program. NOAA Technical Memorandum CRCP 22. 153pp.

CC ID: 700529
Contact Role Type: Originator
Contact Type: Organization
Contact Name: CNMI Division of Environmental Quality
Publish Date: 2015-10-01
Citation URL: https://doi.org/10.7289/v5h41pfm
Citation URL Name: NOAA Institutional Repository

McClanahan TR, Donner SD, Maynard JA, MacNeil MA, Graham NAJ, et al. (2012) Prioritizing Key Resilience Indicators to Support Coral Reef Management in a Changing Climate. PLoS ONE 7(8): e42884. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0042884

CC ID: 700528
Contact Role Type: Publisher
Contact Type: Organization
Contact Name: PLoS ONE
Publish Date: 2012-08-29
Citation URL: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0042884
Citation URL Name: PLOS ONE

Tuitele C, et al. TERRITORY OF AMERICAN SAMOA INTEGRATED WATER QUALITY MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT REPORT 2016

CC ID: 704595
Contact Role Type: Originator
Contact Type: Organization
Contact Name: American Samoa Watershed Management and Protection Program FY15 Annual Report. American Samoa Environmental Protection Agency
Publish Date: 2016-04-01
Citation URL: https://www.epa.as.gov/sites/default/files/documents/public_notice/2016%20AS%20Integrated%20Report%20for%20Public%20Notice%202016%200410%20FINAL.pdf
Citation URL Name: American Samoa Environmental Protection Agency

Vargas-Angel, B., B.D. Schumacher. (2018). Baseline Surveys for Coral Reef Community Structure and Demographics in Vatia and Faga'alu Bay, American Samoa NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, PIFSC Special Publication, SP-18-002, 38 p.

CC ID: 704596
Contact Role Type: Originator
Contact Type: Organization
Contact Name: Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center
Publish Date: 2017-12-31
Citation URL: https://doi.org/10.7289/V5/SP-PIFSC-18-002
Citation URL Name: NOAA Institutional Repository

Process Steps

Process Step 1

CC ID: 700533
Description:

The first task was to identify and define zones of interest, hereafter known as study zones. Eleven study zones were delineated for the present project. Four of these zones reflect broad geographic regions (i.e. Northeast, Northwest, Southeast, Southwest) that have been used to organize ecological surveys conducted by the ESD under the National Coral Reef Monitoring Program based on broadly similar habitat and exposure to wave and weather conditions. Several smaller zones of interest were then identified that had been the subject of focused survey effort by the ESD during previous projects, providing geographically dense data to evaluate the resilience potential for each individual zone: Taema Bank had suffered severe impacts due to predation on corals by crown-of-thorns seastars; Aunu‘u East, Aunu‘u West, Fagamalo, and Fagatele are marine protected areas (MPAs); and Faga‘alu Bay and Vatia Bay were the subject of previous studies by ESD on impacts of land-based sources of pollution (LBSP) (Vargas-Ángel and Schumacher In Review).

Process Contact: Schumacher, Brett D
Phone (Voice): (808)725-5405
Email Address: brett.schumacher@noaa.gov
Source: Vargas-Angel, B., B.D. Schumacher. (2018). Baseline Surveys for Coral Reef Community Structure and Demographics in Vatia and Faga'alu Bay, American Samoa NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, PIFSC Special Publication, SP-18-002, 38 p.

Process Step 2

CC ID: 700534
Description:

The basis of the pollution metric is a watershed health index based on analysis of the American Samoa Environmental Protection Agency (Tuitele 2016). We used ArcGIS to combine this information by merging watersheds associated with each georegion and calculating a weighted mean WHI by area.

Source: Tuitele C, et al. TERRITORY OF AMERICAN SAMOA INTEGRATED WATER QUALITY MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT REPORT 2016

Process Step 3

CC ID: 700535
Description:

The sedimentation metric is based on precipitation that falls on the watersheds associated with each georegion. A "precipitation index" was derived based on interpolated rainfall information from the NOAA National Weather Service (https://hdsc.nws.noaa.gov/hdsc/pfds/meta/na14_vol5_as_grid_metadata.xml). Rainfall was scaled by the coastline of each georegion.

