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Short Citation:
Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, 2023: Benthic Cover Derived from Analysis of Benthic Images Collected in the Hawaiian Archipelago During the 2019 Bleaching Event, https://www.fisheries.noaa.gov/inport/item/59195.

Item Identification

Title: Benthic Cover Derived from Analysis of Benthic Images Collected in the Hawaiian Archipelago During the 2019 Bleaching Event
Short Name: Bleaching: 2019 BIA Benthic Cover
Status: Completed
Publication Date: 2022
Abstract:

The data described here result from benthic photo-quadrat surveys conducted along transects at stratified random sites (StRS), as well as climate stations and permanent sites, surveyed across the Hawaiian Archipelago during the 2019 bleaching event. Benthic habitat imagery was quantitatively analyzed using the web-based annotation tool CoralNet (Beijbom et al. 2016) with the addition of codes for bleaching of hard coral. In general, images are analyzed to produce three functional group levels of benthic cover: Tier 1 (e.g., hard coral, soft coral, macroalgae, turf algae, etc.), Tier 2 (e.g., Hard Coral = massive, branching, foliose, encrusting, etc.; Macroalgae = upright macroalgae, encrusting macroalgae, bluegreen macroalgae, and Halimeda, etc.), and Tier 3 (e.g., Hard Coral = Astreopora sp, Favia sp, Pocillopora, etc.; Macroalgae = Caulerpa sp, Dictyosphaeria sp, Padina sp, etc.). For each category of hard coral, a bleached and non-bleached option existed during analysis to facilitate the collection of coral bleaching percent cover data.

In the Main Hawaiian Islands (MHI) and some sites in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI), a StRS design was employed to select random sites. The survey domain encompassed the majority of the mapped area of reef and hard bottom habitats in the 0-30 m depth range. The stratification scheme included island, reef zone, and depth in all regions, as well as habitat structure type in the Main Hawaiian Islands. Sampling effort was allocated based on strata area and sites were randomly located within strata. Sites were surveyed using photo-quadrats along transects to collect benthic imagery to ultimately produce estimates of relative abundance (percent cover), frequency of occurrence, benthic community taxonomic composition and relative generic richness.

The StRS design effectively reduces estimate variance through stratification using environmental covariates and by sampling more sites rather than sampling more transects at a site. Therefore, site-level estimates and site to site comparisons should be used with caution.

Surveys conducted in the Main Hawaiian Islands were conducted during shore-based missions and were all StRS, whereas surveys in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands were performed opportunistically during the regularly scheduled NOAA National Coral Reef Monitoring Program (NCRMP) mission and encompassed StRS as well as fixed sites, which include climate stations and permanent sites

The data from the benthic cover surveys can be accessed online via the NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) Ocean Archive.

Purpose:

Working with the Hawaii Coral Bleaching Collaborative (HCBC), NOAA ESD planned and executed a field survey response in 2019 that applied a structured, hypothesis-driven approach to document the extent of coral bleaching in the Hawaiian Archipelago, and laid the groundwork for tracking coral response and recovery through time.

