Fisheries Economics of the United States: Data and Visualizations
Economic Impact Model1,2,3 - Economic impact models capture how sales in a sector generate economic impacts directly in the sector in which the sale was made. The sales then ripple throughout the state and national economies as each dollar spent generates additional sales by other firms and consumers. The NOAA Fisheries Commercial Fishing & Seafood Industry Input/Output Model uses an IMPLAN platform to estimate the economic impacts associated with the harvesting of fish by U.S. commercial fishermen and other major components of the U.S. seafood industry. As used here, the term fish refers to the entire range of finfish, shellfish and other life (that is, sea urchins, seaweed, kelp and worms) from marine and freshwaters that are included in the landings data maintained by the National Marine Fisheries Service. The NOAA Fisheries Recreational Economic Impact Model, which also uses an IMPLAN platform, estimates the economic impacts generated by expenditures made by marine (saltwater) anglers.
Economic Impacts1,2,3 - For this report, the economic impacts of the commercial fishing sector and seafood industry refer to the employment (full-time and part-time jobs), personal income, and output (sales by U.S. businesses) generated by the commercial harvest sector and other major components of the U.S. seafood industry. These components include processors and dealers, wholesalers and distributors, grocers, and restaurants. Economic impacts of recreational fishing activities refer to the amount of sales generated, the number of jobs supported, labor income, and the contribution to gross domestic product (GDP) by state (also known as value-added impacts) from expenditures related to recreational fishing.
Key Species or Species Groups - For this report, up to 10 species or species groups were chosen as "key" species or species groups due to their regional importance to commercial and recreational fisheries. The regional importance of these key species or species groups was chosen based on their economic and/or historical or cultural significance to a state or region.
Species4 - A group of animals or plants having common characteristics that are able to breed together to produce fertile (capable of reproducing) offspring and maintain their "separateness" from other groups.
Species Group4 - Group of species considered together because they are difficult to differentiate without detailed examination (very similar species), or because data for the separate species are not available (for example, in fishery statistics or commercial categories).
Value-Added Impacts1,2,3 - Value-Added impacts refer to the contribution made to the gross domestic product in a region related to an activity like commercial or recreational fishing.
Sales Impacts1,2,3 - Sales impacts refer to the gross value of all sales by regional businesses affected by an activity, such as recreational fishing. It includes both the direct sales made by the angler and sales made between businesses and households resulting from that original sale by the angler.
Income Impacts1,2,3 - Income impacts includes personal income (wages and salaries) and proprietors' income (income from self-employment).
Employment Impacts1,2,3 - Employment is specified on the basis of full-time and part-time jobs supported directly or indirectly by the purchases made by anglers. This is measured in the number of jobs.
In this report, commercial fisheries refer to fishing operations that sell their catch for profit. The term does not include subsistence fishermen or saltwater anglers who fish for sport. It also excludes the for-hire sector, which earns its revenue from selling recreational fishing trips to saltwater anglers. The commercial fisheries section reports on economic impacts, landings revenue, landings, and ex-vessel prices of key species/species groups.
Landings4 - 1. The number or poundage of fish unloaded by commercial fishermen or brought to shore by recreational fishermen for personal use. Landings are reported at the locations at which fish are brought to shore; 2. The part of the catch that is selected and kept during the sorting procedures on board vessels and successively discharged at dockside.
Landings Revenue - The dollar value of fish unloaded by commercial fishermen. Landing revenues are reported at the locations at which fish are brought to shore.
Harvest4 - The total number or weight of fish caught and kept from an area over a period of time. Note that landings, catch and harvest are different. However, in Hawai`i and the Gulf states, harvest includes fish thrown back dead. See also "Catch" and "Release."
Recreational fishing refers to fishing for leisure rather than to sell fish (commercial fishing) or for subsistence. The economic contributions or impacts of recreational fishing activities in the United States is based on spending by recreational anglers.
Angler - A person catching fish with no intent to sell, including people releasing the catch. Also known as a recreational fisherman.
Catch4 - 1. To undertake any activity that results in taking fish out of its environment dead or alive, or to bring fish on board a vessel dead or alive; 2. The total number (or weight) of fish caught by fishing operations. Catch should include all fish killed by the act of fishing, not just those landed; For this report, recreational catch refers to the total number of individual fish released (thrown back into the sea) and harvested (not thrown back into the sea) by recreational fishermen (anglers).
Coastal County6 - Counties with borders that are within 25 miles of the coast are considered coastal. All counties in Rhode Island, Connecticut, Delaware and Florida are considered coastal.
Coastal County Angler - For this report, a coastal county angler refers to a recreational fisherman who lives within a given state and within a coastal county of that state.
Durable Equipment Expenditures or Durable Goods Expenditures3 - For this report, this term refers to expenses related to equipment used for recreational fishing activities. These expenses include the purchase of semi-durable goods (e.g., tackle, rods, reels, line); durable goods (e.g., motor boats and accessories, non-motorized boats, boating electronics, mooring, boat storage, boat insurance, vehicles, second homes); and angling accessories and multi-purpose items (e.g., magazines, club dues, saltwater angling-specific clothing, camping gear).
