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Short Citation:
Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, 2023: Benthic Images from Stratified Random Site (StRS) Surveys in the Main Hawaiian Islands During the 2019 Bleaching Event, https://www.fisheries.noaa.gov/inport/item/59193.

Item Identification

Title: Benthic Images from Stratified Random Site (StRS) Surveys in the Main Hawaiian Islands During the 2019 Bleaching Event
Short Name: Bleaching: 2019 StRS Benthic Images
Status: Completed
Publication Date: 2022
Abstract:

Data provided in his dataset are benthic habitat imagery that result from benthic photo-quadrat surveys conducted along transects at stratified random sites surveyed across the Main Hawaiian Islands during the 2019 bleaching event. The data were collected by the NOAA Ecosystem Sciences Division (ESD) during a multi-institutional effort by the Hawaii Coral Bleaching Collaborative (HCBC) to build a comprehensive dataset of the spatial extent and severity of bleaching in the Hawaiian Archipelago during the peak of the forecasted 2019 coral bleaching event. These photo-quadrat surveys were conducted during shore-based missions and at each site, rapid visual assessments were also conducted to provide information on live coral cover and the percentage and average severity that was bleached, as well as taxa-specific metrics (live cover and the percentage and severity that was bleached).

A stratified random sampling (StRS) design was employed to select random sites. The survey domain encompassed the majority of the mapped area of reef and hard bottom habitats in the 0-30 m depth range. The stratification scheme included island, reef zone, and depth in all regions, as well as habitat structure type in the Main Hawaiian Islands. Sampling effort was allocated based on strata area and sites were randomly located within strata. Sites were surveyed using photo-quadrats along transects to collect benthic imagery to ultimately produce estimates of relative abundance (percent cover), frequency of occurrence, benthic community taxonomic composition and relative generic richness.

The StRS design effectively reduces estimate variance through stratification using environmental covariates and by sampling more sites rather than sampling more transects at a site. Therefore, site-level estimates and site to site comparisons should be used with caution.

The benthic images can be accessed online via the NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) Ocean Archive.

Purpose:

Working with the Hawaii Coral Bleaching Collaborative (HCBC), NOAA ESD planned and executed a field survey response in 2019 that applied a structured, hypothesis-driven approach to document the extent of coral bleaching in the Hawaiian Archipelago, and laid the groundwork for tracking coral response and recovery through time.

Keywords

Theme Keywords

Thesaurus Keyword
UNCONTROLLED
CoRIS Discovery Thesaurus Visual Images > Habitats
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef Monitoring and Assessment
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef Monitoring and Assessment > In Situ Biological
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef monitoring and assessment > Rapid assessment studies
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Coastal Processes > Coral Reefs
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Coastal Processes > Coral Reefs > Coral Reef Ecology
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Coastal Processes > Coral Reefs > Coral Reef Ecology > Benthic biology
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Coastal Processes > Coral Reefs > Coral reef ecology > Coral cover
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Marine Biology > Coral
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Marine Biology > Coral Communities
CRCP Project 31283
CRCP Project Hawaii coral bleaching assessment and analysis
ISO 19115 Topic Category 002
ISO 19115 Topic Category Biota
NODC DATA TYPES THESAURUS PHOTOQUADRAT IMAGES
NODC OBSERVATION TYPES THESAURUS imagery
NODC PROJECT NAMES THESAURUS Coral Reef Conservation Program
NODC PROJECT NAMES THESAURUS CORAL REEF STUDIES
NODC SUBMITTING INSTITUTION NAMES THESAURUS US DOC; NOAA; NMFS; Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center; Ecosystem Sciences Division; Coral Reef Ecosystem Program
None Coral Reef Ecosystem Division
None Coral Reef Ecosystem Program
None CRED
None CREP
None ESD
None Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center
None PIFSC

