Short Citation:
Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, 2021: Benthic images collected at coral reef sites in Timor-Leste from 2012-2014, https://www.fisheries.noaa.gov/inport/item/46160.

Item Identification

Title: Benthic images collected at coral reef sites in Timor-Leste from 2012-2014
Short Name: Timor: Benthic Images 2012-2014
Status: Completed
Publication Date: 2017
Abstract:

Photographs of the seafloor were collected during benthic photo-quadrat surveys conducted by the NOAA Coral Reef Ecosystem Program (CREP) in hard bottom shallow water (< 15 m) habitats in Timor-Leste. Photographs were collected along transects at fixed climate survey sites in October 2012 and September-October 2014 (10 sites and 8 sites, respectively), and during reef fish surveys surveys at 150 sites that were selected using a stratified random sampling design in June 2013.

Climate sites were established by CREP to establish ecological baselines for climate change by measuring multiple features of the coral reef environment (in addition to the data described herein) over time. The reef fish surveys were conducted to generate baseline data on the nearshore coral reef fish assemblages and associated benthic communities around Timor-Leste's north coast and Atauro Island. The photographs can be accessed online via the NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) Ocean Archive.

The imagery from 2013 and 2014 has been quantitatively analyzed using image analysis software to derive an estimate of percent benthic cover. The benthic cover data, and the associated reef fish survey data and parameters measured to establish ecological baselines for climate change are documented separately.

Purpose:

In 2011, NOAA and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) Timor-Leste Mission formed a 5-year bi-lateral partnership agreement from 2012 to 2016, in support of the Government of Timor-Leste—particularly the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries (MAF)—by addressing significant information gaps in their nearshore marine ecosystems. Specifically, MAF asked NOAA to address the following questions:

1. Where are the nearshore marine resources?

2. What are the nearshore marine resources?

3. How are they changing over time and what threats are potentially causing these changes?

4. What approaches are needed to manage and conserve the nearshore marine resources?

With financial support from USAID and in-kind support from the NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP), the NOAA Coral Reef Ecosystem Program (NOAA-CREP) conducted baseline ecosystem assessment surveys to inform ecosystem-based management planning in Timor-Leste. The primary activities conducted by NOAA to answer these questions included:

1. satellite mapping of nearshore habitats,

2. conducting coral reef ecosystem assessments,

3. establishing ecological baselines for climate change, and

4. building management capacity by developing a spatial data framework

The benthic images described herein resulted from the second and third activities to conduct coral reef ecosystem assessments (2013) and establish ecological baselines for climate change (2012 and 2014).

Other Citation Details:

Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center. 2017. Interdisciplinary baseline ecosystem assessment surveys to inform ecosystem-based management planning in Timor-Leste: Final Report. Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, PIFSC Special Publication, SP-17-002, 234 p. https://doi.org/10.7289/V5/SP-PIFSC-17-002.

Supplemental Information:

As the survey methods described and used herein are also implemented as part of the NOAA Pacific Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (Pacific RAMP)—an ecosystem-scale interdisciplinary coral reef monitoring program—the data from Timor-Leste are directly comparable to and informed by data collected by NOAA-CREP throughout the U.S. Pacific Islands and Territories. Furthermore, the methods used for establishing ecological baselines for climate change in Timor-Leste (Chapter 4) are being adopted and implemented at 21 sites across eight member states of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission within the Western Pacific (WESTPAC) region. These data provide a foundation for comparing the ecological baselines under current and future stresses associated with climate change in the Coral Triangle region.