Keywords

Theme Keywords

Thesaurus Keyword
UNCONTROLLED
CoRIS Discovery Thesaurus Numeric Data Sets > Benthic
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Aquatic Habitat > Benthic Habitat
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Aquatic Habitat > Reef Habitat
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Microbiota > Blue-green Algae
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Vegetation > Algae > Algal Cover
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Vegetation > Algae > Crustose Coralline Algae
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Vegetation > Algae > Encrusting Macroalgae
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Vegetation > Algae > Turf Algae
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef Monitoring and Assessment
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef Monitoring and Assessment > Benthos Analysis
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef Monitoring and Assessment > Benthos Analysis > Quadrat Monitoring > Photograph Analysis
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef Monitoring and Assessment > Benthos Analysis > Transect Monitoring
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef Monitoring and Assessment > Benthos Analysis > Transect Monitoring > Belt Transect
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef Monitoring and Assessment > Benthos Analysis > Transect Monitoring > Point Counts
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef Monitoring and Assessment > In Situ Biological
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef Monitoring and Assessment > Photographic Analysis
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef Monitoring and Assessment > Rapid Assessment Studies
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Mollusks > Tridacna
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Sponges
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Coastal Processes > Coral Reefs
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Coastal Processes > Coral Reefs > Coral Reef Ecology
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Coastal Processes > Coral Reefs > Coral Reef Ecology > Benthic biology
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Coastal Processes > Coral Reefs > Coral Reef Ecology > Coral Cover
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Coastal Processes > Coral Reefs > Coral Reef Ecology > Hard Coral Cover
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Coastal Processes > Coral Reefs > Coral Reef Ecology > Hard Coral Cover Live percentage
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Coastal Processes > Coral Reefs > Coral Reef Ecology > Octocoral Cover
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Marine Biology > Coral
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Marine Biology > Coral Communities
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Marine Biology > Marine Invertebrates
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Marine Biology > Marine Invertebrates > Macroinvertebrates
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Marine Biology > Marine Plants > Seagrass
CRCP Project 31283
CRCP Project Hawaii coral bleaching assessment and analysis
ISO 19115 Topic Category 002
ISO 19115 Topic Category biota
NODC DATA TYPES THESAURUS REEF AND/OR BOTTOM REGIME - PERCENT COVER
NODC PLATFORM NAMES THESAURUS RAINIER
NODC PROJECT NAMES THESAURUS Coral Reef Conservation Program
NODC PROJECT NAMES THESAURUS CORAL REEF STUDIES
NODC SUBMITTING INSTITUTION NAMES THESAURUS US DOC; NOAA; NMFS; Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center; Ecosystem Sciences Division; Coral Reef Ecosystem Program
None bleaching
None Coral Reef Ecosystem Division
None Coral Reef Ecosystem Program
None coralnet
None CRED
None CREP
None Ecosystem Sciences Division
None ESD
None Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center
None PIFSC

Spatial Keywords

Thesaurus Keyword
UNCONTROLLED
CoRIS Place Thesaurus COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Hawaii > Hawaii > Hawaii (21N160W0000)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Hawaii > Hawaii > Hawaii Island (19N155W0003)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Hawaii > Honolulu > French Frigate Shoals (24N166W0001)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Hawaii > Honolulu > Kure Atoll (28N178W0001)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Hawaii > Honolulu > Lisianski Island (25N173W0001)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Hawaii > Honolulu > Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (28N178W0000)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Hawaii > Honolulu > Oahu (21N157W0003)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Hawaii > Honolulu > Pearl and Hermes Reef (27N176W0001)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Hawaii > Maui > Lanai Island (20N156W0002)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Hawaii > Maui > Maui Island (20N156W0004)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus COUNTRY/TERRITORY > United States of America > Hawaiian Islands (21N157W0027)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Central Pacific Ocean > Hawaiian Islands (21N157W0027)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Central Pacific Ocean > Hawaiian Islands > Hawaii > Hawaii (21N160W0000)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Central Pacific Ocean > Hawaiian Islands > Hawaii Island > Hawaii Island (19N155W0003)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Central Pacific Ocean > Hawaiian Islands > Lanai Island > Lanai Island (20N156W0002)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Central Pacific Ocean > Hawaiian Islands > Maui Island > Maui Island (20N156W0004)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Central Pacific Ocean > Hawaiian Islands > Oahu Island > Oahu (21N157W0003)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Central Pacific Ocean > Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (28N178W0000)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Central Pacific Ocean > Northwestern Hawaiian Islands > French Frigate Shoals (24N166W0001)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Central Pacific Ocean > Northwestern Hawaiian Islands > Kure Atoll (28N178W0001)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Central Pacific Ocean > Northwestern Hawaiian Islands > Lisianski Island (25N173W0001)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus OCEAN BASIN > Pacific Ocean > Central Pacific Ocean > Northwestern Hawaiian Islands > Pearl and Hermes Reef (27N176W0001)
NODC Sea Area Names Thesaurus North Pacific Ocean
NODC Sea Area Names Thesaurus Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument
None Main Hawaiian Islands
None MHI
None Northwestern Hawaiian Islands
None NWHI

Physical Location

Organization: Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center
City: Honolulu
State/Province: HI
Country: USA