Spatial Keywords

Thesaurus Keyword
UNCONTROLLED
CoRIS Place Thesaurus COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Hawaii > Hawaii > Hawaii (21N160W0000)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Hawaii > Hawaii > Hawaii Island (19N155W0003)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Hawaii > Honolulu > Oahu (21N157W0003)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Hawaii > Maui > Lanai Island (20N156W0002)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Hawaii > Maui > Maui Island (20N156W0004)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Hawaiian Islands (21N157W0027)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Central Pacific Ocean > Hawaiian Islands (21N157W0027)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Central Pacific Ocean > Hawaiian Islands > Hawaii > Hawaii (21N160W0000)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Central Pacific Ocean > Hawaiian Islands > Hawaii Island > Hawaii Island (19N155W0003)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Central Pacific Ocean > Hawaiian Islands > Lanai Island > Lanai Island (20N156W0002)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Central Pacific Ocean > Hawaiian Islands > Maui Island > Maui Island (20N156W0004)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Central Pacific Ocean > Hawaiian Islands > Oahu Island > Oahu (21N157W0003)
NODC Sea Area Names Thesaurus North Pacific Ocean
None Main Hawaiian Islands
None MHI

Physical Location

Organization: Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center
City: Honolulu
State/Province: HI
Country: USA

Data Set Information

Data Set Scope Code: Data Set
Data Set Type: JPG Files
Maintenance Frequency: As Needed
Data Presentation Form: Image (digital)
Entity Attribute Overview:

Raw data include 30 benthic photographs per survey site. Included in the archive package is a list of survey sites, including region, island, site, date (day, month, year), latitude (dd), longitude (dd), and depth (ft) where photoquads were collected and unique image name. The file naming convention for each photo/image is [SITE]_[YEAR]_[TRANSECT]_[PHOTO_NUMBER].JPG (for example: TUT-903_2012_A_01.JPG).

Distribution Liability:

While every effort has been made to ensure that these data are accurate and reliable within the limits of the current state of the art, NOAA cannot assume liability for any damages caused by errors or omissions in the data, nor as a result of the failure of the data to function on a particular system. NOAA makes no warranty, expressed or implied, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty.

Data Set Credit: PIFSC Coral Reef Ecosystem Program and funded by the NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program

Support Roles

Data Steward

CC ID: 901813
Date Effective From: 2019
Date Effective To:
Contact (Person): Winston, Morgan S
Address: 1845 Wasp Blvd.
Honolulu, HI 96818
USA
Email Address: morgan.winston@noaa.gov
Phone: (808)725-5480

Distributor

CC ID: 901819
Date Effective From: 2019
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): National Centers for Environmental Information - Silver Spring, Maryland (NCEI-MD)
Address: NOAA/NESDIS E/OC SSMC3, 4th Floor, 1351 East-West Highway
Silver Spring, MD 20910-3282
Phone: (301) 713-3277

Metadata Contact

CC ID: 901814
Date Effective From: 2019
Date Effective To:
Contact (Person): Luers, Lori H
Address: 1845 Wasp Blvd.
Honolulu, HI 96818
USA
Email Address: lori.luers@noaa.gov

Originator

CC ID: 901816
Date Effective From: 2019
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC)
Address: 1845 Wasp Blvd.
Honolulu, HI 96818
USA
Email Address: pifsc.info@noaa.gov
Phone: 808-725-5360
URL: https://www.pifsc.noaa.gov
Business Hours: 8:00 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.

Point of Contact

CC ID: 901817
Date Effective From: 2019
Date Effective To:
Contact (Person): Couch, Courtney S
Email Address: courtney.s.couch@noaa.gov

Extents

Currentness Reference: Ground Condition

Extent Group 1

Extent Description:

Main Hawaiian Islands

Extent Group 1 / Geographic Area 1

CC ID: 901838
W° Bound: -158.13522
E° Bound: -155.88832
N° Bound: 21.70428
S° Bound: 19.31344
Description

Main Hawaiian Islands (MHI), including Hawaii, Maui, Oahu, and Lanai.

Extent Group 1 / Time Frame 1

CC ID: 901833
Time Frame Type: Range
Start: 2019-10-08
End: 2019-11-14
Description:

Shore-based surveys around the Main Hawaiian Islands.

Access Information

Security Class: Unclassified
Security Classification System:

Not applicable

Security Handling Description:

Not applicable

Data Access Policy:

NOAA Ecosystem Sciences Division (ESD) Data Sharing Recommendations, version 9.0 updated August 12, 2015:

ESD welcomes the opportunity to collaborate on research issues contributing to the scientific basis for better management of marine ecosystems. ESD has a very diverse set of field activities that generates large volumes of data using an array of data collection protocols.

