Section 7: Citations and References for All Species in the Greater Atlantic Region
List of species ESA -listings, recovery plans, and literature cited.
GARFO Species List
North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis) (73 FR 12024; Recovery plan: NMFS 2005)
Fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus) (35 FR 18319; Recovery plan: NMFS 2010a)
Sei whale (Balaenoptera borealis) (35 FR 18319; Recovery plan: NMFS 2011)
Sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) (35 FR 18319; Recovery plan: NMFS 2010b)
Blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) (35 FR 18319; Recovery plan: NMFS 1998b)
Loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta) (76 FR 58868; Recovery plan: NMFS & USFWS 2008) 
Leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) (35 FR 8491; Recovery plan: NMFS & USFWS 1992a)
Green turtle (Chelonia mydas) (81 FR 20057; Recovery plan: NMFS & USFWS 1991) 
Kemp’s ridley turtle (Lepidochelys kempii) (35 FR 18319; Recovery plan: NMFS et al. 2011)
Hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) (35 FR 8491; Recovery plan: NMFS & USFWS 1992b)
Shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) (32 FR 4001; Recovery plan: NMFS 1998a)
Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus) (77 FR 5880 and 77 FR 5914)
Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) (74 FR 29344; Recovery plan: NMFS & USFWS 2019)
Giant Manta Ray (Manta birostris) (83 FR 2916)
Oceanic Whitetip Shark (Carcharhinus longimanus) (83 FR 4153)
 For loggerhead turtles, only the Northwest Atlantic Distinct Population Segment (DPS) occurs in the Greater Atlantic Region
 For green turtles, only the North Atlantic DPS occurs in the Greater Atlantic Region
 For Atlantic sturgeon, there are five listed DPSs that may occur in the Greater Atlantic Region: (1) Gulf of Maine, (2) New York Bight, (3) Chesapeake Bay, (4) Carolina, and (5) South Atlantic
 For Atlantic salmon, there is one listed DPS: the Gulf of Maine DPS
ESA Listing Rules:
North Atlantic right whale: (73 FR 12024; March 6, 2008)
Fin, Sei, Sperm, and Blue whales: (35 FR 18319; December 2, 1970)
Loggerhead turtle: (76 FR 58868; September 20, 2011)
Leatherback turtle: (35 FR 8491; June 2, 1970)
Green turtle: (81 FR 20057; April 6, 2016)
Kemp's ridley and Hawksbill turtles: (35 FR 18319; December 2, 1970)
Shortnose sturgeon: (32 FR 4001; March 8, 1967)
Atlantic sturgeon: (77 FR 5880; February 6, 2012) (77 FR 5914; February 6, 2012)
Atlantic salmon: (74 FR 29344; June 19, 2009)
North Atlantic right whale (81 FR 4837)
Loggerhead turtle (79 FR 4837)
Atlantic sturgeon (82 FR 39160)
Atlantic salmon (74 FR 29300)
Loggerhead sea turtle Critical Habitat (Northwest Atlantic Ocean DPS): On July 10, 2014, the USFWS and NOAA Fisheries published two separate final rules in the Federal Register designating critical habitat for the Northwest Atlantic DPS of loggerhead sea turtles under the ESA (79 FR 39755 for nesting beaches under USFWS jurisdiction; 79 FR 39856 for marine areas under NOAA Fisheries jurisdiction). Effective August 11, 2014, NOAA Fisheries' final rule for marine areas designated 38 occupied areas within the at-sea range of the Northwest Atlantic DPS. These marine areas of critical habitat contain one or a combination of: nearshore reproductive habitat, overwintering habitat, breeding habitat, migratory habitat, and Sargassum habitat. The only critical habitat for loggerhead sea turtles in the Greater Atlantic Region is Sargassum habitat located offshore of the DelMarVa peninsula beyond the continental shelf break.