Effort - For this report, effort refers to the number of angler trips taken by recreational fishermen (anglers). An angler trip is defined as any part of a single day (24 hours) of marine recreational fishing.
Expenditures7 - For this report, expenditures are related to recreational fishing activities and described as being one of two types: 1) expenditures related to a specific fishing trip; or 2) durable equipment expenditures.
Fishing Day - For this report, a fishing day refers to a partial or full day spent in recreational fishing. This term is used in the Alaska recreational fishing tables.
Fishing Mode - For this report, fishing mode refers to the type of recreational fishing a recreational fisherman (angler) engages in, such as fishing from shore, a private or rental boat, or a for-hire boat.
Fishing Trip - For this report, a fishing trip is defined as an angler trip. An angler trip is defined as any part of a single day (24 hours) of marine recreational fishing. Fishing trips are classified as occurring in one of three fishing modes: 1) a shore-based fishing trip; 2) by a private or rental boat; or 3) on a for-hire fishing boat.
For-Hire Mode - For this report, this fishing mode refers to trips taken by recreational fishermen (anglers) on a party (also referred to as a head boat) or charter boat. In the Gulf and South Atlantic, for-hire mode does not include head boats.
Non-Coastal County Angler - For this report, a non-coastal county angler refers to a recreational fisherman who lives within a given state but not in a coastal county of that state.
Non-Resident - For this report, a non-resident in the U.S. table refers to a recreational fisherman (angler) who resides outside the U.S.; a non-resident in the regional and state tables refers to an angler who did not reside in the state where they fished.
Out-of-state Angler - For this report, an out-of-state angler is a recreational fisherman (angler) who does not reside within a given coastal state.
Release - For this report, release refers to the number of individual fish caught by a recreational fisherman (angler) that are then returned to the sea (dead or alive). In Hawai`i and the Atlantic and Gulf states, release does not include fish returned to the sea that are dead. See also "Catch" and "Harvest."
Resident - For this report, a resident in the U.S. table refers to a recreational fisherman (angler) who resides inside the U.S.; a resident in the regional and state tables refers to an angler who resides in the state where they fished.
Total Annual Durable Expenditures - Total annual durable expenditures were estimated by multiplying mean durable expenditures by the estimated annual number of adult participants at the state level or the national level and adjusted by the Consumer Price Index to the current year.
Total Annual Trip Expenditures - Total annual trip expenditures are estimated at the state level by multiplying mean trip expenditures by the estimated number of adult trips in each trip mode (for-hire, private boat, and shore) and adjusted by the Consumer Price Index to the current year. The trip expenditures at the national level is the sum of state trip expenditures in each mode.
Trip Expenditures - For this report, trip expenditures refer to expenses incurred by recreational fishermen (anglers) on a fishing trip. Trip expenditures include expenditures made by residents (individuals who reside in a coastal or non-coastal county within a given state; a U.S. resident) and non-residents (individuals who do not reside within the U.S.).
For this report, the marine economy refers to the economic activity generated by fishing and marine related industries in a coastal state. The state marine economy consists of two industry sectors: 1) seafood sales and processing (employer establishments and non-employer firms); and 2) transport, support, and marine operations (employer establishments). These sectors include several different marine-related industries.
Annual Receipts8 - Includes gross receipts, sales, commissions, and income from trades and businesses, as reported on annual business income tax returns. Business income consists of all payments received for services rendered by non-employer businesses, such as payments received as independent agents and contractors. The composition of non-employer receipts may differ from receipts data published for employer establishments. For example, for wholesale agents and brokers without payroll (non-employers), the receipts item contains commissions or earnings. In contrast, for wholesale agents and brokers with payroll (employers), the sales and receipts item published in the Economic Census represents the value of the goods involved in the transactions.
Commercial Fishing Location Quotient (CFLQ)9 - For this report, the CFLQ is calculated as the ratio of a state's distribution of employment in commercial fishing industries compared with the distribution of commercial fishing industries in the U.S. The CFLQ is calculated using the "Location Quotient Calculator" provided by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor.
Employer Establishments10 - Businesses with payroll and paid employees with a single physical location at which business is conducted or services or industrial operations are performed. An employee establishment is not necessarily identical to a company or enterprise, which may consist of one or more establishments. When two or more activities are carried on at a single location under a single ownership, all activities generally are grouped together as a single establishment. The entire establishment is classified on the basis of its major activity, and all data are included in that classification.
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State or Gross State Product (GSP)11 - Previously known as the Gross State Product, the GDP by state is the value added in production by the labor and capital located in a state. GDP for a state is derived as the sum of the GDP originating in all industries in the state.