The following recommendations are for your consideration as you use this data:

1) Data analyses should take all field exigencies into account. The most effective way to do this would be active collaboration with ESD principal investigators.

2) In all presentations, product releases, or publications using data generated by ESD, proper acknowledgement of both ESD and the individuals responsible for data collection is expected. Citing the DOI (if available) is preferred, a non-DOI example is listed below.

3) If you collect or generate data for the same study areas, ESD requests that you share relevant information on complimentary data collections.

4) Those receiving data are strongly urged to inform the ESD Data Management Team of any errors and discrepancies that are discovered during the course of using these data. They are further urged to bring to the attention of the Team all problems and difficulties encountered in using these data. This information is necessary in order to improve the collections and to facilitate more efficient and economical data processing and retrieval. The users are asked to supply copies of any missing data that may be located, and to provide information as to significant subsets and special aggregations of data that are developed in using the material provided.

Example citation:

"This publication makes use of data products provided by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Program (ESD), Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), with funding support from the NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP). The analysis and interpretations presented here are solely that of the current authors.

Data Access Procedure:

Data can be accessed online via the NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) Ocean Archive.

Data Access Constraints:

None

Data Use Constraints:

Please cite NOAA Ecosystem Sciences Division (ESD) when using the data.

Example:

Ecosystem Sciences Division; Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (2022). Benthic Images from Stratified Random Site (StRS) Surveys in the Main Hawaiian Islands During the 2019 Bleaching Event. NOAA's National Center for Environmental Information, https://www.fisheries.noaa.gov/inport/item/59193

Metadata Access Constraints:

None

Metadata Use Constraints:

None

Distribution Information

Distribution 1

CC ID: 1180027
Download URL: http://accession.nodc.noaa.gov/0270550
Distributor: National Centers for Environmental Information - Silver Spring, Maryland (NCEI-MD) (2019 - Present)
File Name: ESD_SiteInfo_MHI_BLEA_2019
Description:

Describes site information for imagery

File Type: csv (comma-separated values)

Distribution 2

CC ID: 901820
Download URL: http://accession.nodc.noaa.gov/0270550
Distributor: National Centers for Environmental Information - Silver Spring, Maryland (NCEI-MD) (2019 - Present)
File Name: MHI_PQ_Bleaching_2019
Description:

Photoquadrat benthic images collected at stratified random sites (StRS) across the Main Hawaiian Islands by the NOAA Ecosystem Sciences Division (ESD) during the 2019 bleaching surveys.

File Type: JPEG
File Size: 31.8 GB

URLs

URL 1

CC ID: 901822
URL: https://www.fisheries.noaa.gov/feature-story/surveys-assess-2019-hawaii-coral-bleaching-event
Name: Feature Story: Surveys to Assess the 2019 Hawaii Coral Bleaching Event
URL Type:
Online Resource
File Resource Format: HTML

Technical Environment

Description:

The latitude and longitude coordinates of each site surveyed are recorded using a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver.

Data Quality

Accuracy:

Handheld GPS units were used to locate random sites and mark site locations. Images captured from the camera may not contain a clear depiction of the benthos due to a number of confounding factors, including the angle of the camera lens in relation to the benthos, the distance between the camera lens and the benthos, and water turbidity.

Analytical Accuracy:

Image data include 30 benthic photographs per survey site. Appropriate site level image grouping should include all 30 images.

Completeness Report:

Only shallow water (0 to 30 meter depth range) hard-bottom habitats are surveyed. The survey sites were randomly selected using a systematic process based on available habitat and bathymetric data. Although efforts are made to include broad spatial coverage of surveys at each island, weather conditions and other environmental constraints may have prevented the team from surveying exposed reef areas.

Conceptual Consistency:

The same methods of data collection were used at each surveyed site.

Quality Control Procedures Employed:

The photos are reviewed by the diver for accuracy and usability. The data management team also uses a optical validation script to re-name photos and enforce several validation checks. Images are color corrected prior to analysis.