Keywords

Theme Keywords

Thesaurus Keyword
CoRIS Discovery Thesaurus Visual Images > Habitats
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Aquatic Habitat > Benthic Habitat
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Aquatic Habitat > Reef Habitat
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef Monitoring and Assessment
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef Monitoring and Assessment > Baseline studies
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Zoology > Corals > Reef Monitoring and Assessment > In Situ Biological
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Coastal Processes > Coral Reefs
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Coastal Processes > Coral Reefs > Coral Reef Ecology
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Coastal Processes > Coral Reefs > Coral Reef Ecology > Benthic biology
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Coastal Processes > Coral Reefs > Coral reef ecology > Coral cover
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Marine Biology > Coral
CoRIS Theme Thesaurus EARTH SCIENCE > Oceans > Marine Biology > Coral Communities
ISO 19115 Topic Category 002
ISO 19115 Topic Category Biota
NODC DATA TYPES THESAURUS PHOTOQUADRAT IMAGES
NODC OBSERVATION TYPES THESAURUS imagery
NODC PROJECT NAMES THESAURUS CORAL REEF STUDIES
NODC PROJECT NAMES THESAURUS Coral Triangle Initiative
NODC SUBMITTING INSTITUTION NAMES THESAURUS US DOC; NOAA; NMFS; Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center; Ecosystem Sciences Division; Coral Reef Ecosystem Program
None Coral Reef Ecosystem Division
None Coral Reef Ecosystem Program
None CRED
None CREP
None Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center
None PIFSC
None United States Agency for International Development
None USAID

Spatial Keywords

Thesaurus Keyword
CoRIS Place Thesaurus COUNTRY/TERRITORY > Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste (East Timor) (09S126E0001)
CoRIS Place Thesaurus OCEAN BASIN > Indian Ocean > Timor Sea > Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste (East Timor) (09S126E0001)
NODC Sea Area Names Thesaurus Indian Ocean
NODC Sea Area Names Thesaurus Timor Sea
None Atauro
None Baucau
None Bobonaro
None Dili
None Lautem
None Liquica
None Manatuto
None Manufahi
None Oecusse
None Timor-Leste
None Vila MPA

Physical Location

Organization: Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center
City: Honolulu
State/Province: HI
Country: USA

Data Set Information

Data Set Scope Code: Data Set
Data Set Type: JPG Files
Maintenance Frequency: None Planned
Data Presentation Form: Image (digital)
Entity Attribute Overview:

Raw data include approximately 30 benthic photographs per survey site. Included in the archive package is a list of survey sites, including site id, location (latitude/longitude), and survey date, where photoquads were collected. The file naming convention for each photo/image is [SITE]_[YEAR]_[TRANSECT]_[PHOTO_NUMBER].JPG (for example: KOA-02_2015_A_01.JPG).

Distribution Liability:

While every effort has been made to ensure that these data are accurate and reliable within the limits of the current state of the art, NOAA cannot assume liability for any damages caused by errors or omissions in the data, nor as a result of the failure of the data to function on a particular system. NOAA makes no warranty, expressed or implied, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty.

Data Set Credit: PIFSC Coral Reef Ecosystem Program and funded by the United States Agency for International Development

Support Roles

Data Steward

CC ID: 569359
Date Effective From: 2012
Date Effective To:
Contact (Person): Vargas-Angel, Bernardo
Address: 1845 Wasp Blvd.
Honolulu, HI 96818
USA
Email Address: bernardo.vargasangel@noaa.gov
Phone: (808)725-5423
Contact Instructions:

Email preferred

Distributor

CC ID: 569361
Date Effective From: 2017
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): National Centers for Environmental Information - Silver Spring, Maryland (NCEI-MD)
Address: NOAA/NESDIS E/OC SSMC3, 4th Floor, 1351 East-West Highway
Silver Spring, MD 20910-3282
Phone: (301) 713-3277

Distributor

CC ID: 569356
Date Effective From: 2012
Date Effective To: 2017
Contact (Person): Kanemura, Troy T
Address: 1845 Wasp Blvd.
Honolulu, HI 96818
USA
Email Address: troy.kanemura@noaa.gov
Phone: (808)725-5422
Contact Instructions:

Email preferred

Metadata Contact

CC ID: 569355
Date Effective From: 2012
Date Effective To:
Contact (Person): DesRochers, Annette M
Address: 1845 Wasp Blvd.
Honolulu, HI 96818
USA
Email Address: annette.desrochers@noaa.gov
Phone: (808)725-5461
Business Hours: 8 am - 5 pm
Contact Instructions:

Email preferred

Originator

CC ID: 569357
Date Effective From: 2012
Date Effective To:
Contact (Organization): Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC)
Address: 1845 Wasp Blvd.
Honolulu, HI 96818
USA
Phone: 808-725-5300
URL: http://www.pifsc.noaa.gov
Business Hours: 8:00 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.