Data Set Information

Data Set Scope Code: Data Set
Data Set Type: CSV Files
Maintenance Frequency: As Needed
Data Presentation Form: Table (digital)
Entity Attribute Overview:

Raw survey data includes metadata for each survey (where, when, who, area); site characteristics (depth, reef type, habitat); unique image name and individual point observations identified at three functional group levels of benthic cover: Tier 1 (e.g., hard coral, soft coral, macroalgae, turf algae, etc.), Tier 2 (e.g., Hard Coral = massive, branching, foliose, encrusting, etc.; Macroalgae = upright macroalgae, encrusting macroalgae, bluegreen macroalgae, and Halimeda, etc.), and Tier 3 (e.g., Hard Coral = Astreopora sp, Favia sp, Pocillopora, etc.; Macroalgae = Caulerpa sp, Dictyosphaeria sp, Padina sp, etc.). For each category of hard coral, a bleached and non-bleached option existed during analysis to facilitate the collection of coral bleaching percent cover data. The labelset ("CNET_LABELS_BLEACHING") used to annotate in CoralNet can be found under 'Distribution Info,'

Entity Attribute Detail URL: https://www.fisheries.noaa.gov/inport/item/59196
Distribution Liability:

While every effort has been made to ensure that these data are accurate and reliable within the limits of the current state of the art, NOAA cannot assume liability for any damages caused by errors or omissions in the data, nor as a result of the failure of the data to function on a particular system. NOAA makes no warranty, expressed or implied, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty.

Data Set Credit: PIFSC Coral Reef Ecosystem Program and funded by the NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program

Support Roles

Data Steward

CC ID: 901935
Date Effective From: 2019
Date Effective To:
Contact (Person): Winston, Morgan S
Address: 1845 Wasp Blvd.
Honolulu, HI 96818
USA
Email Address: morgan.winston@noaa.gov
Phone: (808)725-5480

Distributor

CC ID: 901937
Date Effective From: 2019
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): National Centers for Environmental Information - Silver Spring, Maryland (NCEI-MD)
Address: NOAA/NESDIS E/OC SSMC3, 4th Floor, 1351 East-West Highway
Silver Spring, MD 20910-3282
Phone: (301) 713-3277

Metadata Contact

CC ID: 901930
Date Effective From: 2019
Date Effective To:
Contact (Person): Luers, Lori H
Address: 1845 Wasp Blvd.
Honolulu, HI 96818
USA
Email Address: lori.luers@noaa.gov

Originator

CC ID: 901933
Date Effective From: 2019
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC)
Address: 1845 Wasp Blvd.
Honolulu, HI 96818
USA
Email Address: pifsc.info@noaa.gov
Phone: 808-725-5360
URL: https://www.pifsc.noaa.gov
Business Hours: 8:00 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.

Point of Contact

CC ID: 901934
Date Effective From: 2019
Date Effective To:
Contact (Person): Couch, Courtney S
Email Address: courtney.s.couch@noaa.gov

Extents

Currentness Reference: Ground Condition

Extent Group 1

Extent Description:

Hawaiian Archipelago including the main and Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.

Extent Group 1 / Geographic Area 1

CC ID: 901958
W° Bound: -178.383718
E° Bound: -155.88832
N° Bound: 28.459215
S° Bound: 19.31344
Description

Main Hawaiian Islands (MHI), including Hawaii, Maui, Oahu, and Lanai, and the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI), including French Frigate Shoals, Lisianski Island, Pearl & Hermes Reef, and Kure Atoll.

Extent Group 1 / Time Frame 1

CC ID: 901953
Time Frame Type: Range
Start: 2019-10-08
End: 2019-11-14
Description:

Shore-based surveys around the Main Hawaiian Islands.

Extent Group 1 / Time Frame 2

CC ID: 901957
Time Frame Type: Range
Start: 2019-08-27
End: 2019-09-04
Alternate Start As Of Info: RA1903
Description:

Surveys conducted in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands during the 4th leg of the 2019 NOAA National Coral Reef Monitoring Program cruise.