Right whale Critical Habitat: Great South Channel, east of Cape Cod, and Cape Cod and Massachusetts Bays. On February 20, 2015, NOAA Fisheries published a proposed rule to revise the critical habitat for endangered North Atlantic right whales in the Atlantic Ocean (80 FR 9313). The proposed revision would expand the critical habitat from 4,640 square nautical miles to roughly 29,945 square nautical miles and include feeding areas in the Gulf of Maine/Georges Bank region and calving grounds from southern North Carolina to northern Florida. On January 27, 2016, the critical habitat revision was finalized in a final rule (81 FR 4837), which designated approximately 29,763 square nautical miles of marine habitat in the Gulf of Maine and Georges Bank region (Unit 1) and off the Southeast U.S. coast (unit 2).
Atlantic sturgeon Critical Habitat: Critical habitat for Atlantic sturgeon was designated on August 17, 2017 for the five DPSs (82 FR 39160). Specific occupied areas designated as critical habitat for the Gulf of Maine DPS of Atlantic sturgeon contain approximately 244 kilometers (km; 152 miles) of aquatic habitat in the following rivers of Maine, New Hampshire, and Massachusetts: Penobscot, Kennebec, Androscoggin, Piscataqua, Cocheco, Salmon Falls, and Merrimack. Specific occupied areas designated as critical habitat for the New York Bight DPS of Atlantic sturgeon contain approximately 547 km (340 miles) of aquatic habitat in the following rivers of Connecticut, Massachusetts, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware: Connecticut, Housatonic, Hudson, and Delaware. Specific occupied areas designated as critical habitat for the Chesapeake Bay DPS of Atlantic sturgeon contain approximately 773 km (480 miles) of aquatic habitat in the following rivers of Maryland, Virginia, and the District of Columbia: Potomac, Rappahannock, York, Pamunkey, Mattaponi, James, Nanticoke, and the following other water body: Marshyhope Creek.
Atlantic salmon Critical Habitat: Critical habitat for Atlantic salmon was designated on June 19, 2009, entirely within Maine (73 FR 29300). Forty-five specific areas containing over 19,000 kilometers of rivers and streams and 799 square kilometers of lakes and ponds were identified as having the physical and biological features essential to the conservation of the species, which may require special management or protections.
Species Recovery Plans
National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). 1998a. Final Recovery Plan for the Shortnose Sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum).
National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). 1998b. Recovery plan for the blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus). Prepared by Reeves R.R., P.J. Clapham, R.L. Brownell, Jr., and G.K. Silber for the National Marine Fisheries Service, Silver Spring, MD. 42 pp.
National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). 2005. Recovery Plan for the North Atlantic Right Whale (Eubalaena glacialis).
National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). 2010a. Final Recovery Plan for the Fin Whale (Balaenoptera physalus).
National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). 2010b. Final Recovery Plan for the Sperm Whale (Physeter macrocephalus).
National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). 2011. Final Recovery Plan for the Sei Whale (Balaenoptera borealis).
National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1991. Recovery Plan for U.S. Population of Atlantic Green Turtle (Chelonia mydas).
National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1992a. Recovery Plan for Leatherback Turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) in the U.S. Caribbean, Atlantic, and Gulf of Mexico.
National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1992b. Recovery Plan for the Hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) in the U.S. Caribbean, Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico.
National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2008. Recovery Plan for the Northwest Atlantic Population of the Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta caretta).
National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), and SEMARNAT. 2011. Bi-National Recovery Plan for the Kemp's Ridley Sea Turtle (Lepidochelys kempii).
National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2019. Recovery Plan for the Gulf of Maine Distinct Population Segment of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar).
ASMFC (Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission). 1998. Atlantic Sturgeon Stock Assessment. Peer Review Report.
ASSRT (Atlantic Sturgeon Status Review Team). 2007. Status Review of Atlantic Sturgeon.
Bain, M.B. 1997. Atlantic and shortnose sturgeons of the Hudson River: common and divergent life history attributes. Environmental Biology of Fishes 48:347-358.