Location Quotient9 - Location Quotients (LQs) are ratios that allow an area's distribution of employment by industry to be compared to a reference or base area's distribution. The reference area is usually the U.S., but it can also be a state or metropolitan area. The reference or base industry is usually the all-industry total. The following discussion assumes the defaults are used. LQs also allow areas to be easily compared with each other. If an LQ is equal to 1, then the industry has the same share of its area employment as it does in the reference area. An LQ greater than 1 indicates an industry with a greater share of the local area employment than in the reference area.
For example (assuming the U.S. as the reference area), Las Vegas will have an LQ greater than 1 in the Leisure and Hospitality industry, because this industry makes up a larger share of the Las Vegas employment total than it does for the country as a whole. LQs are calculated by first dividing local industry employment by the all-industry total of local employment. Next, reference area industry employment is divided by the all-industry total for the reference area. Finally, the local ratio is divided by the reference area ratio.
Marine Economy - For this report, the marine economy refers to the economic activity generated by fishing- and marine-related industries located in a coastal state. Fishing- and marine-related industries were chosen from industries defined in the County Business Patterns Data Series provided by the U.S. Census Bureau. Industries listed in this report were chosen based on that industry's direct contribution to fishing and marine activities, and whether data was available for that industry. Information such as the number of establishments, number of employees, and annual payroll for these fishing and marine-related industries was used to determine their relative levels of economic activity in a state. These industries were categorized into one of two industry sectors: 1) seafood sales and processing; and 2) transport, support and marine operations. See also "Industry Sector."
Nonemployer Firms8 - A non-employer business is one that has no paid employees, has annual business receipts of $1,000 or more ($1 or more in the construction industries), and is subject to federal income taxes. Most non-employers are self-employed individuals operating very small unincorporated businesses that may or may not be the owner's principal source of income.
1 The NMFS Commercial Fishing and Seafood Industry Input/Output Model (CFSI I/O Model). August 2009. J. Kirkley. Virginia Institute of Marine Science. Available at: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/8600/3a0004135375f1f13a888aca5e2eaf4fffd8.pdf?_ga=2.158730802.982576641.1585688544-2034208116.1585688544 [accessed April 6, 2020].
2 The Economic Contribution of Marine Angler Expenditures on Fishing Trips in the United States, 2017. 2020. S.J. Lovell, J. Hilger, E. Rollins, N.A. Olsen, and S. Steinback. National Marine Fisheries Service (NOAA Fisheries), National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-F/SPO-201. p. 11-12. Available at: https://spo.nmfs.noaa.gov/content/tech-memo/economic-contribution-marine-angler-expenditures-fishing-trips-united-states-2017 [Accessed March 27, 2020].
3 The Economic Contribution of Marine Angler Expenditures on Durable Goods in the United States, 2014. 2016. S.J. Lovell, J. Hilger, S. Steinback, and C. Hutt. National Marine Fisheries Service (NOAA Fisheries), National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. NOAA Technical Memorandum. NMFS-F/SPO-165, 72 p. Available at: https://spo.nmfs.noaa.gov/content/tech-memo/economic-contribution-marine-angler-expenditures-durable-goods-united-states-2014 [accessed March 12, 2020].
4 NOAA Fisheries Glossary. October 2005. K. Blackhart, D.G. Stanton, and A.M. Shimada, eds. Revised edition, June 2006. National Marine Fisheries Service (NOAA Fisheries), National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-F/SPO-69. Available at: https://spo.nmfs.noaa.gov/content/tech-memo/noaa-fisheries-glossary [accessed March 26, 2020].
5 "Fisheries Term Portal." FAO Fisheries Department, United Nations Food & Agriculture Organization. Available at: http://www.fao.org/faoterm/collection/fisheries/en/ [accessed April 1, 2020].
6 National Marine Fisheries Service. Recreational Fishing Data Glossary. Available at: https://www.fisheries.noaa.gov/recreational-fishing-data/recreational-fishing-data-glossary#geographical-area [accessed April 3, 2020]
7 The Economic Contribution of Marine Angler Expenditures on Fishing Trips in the United States, 2017. 2020. S.J. Lovell, J. Hilger, E. Rollins, N.A. Olsen, and S. Steinback. National Marine Fisheries Service (NOAA Fisheries), National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-F/SPO-201. p. 4. Available at: https://spo.nmfs.noaa.gov/content/tech-memo/economic-contribution-marine-angler-expenditures-fishing-trips-united-states-2017 [Accessed March, 27 2020].
8 "Nonemployer Definitions." Nonemployer Statistics, U.S. Census Bureau, U.S. Department of Commerce. Available at: https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/nonemployer-statistics.html [accessed April 1, 2020].
9 QCEW Location Quotient Details. Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor. Available at: https://www.bls.gov/cew/about-data/location-quotients-explained.htm [accessed April 1, 2020].
10 "Economic Census Definitions." U.S. Census Bureau. Available at: https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/economic-census/about.html [accessed April 1, 2020].
11 "Regional Definitions." Regional Economic Accounts, Bureau of Economic Analysis, U.S. Department of Commerce. Available at: https://www.bea.gov/resources/learning-center/about-regional [accessed April 1, 2020].