Access Information

Security Class: Unclassified
Security Classification System:

Not applicable

Security Handling Description:

Not applicable

Data Access Policy:

NOAA Ecosystem Sciences Division (ESD) Data Sharing Recommendations, version 9.0 updated August 12, 2015:

ESD welcomes the opportunity to collaborate on research issues contributing to the scientific basis for better management of marine ecosystems. ESD has a very diverse set of field activities that generates large volumes of data using an array of data collection protocols.

The following recommendations are for your consideration as you use this data:

1) Data analyses should take all field exigencies into account. The most effective way to do this would be active collaboration with ESD principal investigators.

2) In all presentations, product releases, or publications using data generated by ESD , proper acknowledgement of both ESD and the individuals responsible for data collection is expected. Citing the DOI (if available) is preferred, a non-DOI example is listed below.

3) If you collect or generate data for the same study areas, ESD requests that you share relevant information on complimentary data collections.

4) Those receiving data are strongly urged to inform the ESD Data Management Team of any errors and discrepancies that are discovered during the course of using these data. They are further urged to bring to the attention of the Team all problems and difficulties encountered in using these data. This information is necessary in order to improve the collections and to facilitate more efficient and economical data processing and retrieval. The users are asked to supply copies of any missing data that may be located, and to provide information as to significant subsets and special aggregations of data that are developed in using the material provided.

Example citation:

"This publication makes use of data products provided by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Program (ESD), Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), with funding support from the NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP). The analysis and interpretations presented here are solely that of the current authors.

Data Access Procedure:

Data can be accessed online via the NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) Ocean Archive.

Data Access Constraints:

None

Data Use Constraints:

Please cite NOAA Ecosystem Sciences Division (ESD) when using the data.

Example:

Ecosystem Sciences Division; Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (2022). Benthic Cover Derived from Analysis of Benthic Images Collected in the Hawaiian Archipelago During the 2019 Bleaching Event. NOAA's National Center for Environmental Information, https://www.fisheries.noaa.gov/inport/item/59195

Metadata Access Constraints:

None

Metadata Use Constraints:

None

Distribution Information

Distribution 1

CC ID: 901938
Download URL: http://accession.nodc.noaa.gov/0259266
Distributor: National Centers for Environmental Information - Silver Spring, Maryland (NCEI-MD) (2019 - Present)
File Name: BIA_CNET_ANALYSIS_BLEA_2019_MHI.csv
Description:

Image analysis data derived from photoquadrat benthic images collected at stratified random sites (StRS) across the Main Hawaiian Islands by the NOAA Ecosystem Sciences Division (ESD) during the 2019 bleaching surveys

File Type: csv (comma-separated values)

Distribution 2

CC ID: 1179595
Download URL: http://accession.nodc.noaa.gov/0259266
Distributor: National Centers for Environmental Information - Silver Spring, Maryland (NCEI-MD) (2019 - Present)
File Name: BIA_CNET_ANALYSIS_BLEA_2019_NWHI.csv
Description:

Image analysis data derived from photoquadrat benthic images collected at stratified random sites (StRS) and fixed sites across the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands by the NOAA Ecosystem Sciences Division (ESD) during the 2019 bleaching surveys

File Type: csv (comma-separated values)

Distribution 3

CC ID: 1179596
Download URL: http://accession.nodc.noaa.gov/0259266
Distributor: National Centers for Environmental Information - Silver Spring, Maryland (NCEI-MD) (2019 - Present)
File Name: CNET_LABELS_BLEACHING
Description:

Labelset used in CoralNet to annotate benthic photo-quadrat imagery collected during the 2019 bleaching event in Hawaii.

File Type: .csv

URLs

URL 1

CC ID: 901940
URL: http://coralnet.ucsd.edu/
URL Type:
Online Resource
File Resource Format: HTML
Description:

CoralNet Home Page

URL 2

CC ID: 901943
URL: https://www.fisheries.noaa.gov/feature-story/surveys-assess-2019-hawaii-coral-bleaching-event
Name: Feature Story: Surveys to Assess the 2019 Hawaii Coral Bleaching Event
URL Type:
Online Resource
File Resource Format: HTML

Technical Environment

Description:

PIFSC Oracle database view: MV_BIA_CNET_ANALYSIS_DATA (CoralNet)

Data Quality

Accuracy:

Data sets derived from image analysis are highly reliable within the stipulated taxonomic context. Each time a production run is performed for a region a calibration exercise is conducted by all staff that will participate in that round of image analysis classification. Usually 100-150 photos are selected from the photos being processed as part of the production run series, or other region-relevant photo streams. Then, CoralNet assigns 10 random points per photo. Each photo analyst is asked to classify the same set of points in each of the photos used as part of the calibration exercise. The goal of the calibration exercise is to assess inter-observer variability. Inter-observer variability rates are available upon request for each production run.

