Patterns of Depredation in the Hawai’i Deep-Set Longline Fishery Informed by Fishery and False Killer Whale Behavior
We analyzed behavior data on false killer whales to identify patterns that could help fishermen avoid interactions with whales.
False killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens) depredate bait and catch in the Hawai‘i-based deep-set longline fishery, and as a result, this species is hooked or entangled more than any other cetacean in this fishery. We analyzed data collected by fisheries observers and from satellite-linked transmitters deployed on false killer whales to identify patterns of odontocete depredation that could help fishermen avoid overlap with whales. Odontocete depredation was observed on ˜6% of deep-set hauls across the fleet from 2004 to 2018. Model outcomes from binomial GAMMs suggested coarse patterns, for example, higher rates of depredation in winter, at lower latitudes, and with higher fishing effort. However, explanatory power was low, and no covariates were identified that could be used in a predictive context. The best indicator of depredation was the occurrence of depredation on a previous set of the same vessel. We identified spatiotemporal scales of this repeat depredation to provide guidance to fishermen on how far to move or how long to wait to reduce the probability of repeated interactions. The risk of depredation decreased with both space and time from a previous occurrence, with the greatest benefits achieved by moving approximately 400 km or waiting ˜9 d, which reduced the occurrence of depredation from 18% to 9% (a 50% reduction). Fishermen moved a median 46 km and waited 4.7 h following an observed depredation interaction, which our analysis suggests is unlikely to lead to large reductions in risk. Satellite-tagged pelagic false killer whales moved up to 75 km in 4 h and 335 km in 24 h, suggesting that they can likely keep pace with longline vessels for at least four hours and likely longer. We recommend fishermen avoid areas of known depredation or bycatch by moving as far and as quickly as practical, especially within a day or two of the depredation or bycatch event. We also encourage captains to communicate depredation and bycatch occurrence to enable other vessels to similarly avoid high-risk areas.