Point of Contact

CC ID: 569358
Date Effective From: 2012
Date Effective To:
Contact (Person): Vargas-Angel, Bernardo
Address: 1845 Wasp Blvd.
Honolulu, HI 96818
USA
Email Address: bernardo.vargasangel@noaa.gov
Phone: (808)725-5423
Contact Instructions:

Email preferred

Extents

Currentness Reference: Ground Condition

Extent Group 1

Extent Description:

Timor-Leste

Extent Group 1 / Geographic Area 1

CC ID: 579391
W° Bound: 124
E° Bound: 127.5
N° Bound: -8.1
S° Bound: -9.5
Description

Extent of photo-quadrat surveys conducted by NOAA CREP in Timor-Leste from 2012 to 2014.

Extent Group 1 / Time Frame 1

CC ID: 579392
Time Frame Type: Range
Start: 2013-06-04
End: 2013-06-27
Alternate Start As Of Info: SB1310
Description:

Time frame of reef fish surveys conducted by NOAA CREP at Timor-Leste in June 2013.

Extent Group 1 / Time Frame 2

CC ID: 579393
Time Frame Type: Range
Start: 2012-10-15
End: 2012-10-25
Alternate Start As Of Info: SBP-12-15
Description:

Time frame of climate site surveys in 2012.

Extent Group 1 / Time Frame 3

CC ID: 579394
Time Frame Type: Range
Start: 2014-09-16
End: 2014-10-09
Alternate Start As Of Info: MP-14-19
Description:

Time frame of climate change surveys in 2014.

Access Information

Security Class: Unclassified
Security Classification System:

Not applicable

Security Handling Description:

Not applicable

Data Access Policy:

NOAA Coral Reef Ecosystem Program (CREP) Data Sharing Recommendations, version 9.0 updated August 12, 2015:

CREP welcomes the opportunity to collaborate on research issues contributing to the scientific basis for better management of marine ecosystems. CREP has a very diverse set of field activities that generates large volumes of data using an array of data collection protocols.

The following recommendations are for your consideration as you use this data:

1) Data analyses should take all field exigencies into account. The most effective way to do this would be active collaboration with CREP principal investigators.

2) In all presentations, product releases, or publications using data generated by CREP, proper acknowledgement of both CREP and the individuals responsible for data collection is expected. Citing the DOI (if available) is preferred, a non-DOI example is listed below.

3) If you collect or generate data for the same study areas, CREP requests that you share relevant information on complimentary data collections.

4) Those receiving data are strongly urged to inform the CREP Data Management Team of any errors and discrepancies that are discovered during the course of using these data. They are further urged to bring to the attention of the Team all problems and difficulties encountered in using these data. This information is necessary in order to improve the collections and to facilitate more efficient and economical data processing and retrieval. The users are asked to supply copies of any missing data that may be located, and to provide information as to significant subsets and special aggregations of data that are developed in using the material provided.

Example citation:

"This publication makes use of data products provided by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Program (CREP), Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), with funding support from the United States Agency for International Development. The analysis and interpretations presented here are solely that of the current authors.”

Data Access Procedure:

Data can be accessed online via the NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) Ocean Archive.

Data Access Constraints:

None

Data Use Constraints:

Please cite NOAA Coral Reef Ecosystem Program (CREP) when using the data.

Suggested citation:

Coral Reef Ecosystem Program; Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (2017). Benthic images collected at coral reef sites in Timor-Leste from 2012-2014. NOAA's National Center for Environmental Information, https://www.fisheries.noaa.gov/inport/item/46160

Metadata Access Constraints:

None

Metadata Use Constraints:

None

Distribution Information

Distribution 1

CC ID: 569362
Download URL: http://accession.nodc.noaa.gov/0166378
Distributor: National Centers for Environmental Information - Silver Spring, Maryland (NCEI-MD) (2017 - Present)
File Name: Images Timor
Description:

Photoquadrat benthic photographs (*.jpg) collected by the NOAA Coral Reef Ecosystem Program (CREP) at survey sites in Timor-Leste in 2012, 2013, and 2014.