Handheld GPS units were used to locate random sites and mark site locations.

Analytical Accuracy:

Image data include 30 benthic photographs per survey site. Appropriate site level image grouping should include all 30 images.

Completeness Report:

The data set derived from the image analysis is as good as the images themselves; poor images with low contrast, inappropriate white balance, or out of focus may have to be discarded. Therefore, percent cover estimates for some sites may derive from differing numbers of points between sites. Although the analysis process is statistically robust to allow for differing n (points) between sites the users should be aware of this limitation.

Imagery annotations are completed to the functional group/genus level (Tier 3).

Only shallow water (0 to 30 meter depth range) hard-bottom habitats are surveyed. The StRS sites were randomly selected using a systematic process based on available habitat and bathymetric data. Although efforts are made to include broad spatial coverage of surveys at each island, weather conditions and other environmental constraints may have prevented the team from surveying exposed reef areas.

Conceptual Consistency:

The same method of image analysis was used at each surveyed site.

Quality Control Procedures Employed:

Quality control is enforced by means of point-to-point, inter-observer calibration exercises that are conducted before each image analysis production series. Training modules and standard operating procedures have also been developed and documented to ensure improved performance and consistent imagery analysis results produced by multiple analysts.

Data Management

Have Resources for Management of these Data Been Identified?: Yes
Approximate Percentage of Budget for these Data Devoted to Data Management: Unknown
Do these Data Comply with the Data Access Directive?: Yes
Is Access to the Data Limited Based on an Approved Waiver?: No
Approximate Delay Between Data Collection and Dissemination: Unknown
Actual or Planned Long-Term Data Archive Location: NCEI-MD
Approximate Delay Between Data Collection and Archiving: Unknown
How Will the Data Be Protected from Accidental or Malicious Modification or Deletion Prior to Receipt by the Archive?:

NOAA IRC and NOAA Fisheries ITS resources and assets.

Lineage

Lineage Statement:

The stratified random sampling (StRS) design and benthic photoquadrat survey methodology, employed by the NOAA Coral Reef Ecosystem Program (CREP) since 2013. Benthic imagery is collected at stratified random sites as well as at fixed sites which can be classified as climate stations or permanent sites. The imagery is analyzed using CoralNet to derive benthic cover values. A bleaching label set was produced to perform a bleaching analysis of benthic cover data.

Sources

Lozada-Misa P, Schumacher BD, Vargas-Angel B. 2017. Analysis of benthic survey images via CoralNet : a summary of standard operating procedures and guidelines. Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, PIFSC Administrative Report, H-17-02, 169 p.

CC ID: 1191460
Contact Role Type: Originator
Contact Type: Organization
Contact Name: Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, PIFSC
Publish Date: 2017-01-31
Citation URL: https://doi.org/10.7289/V5/AR-PIFSC-H-17-02
Citation URL Name: NOAA Institutional Repository
Citation URL Description:

The NOAA Fisheries, Ecosystem Sciences Division benthic image analysis SOP using CoralNet.

Process Steps

Process Step 1

CC ID: 901948
Description:

A stratified random sampling (StRS) design was employed to conduct surveys during the 2019 bleaching event by the NOAA Ecosystem Sciences Division. The survey domain encompassed the majority of the mapped area of reef and hard bottom habitats. The stratification scheme included island, reef zone, and depth in all regions, as well as habitat structure type in the Main Hawaiian Islands. The habitat structure types included simple, complex, and coral-rich. Depth categories of shallow (0-6 m), mid (> 6-18m) and deep (>18-30 m) were also incorporated into the stratification scheme. Allocation of sampling effort was proportional to strata area. Sites were randomly selected within each stratum.