Data Management

Have Resources for Management of these Data Been Identified?: Yes
Approximate Percentage of Budget for these Data Devoted to Data Management: Unknown
Do these Data Comply with the Data Access Directive?: Yes
Is Access to the Data Limited Based on an Approved Waiver?: No
Approximate Delay Between Data Collection and Dissemination: Unknown
Actual or Planned Long-Term Data Archive Location: NCEI-MD
Approximate Delay Between Data Collection and Archiving: Unknown
How Will the Data Be Protected from Accidental or Malicious Modification or Deletion Prior to Receipt by the Archive?:

The images reside on a file server maintained and regularly backed up by PIFSC ITS.

Lineage

Lineage Statement:

The stratified random sampling (StRS) design and benthic photoquadrat survey methodology has been employed by the NOAA Ecosystem Sciences Division since 2013. These photos are color-corrected (if necessary) prior to analysis. The data management team also uses a optical validation script to re-name photos and enforce several validation checks.

Sources

Coral Bleaching SOP 2019 - NOAA

CC ID: 1179499
Contact Role Type: Originator
Contact Type: Organization
Contact Name: NOAA Fisheries Ecosystem Sciences Division
Citation URL: http://accession.nodc.noaa.gov/0209239
Citation URL Name: National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) Data Archive

Process Steps

Process Step 1

CC ID: 901829
Description:

A stratified random sampling (StRS) design was employed to conduct surveys during the 2019 bleaching event by the NOAA Ecosystem Sciences Division. The survey domain encompassed the majority of the mapped area of reef and hard bottom habitats. The stratification scheme included island, reef zone, and depth in all regions, as well as habitat structure type in the Main Hawaiian Islands. The habitat structure types included simple, complex, and coral-rich. Depth categories of shallow (0-6 m), mid (> 6-18m) and deep (>18-30 m) were also incorporated into the stratification scheme. Allocation of sampling effort was proportional to strata area. Sites were randomly selected within each stratum.

A geographic information system (GIS) and digital spatial databases of benthic habitats (NOAA National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science NCCOS), reef zones (IKONOS satellite imagery, NDGC 1998) bathymetry (NDGC 1998, CREP benthic mapping data), and marine reserve boundaries (NOAA) were used to facilitate spatial delineation of the sampling survey domain, strata, and sample units. Map resolution was such that the survey domain could be overlain by a grid using a GIS with individual cells of size 50 m by 50 m in area. A two-stage sampling scheme following Cochran (1977) was employed to control for spatial variation in population parameters at scales smaller than the grid cell minimum mapping unit (2,500 m2). Grid cells containing hard-bottom reef habitats were designated as primary sample units (referred to as sites).

NOAA Fisheries Ecosystem Sciences Division (ESD) conducted rapid visual assessments and photoquadrat assessments of coral bleaching using the methodology outlined by the NOAA Coral Bleaching standard operating procedure for 2019. Still photographs were collected to record the benthic community composition at predetermined points along the transect lines with a high-resolution digital camera. Overall, 30 photoquadrat images are collected at each site. Benthic substrate photos are taken at one meter intervals along the right hand side of the 30 m transect line.

Raw data include 30 benthic photographs per survey site. Included in the archive package is a list of survey sites, including region, island, site, date (day, month, year), latitude (dd), longitude (dd), and depth (ft) where photoquads were collected and unique image name. The file naming convention for each photo/image is [SITE]_[YEAR]_[TRANSECT]_[PHOTO_NUMBER].JPG (for example: TUT-903_2012_A_01.JPG).

Process Contact: Winston, Morgan S
Phone (Voice): (808)725-5480
Email Address: morgan.winston@noaa.gov

Child Items

Rubric scores updated every 15m

Rubric Score Type Title
Entity 2019 MHI PQ Bleaching Benthic Images: Data Dictionary

Catalog Details

Catalog Item ID: 59193
GUID: gov.noaa.nmfs.inport:59193
Metadata Record Created By: Annette M DesRochers
Metadata Record Created: 2020-03-31 16:28+0000
Metadata Record Last Modified By: Lori H Luers
Metadata Record Last Modified: 2022-11-30 00:46+0000
Metadata Record Published: 2022-11-16
Owner Org: PIFSC
Metadata Publication Status: Published Externally
Do Not Publish?: N
Metadata Last Review Date: 2022-10-01
Metadata Review Frequency: 1 Year
Metadata Next Review Date: 2023-10-01