File Date/Time: 2017-04-05 00:00:00
File Type: JPEG

Distribution 2

CC ID: 569364
Download URL: http://accession.nodc.noaa.gov/0166378
Distributor: National Centers for Environmental Information - Silver Spring, Maryland (NCEI-MD) (2017 - Present)
File Name: Images_SiteInfo_Timor_2012.csv
Description:

The list of survey sites, including site id, location (latitude/longitude), and survey date, where photoquads were collected in Timor-Leste in 2012.

File Date/Time: 2017-04-15 00:00:00
File Type: .csv

Distribution 3

CC ID: 569365
Download URL: http://accession.nodc.noaa.gov/0166378
Distributor: National Centers for Environmental Information - Silver Spring, Maryland (NCEI-MD) (2017 - Present)
File Name: Images_SiteInfo_Timor_2013.csv
Description:

The list of survey sites, including site id, location (latitude/longitude), and survey date, where photoquads were collected in Timor-Leste in 2013.

File Date/Time: 2017-04-05 00:00:00
File Type: .csv

Distribution 4

CC ID: 579395
Download URL: http://accession.nodc.noaa.gov/0166378
Distributor: National Centers for Environmental Information - Silver Spring, Maryland (NCEI-MD) (2017 - Present)
File Name: Images_SiteInfo_Timor_2014.csv
Description:

The list of survey sites, including site id, location (latitude/longitude), and survey date, where photoquads were collected in Timor-Leste in 2014.

File Date/Time: 2017-04-05 00:00:00
File Type: csv (comma-separated values)

URLs

URL 1

CC ID: 569366
URL: https://www.pifsc.noaa.gov/cred/coral_triangle_initiative.php
URL Type:
Online Resource
File Resource Format: PHP
Description:

Information about the NOAA Coral Reef Ecosystem Program's activities in the Coral Triangle.

URL 2

CC ID: 569367
URL: https://pifscblog.wordpress.com/2012/11/20/final-count-timor-leste/
URL Type:
Online Resource
File Resource Format: HTML
Description:

PIFSC CREP blog post, 2012:

The final count: Timor-Leste expedition completed

URL 3

CC ID: 569368
URL: https://www.coris.noaa.gov/activities/projects/timor-leste/
URL Type:
Online Resource
File Resource Format: HTML
Description:

Timor-Leste project portal on the NOAA Coral Reef Information Service website where NOAA's final report for Timor-Leste and the datasets generated by NOAA CREP as part of the project can be downloaded.

URL 4

CC ID: 579397
URL: https://www.coris.noaa.gov/activities/projects/timor-leste/images/benthic_images_s.jpg
URL Type:
Browse Graphic
File Resource Format: jpg
Description:

A sample collage of photoquadrat benthic images for one survey site.

URL 5

CC ID: 579398
URL: https://pifscblog.wordpress.com/2013/08/13/final-count-timor-leste-2/
URL Type:
Online Resource
File Resource Format: html
Description:

PIFSC CREP blog post, 2013:

The final count: summary of mission to assess reef fish assemblages, build capacity in Timor-Leste.

URL 6

CC ID: 579399
URL: https://pifscblog.wordpress.com/2014/09/30/timor-leste-atauro/
URL Type:
Online Resource
File Resource Format: HTML
Description:

PIFSC CREP blog post, 2014:

Scientists return to Timor-Leste for reef monitoring mission.

Technical Environment

Description:

PIFSC network/file system:

2012: \\PICMAKAI\OPTICAL\OPTICAL\CT\2012\TIM\REA\CLIMATE\

2013: \\PICMAKAI\OPTICAL\OPTICAL\CT\2013\TIM\REA\FISH\

2014: \\PICMAKAI\OPTICAL\OPTICAL\CT\2014\TIM\REA\CLIMATE\

Data Quality

Accuracy:

Handheld GPS units were used to locate random sites and to mark site locations.