Bain, M.B., K. Arend, N. Haley, S. Hayes, J. Knight, S. Nack, D. Peterson, and M. Walsh. 1998. Sturgeon of the Hudson River. Final Report on 1993-1996 Research.
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Bain, M.B., Haley, N., Peterson, D.L., Arend, K.K., Mills, K.E. and Sullivan, P.J. 2007. Recovery of a US endangered fish. PLoS One, 2(1), p.e168.
Balazik, M. 2017. First verified occurrence of the shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) in the James River, Virginia. Fishery Bulletin 115(2):196-200.
Balazik, M.T., G.C. Garman, J.P. Van Eenennaam, J. Mohler, and L.C. Woods. 2012. Empirical Evidence of Fall Spawning by Atlantic Sturgeon in the James River, Virginia. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 141(6):1465-1471.
Balazik, M. T. and J. A. Musick. 2015. Dual annual spawning races in Atlantic sturgeon. PLoS ONE 10(5): e0128234.
Baltimore Sun. 2007. Rare catch could spawn resurgence of sturgeon in bay. June 13, 2007. http://articles.baltimoresun.com/2007-06-13/news/0706130110_1_sturgeon-chesapeake-bay-university-of-maryland.
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Bjorndal, K.A. 1997. Foraging Ecology and Nutrition of Sea Turtles. The Biology of Sea Turtles. pp. 199-231.
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Crance, J. H. 1986. Habitat Suitability Index Models and Instream Flow Suitability Curves: Shortnose Sturgeon. Biological Report, 82(10.129).
Dadswell, M. 2006. A review of the status of Atlantic sturgeon in Canada, with comparisons to populations in the United States and Europe. Fisheries, 31, 218-229.
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Dionne, P.E., G.B. Zydlewski, M.T. Kinnison, J. Zydlewski, and G.S. Wippelhauser. 2013. Reconsidering residency: characterization and conservation implications of complex migratory patterns of shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 70:119-127.
Dodge, K.L., J.M. Logan, and M.E. Lutcavage. 2011. Foraging ecology of leatherback sea turtles in the Western North Atlantic determined through multi-tissue stable isotope analyses. Marine Biology, 12.
Dovel, W. L. 1981. The Endangered Shortnose Sturgeon of the Hudson Estuary: Its Life History and Vulnerability to the Activities of Man. An Investigation by the Oceanic Society under Contract (No. DE-AC 39-79 RC-10074) to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Washington D.C.
Dovel, W. L. and T. J. Berggren. 1983. Atlantic sturgeon of the Hudson estuary, New York. New York Fish and Game Journal 30(2): 140-172.
Dovel, W.L., A.W. Pekovitch, and T.J. Berggren. 1992. Biology of the Shortnose Sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum Lesueur, 1818) in the Hudson River Estuary, New York. Pages 187-216 in C.L. Smith, editor, Estuarine Research in the 1980s. State University of New York Press, Albany, New York.
Dzaugis, M.P. 2013. Diet and Prey Availability of Sturgeons in the Penobscot River. M.S. Thesis. University of Maine. 36 pp.
Epperly, S.P., J. Braun, and A.J. Chester. 1995a. Aerial surveys for sea turtles in North Carolina inshore waters. Fishery Bulletin, 93, 254-261.
Epperly, S.P., J. Braun, A.J. Chester, F.A. Cross, J.V. Merriner and P.A. Tester. 1995b. Winter Distribution of Sea Turtles in the Vicinity of Cape Hatteras and their Interactions with the Summer Flounder Trawl Fishery. Bulletin of Marine Science, 56(2), 547-568.
Epperly, S.P., J. Braun, and A. Veishlow. 1995c. Sea Turtles in North Carolina Waters. Conservation Biology, 9(2), 384-394.
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ERC, Inc. (Environmental Research and Consulting, Inc.). 2009. Final report of investigations of shortnose sturgeon early life stages in the Delaware River, Spring 2007 and 2008. Prepared for NJ Division of Fish and Wildlife. 40 pp.
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