A geographic information system (GIS) and digital spatial databases of benthic habitats (NOAA National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science NCCOS), reef zones (IKONOS satellite imagery, NDGC 1998) bathymetry (NDGC 1998, CREP benthic mapping data), and marine reserve boundaries (NOAA) were used to facilitate spatial delineation of the sampling survey domain, strata, and sample units. Map resolution was such that the survey domain could be overlain by a grid using a GIS with individual cells of size 50 m by 50 m in area. A two-stage sampling scheme following Cochran (1977) was employed to control for spatial variation in population parameters at scales smaller than the grid cell minimum mapping unit (2,500 m2). Grid cells containing hard-bottom reef habitats were designated as primary sample units (referred to as sites).

NOAA Fisheries Ecosystem Sciences Division (ESD) conducted rapid visual assessments and photoquadrat assessments of coral bleaching using the methodology outlined by the NOAA Coral Bleaching standard operating procedure for 2019. Still photographs were collected to record the benthic community composition at predetermined points along the transect lines with a high-resolution digital camera. Overall, 30 photoquadrat images are collected at each site. Benthic substrate photos are taken at one meter intervals along the right hand side of the 30 m transect line.

Raw data include 30 benthic photographs per survey site. Included in the archive package is a list of survey sites, including region, island, site, date (day, month, year), latitude (dd), longitude (dd), and depth (ft) where photoquads were collected and unique image name. The file naming convention for each photo/image is [SITE]_[YEAR]_[TRANSECT]_[PHOTO_NUMBER].JPG (for example: TUT-903_2012_A_01.JPG).

Process Contact: Couch, Courtney S
Email Address: courtney.s.couch@noaa.gov

Process Step 2

CC ID: 901950
Description:

The benthic photoquadrat imagery that are collected are analyzed by using the web-based annotation tool CoralNet (Beijbom et al. 2016) from 2015 to present. CoralNet assigns 10 random points per photo and the benthic elements falling directly underneath each point is identified to three functional group levels: Tier 1 (e.g. hard coral, soft coral, macroalgae, turf algae, etc.), Tier 2 (e.g. Hard coral by morphology = massive, branching, foliose, encrusting, etc.; Macroalgae = upright macroalgae, encrusting macroalgae, bluegreen macroalgae, and Halimeda, etc.), and Tier 3 (e.g. Hard coral by genus and morphology; Macroalgae by genus or grouped genera). A new label set was generated with CoralNet to include identifiers for bleached hard coral; the detailed list of each functional group level or tier is included in the benthic image analysis classification scheme.

Process Step 3

CC ID: 901951
Description:

Raw survey data includes unique image name and individual point observations identified at three functional group levels of benthic cover with the corresponding physical data which reflect the description of the site. The physical data for all records includes the following: region, island, site, date (day, month, year), latitude (dd), longitude (dd), reef zone, habitat type, depth category, and depth.

Child Items

Rubric scores updated every 15m

Rubric Score Type Title
Entity Hawaii Bleaching 2019: Benthic Cover Data Dictionary

Related Items

Item Type Relationship Type Title
Data Set (DS) Cross Reference Benthic Images from Stratified Random Site (StRS) Surveys in the Main Hawaiian Islands During the 2019 Bleaching Event

Source imagery to produce the bleaching annotations of this metadata record.

Data Set (DS) Cross Reference National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Benthic Images Collected from Climate Stations across the Hawaiian Archipelago since 2013

Source Imagery from 2019 for fixed sites of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands which were analyzed for bleaching cover

Catalog Details

Catalog Item ID: 59195
GUID: gov.noaa.nmfs.inport:59195
Metadata Record Created By: Annette M DesRochers
Metadata Record Created: 2020-03-31 16:39+0000
Metadata Record Last Modified By: Lori H Luers
Metadata Record Last Modified: 2022-11-04 20:35+0000
Metadata Record Published: 2022-10-01
Owner Org: PIFSC
Metadata Publication Status: Published Externally
Do Not Publish?: N
Metadata Last Review Date: 2022-08-09
Metadata Review Frequency: 1 Year
Metadata Next Review Date: 2023-08-09