Analytical Accuracy:

Image data include ~30 benthic photographs per survey site from surveys in all years. The fish team conducts the photoquadrat surveys along one 30 m transect. Climate site surveys in 2012 were along 2 transects and along 1 transect in 2014. Therefore, the site level image data contain one or two transects per survey, depending on the year. Appropriate site level image grouping should include all 30 images.

Completeness Report:

Only shallow water (0 to 18 meter depth range) hard-bottom habitats were surveyed.

Conceptual Consistency:

Survey methods were consistent across all sites within the same year.

Quality Control Procedures Employed:

Benthic images and the file structure are quality controlled by CREP personnel before they are migrated and integrated into CREP's master optical directory on the PIFSC network. The photos are reviewed by the diver for accuracy and usability. The data management team also uses a optical validation script to re-name photos and enforce several validation checks.

Data Management

Have Resources for Management of these Data Been Identified?: Yes
Approximate Percentage of Budget for these Data Devoted to Data Management: Unknown
Do these Data Comply with the Data Access Directive?: Yes
Is Access to the Data Limited Based on an Approved Waiver?: No
Approximate Delay Between Data Collection and Dissemination: Unknown
Actual or Planned Long-Term Data Archive Location: NCEI-MD
Approximate Delay Between Data Collection and Archiving: Unknown
How Will the Data Be Protected from Accidental or Malicious Modification or Deletion Prior to Receipt by the Archive?:

NOAA IRC and NOAA Fisheries ITS resources and assets.

Lineage

Lineage Statement:

Benthic photographs were collected for survey sites at pre-defined points along the transect. The photos are collected for the purpose of deriving benthic cover percentages using image analysis software, though, not all photo sets are analyzed. In the case where photographs were collected during both the initial deployment (2012) and final recovery missions (2014), typically only the most recent set of photographs are analyzed for benthic cover. This is true for the climate sites in Timor-Leste; the 2012 images were not analyzed.

Sources

Interdisciplinary Baseline Ecosystem Assessment Surveys to Inform Ecosystem-Based Management Planning in Timor-Leste: Final Report

CC ID: 579400
Contact Type: Organization
Contact Name: Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, PIFSC
Publish Date: 2017-06-21
Citation URL: https://doi.org/10.7289/V5/SP-PIFSC-17-002

Process Steps

Process Step 1

CC ID: 569372
Description:

Upon completion of each fish survey, one diver conducted a photoquadrat by photographing the benthos at 1-m intervals along the 30-m transect line between the centers of the two cylinders (30 photographs per site). A 1-m plastic polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pole was used to position a digital camera directly above

the substrate to frame a photograph approximately 0.7 m2 in area.

Source: Interdisciplinary Baseline Ecosystem Assessment Surveys to Inform Ecosystem-Based Management Planning in Timor-Leste: Final Report

Process Step 2

CC ID: 579401
Description:

At each Climate Monitoring site, digital photos of the benthos were collected at 1-m intervals along two transects implementing a high-resolution digital camera mounted on a pole. This process generated ~30 photographs per site.

Source: Interdisciplinary Baseline Ecosystem Assessment Surveys to Inform Ecosystem-Based Management Planning in Timor-Leste: Final Report

Process Step 3

CC ID: 569373
Description:

Photos are color-corrected (if necessary) prior to analysis. The data management team also uses a optical validation script to rename photos and enforce several validation checks.

Catalog Details

Catalog Item ID: 46160
Metadata Record Created By: Annette M DesRochers
Metadata Record Created: 2017-06-02 03:17+0000
Metadata Record Last Modified By: SysAdmin InPortAdmin
Metadata Record Last Modified: 2020-08-03 16:13+0000
Metadata Record Published: 2017-09-11
Owner Org: PIFSC
Metadata Publication Status: Published Externally
Do Not Publish?: N
Metadata Next Review Date: 2018-09-12