Process Step 4

CC ID: 700536
Description:

The herbivore biomass metric was derived from data from NOAA Ecosystem Sciences Division Rapid Ecological Assessment (REA) fish surveys. Mean herbivore biomass for each zone, as well as all subsequently described metrics based on data from REA surveys, were calculated based on a weighted average of reef area in three depth zones (0-6 meters, 6-18 meters, 18-30 meters).

Source: Ayotte, P., K. McCoy, A. Heenan, I. Williams, and J. Zamzow. 2015. Coral reef ecosystem program standard operating procedures: data collection for rapid ecological assessment fish surveys. Pacific Islands Fish. Sci. Cent., Natl. Mar. Fish. Serv., NOAA, Honolulu, HI 96818-5007. Pacific Islands Fish. Sci. Cent. Admin. Rep. H-15-07, 33p. doi:10.7289/V5SN06ZT

Process Step 5

CC ID: 700537
Description:

The macroalgal cover metric was derived from analysis of digital images of the benthos (photoquadrats) from NOAA Ecosystem Sciences Division Rapid Ecological Assessment (REA) fish and coral surveys.

Source: Lozada-Misa P, Schumacher BD, Vargas-Angel B. 2017. Analysis of benthic survey images via CoralNet : a summary of standard operating procedures and guidelines. Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, PIFSC Administrative Report, H-17-02, 169 p. https://doi.org/10.7289/V5/AR-PIFSC-H-17-02.

Process Step 6

CC ID: 700538
Description:

Metrics for coral diversity, coral recruitment, physical impacts to coral, and disease prevalence were calculated from data gathered by NOAA Ecosystem Sciences Division Rapid Ecological Assessment (REA) benthic surveys.

Process Step 7

CC ID: 700539
Description:

The bleaching resistance metric was calculated based on the percent corals of a given species found in georegions, scaled by their sensitivity to bleaching as determined by observations of corals during a bleaching event.

Process Step 8

CC ID: 700540
Description:

The fishing pressure metric was derived from multiple data sources. The proximity of human population was the primary driver. Census data was used to estimate mean population within 10 kilometers of reef in each georegion. No-take marine protected areas were assumed to not have fishing activity. Commericial fishing trips to a region were also used to create an index that was averaged with human population. These were scaled by reef area and averaged.

Process Step 9

CC ID: 700541
Description:

The Sea Surface Temperature (SST) variability metric was derived from Pathfinder v5.2 ~4 kilometer (1/24 degrees) daily SST data for the period 1985-2012, provided by the Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) and the U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center. The Pathfinder project was supported in part by a grant from the NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) Program for satellites. Scott Heron created derived data sets based on these data under a NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) grant (Heron-786), and these derived data sets were used as the basis of the SST variability metric. Based on discussions with Heron, the number of significant thermal events (defined as a period where a reef area experienced 4 consecutive degree heating weeks) and the interannual variability (standard deviation) of the climactically warmest month were combined to calculate the SST variability metric. Additional information about thermal history products is available at the Coral Reef Watch website (http://coralreefwatch.noaa.gov/satellite/thermal_history/th_index.php).

Source: Heron SF, et al. "Warming Trends and Bleaching Stress of the World’s Coral Reefs 1985-2012." Scientific Reports 6 (2016): 38402.

Child Items

Rubric scores updated every 15m

Rubric Score Type Title
Entity (ENT) Reef Resilience Scores - Field Descriptions

Related Items

Item Type Relationship Type Title
Data Set (DS) Cross Reference Reefs for the future: Resilience of coral reefs in the main Hawaiian Islands

Catalog Details

Catalog Item ID: 50521
Metadata Record Created By: Annette M DesRochers
Metadata Record Created: 2017-12-01 13:19+0000
Metadata Record Last Modified By: Annette M DesRochers
Metadata Record Last Modified: 2020-12-03 04:15+0000
Metadata Record Published: 2018-01-05
Owner Org: PIFSC
Metadata Publication Status: Published Externally
Do Not Publish?: N
Metadata Next Review Date: 2019-01-06