Section 7: Citations and References for All Species in the Greater Atlantic Region
List of species ESA -listings, recovery plans, and literature cited.
GARFO Species List
North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis) (73 FR 12024; Recovery plan: NMFS 2005)
Fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus) (35 FR 18319; Recovery plan: NMFS 2010a)
Sei whale (Balaenoptera borealis) (35 FR 18319; Recovery plan: NMFS 2011)
Sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) (35 FR 18319; Recovery plan: NMFS 2010b)
Blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) (35 FR 18319; Recovery plan: NMFS 2020)
Loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta) (76 FR 58868; Recovery plan: NMFS & USFWS 2008) 
Leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) (35 FR 8491; Recovery plan: NMFS & USFWS 1992a)
Green turtle (Chelonia mydas) (81 FR 20057; Recovery plan: NMFS & USFWS 1991) 
Kemp’s ridley turtle (Lepidochelys kempii) (35 FR 18319; Recovery plan: NMFS et al. 2011)
Hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) (35 FR 8491; Recovery plan: NMFS & USFWS 1992b)
Shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) (32 FR 4001; Recovery plan: NMFS 1998a)
Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus) (77 FR 5880 and 77 FR 5914)
Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) (74 FR 29344; Recovery plan: NMFS & USFWS 2019)
Giant Manta Ray (Manta birostris) (83 FR 2916)
Oceanic Whitetip Shark (Carcharhinus longimanus) (83 FR 4153)
 For loggerhead turtles, only the Northwest Atlantic Distinct Population Segment (DPS) occurs in the Greater Atlantic Region
 For green turtles, only the North Atlantic DPS occurs in the Greater Atlantic Region
 For Atlantic sturgeon, there are five listed DPSs that may occur in the Greater Atlantic Region: (1) Gulf of Maine, (2) New York Bight, (3) Chesapeake Bay, (4) Carolina, and (5) South Atlantic
 For Atlantic salmon, there is one listed DPS: the Gulf of Maine DPS
ESA Listing Rules:
North Atlantic right whale: (73 FR 12024; March 6, 2008)
Fin, Sei, Sperm, and Blue whales: (35 FR 18319; December 2, 1970)
Loggerhead turtle: (76 FR 58868; September 20, 2011)
Leatherback turtle: (35 FR 8491; June 2, 1970)
Green turtle: (81 FR 20057; April 6, 2016)
Kemp's ridley and Hawksbill turtles: (35 FR 18319; December 2, 1970)
Shortnose sturgeon: (32 FR 4001; March 8, 1967)
Atlantic sturgeon: (77 FR 5880; February 6, 2012) (77 FR 5914; February 6, 2012)
Atlantic salmon: (74 FR 29344; June 19, 2009)
North Atlantic right whale (81 FR 4837)
Loggerhead turtle (79 FR 4837)
Atlantic sturgeon (82 FR 39160)
Atlantic salmon (74 FR 29300)
Loggerhead sea turtle Critical Habitat (Northwest Atlantic Ocean DPS): On July 10, 2014, the USFWS and NOAA Fisheries published two separate final rules in the Federal Register designating critical habitat for the Northwest Atlantic DPS of loggerhead sea turtles under the ESA (79 FR 39755 for nesting beaches under USFWS jurisdiction; 79 FR 39856 for marine areas under NOAA Fisheries jurisdiction). Effective August 11, 2014, NOAA Fisheries' final rule for marine areas designated 38 occupied areas within the at-sea range of the Northwest Atlantic DPS. These marine areas of critical habitat contain one or a combination of: nearshore reproductive habitat, overwintering habitat, breeding habitat, migratory habitat, and Sargassum habitat. The only critical habitat for loggerhead sea turtles in the Greater Atlantic Region is Sargassum habitat located offshore of the DelMarVa peninsula beyond the continental shelf break.
Right whale Critical Habitat: Great South Channel, east of Cape Cod, and Cape Cod and Massachusetts Bays. On February 20, 2015, NOAA Fisheries published a proposed rule to revise the critical habitat for endangered North Atlantic right whales in the Atlantic Ocean (80 FR 9313). The proposed revision would expand the critical habitat from 4,640 square nautical miles to roughly 29,945 square nautical miles and include feeding areas in the Gulf of Maine/Georges Bank region and calving grounds from southern North Carolina to northern Florida. On January 27, 2016, the critical habitat revision was finalized in a final rule (81 FR 4837), which designated approximately 29,763 square nautical miles of marine habitat in the Gulf of Maine and Georges Bank region (Unit 1) and off the Southeast U.S. coast (unit 2).
Atlantic sturgeon Critical Habitat: Critical habitat for Atlantic sturgeon was designated on August 17, 2017 for the five DPSs (82 FR 39160). Specific occupied areas designated as critical habitat for the Gulf of Maine DPS of Atlantic sturgeon contain approximately 244 kilometers (km; 152 miles) of aquatic habitat in the following rivers of Maine, New Hampshire, and Massachusetts: Penobscot, Kennebec, Androscoggin, Piscataqua, Cocheco, Salmon Falls, and Merrimack. Specific occupied areas designated as critical habitat for the New York Bight DPS of Atlantic sturgeon contain approximately 547 km (340 miles) of aquatic habitat in the following rivers of Connecticut, Massachusetts, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware: Connecticut, Housatonic, Hudson, and Delaware. Specific occupied areas designated as critical habitat for the Chesapeake Bay DPS of Atlantic sturgeon contain approximately 773 km (480 miles) of aquatic habitat in the following rivers of Maryland, Virginia, and the District of Columbia: Potomac, Rappahannock, York, Pamunkey, Mattaponi, James, Nanticoke, and the following other water body: Marshyhope Creek.
Atlantic salmon Critical Habitat: Critical habitat for Atlantic salmon was designated on June 19, 2009, entirely within Maine (73 FR 29300). Forty-five specific areas containing over 19,000 kilometers of rivers and streams and 799 square kilometers of lakes and ponds were identified as having the physical and biological features essential to the conservation of the species, which may require special management or protections.
Species Recovery Plans
National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). 1998a. Final Recovery Plan for the Shortnose Sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum).
National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). 2005. Recovery Plan for the North Atlantic Right Whale (Eubalaena glacialis).
National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). 2010a. Final Recovery Plan for the Fin Whale (Balaenoptera physalus).
National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). 2010b. Final Recovery Plan for the Sperm Whale (Physeter macrocephalus).
National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). 2011. Final Recovery Plan for the Sei Whale (Balaenoptera borealis).
National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). 2020. Recovery Plan for the Blue Whale (Balaenoptera musculus) - First Revision. National Marine Fisheries Service, Office of Protected Resources, Silver Spring, MD.
National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1991. Recovery Plan for U.S. Population of Atlantic Green Turtle (Chelonia mydas).
National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1992a. Recovery Plan for Leatherback Turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) in the U.S. Caribbean, Atlantic, and Gulf of Mexico.
National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1992b. Recovery Plan for the Hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) in the U.S. Caribbean, Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico.
National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2008. Recovery Plan for the Northwest Atlantic Population of the Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta caretta).
National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), and SEMARNAT. 2011. Bi-National Recovery Plan for the Kemp's Ridley Sea Turtle (Lepidochelys kempii).
National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2019. Recovery Plan for the Gulf of Maine Distinct Population Segment of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar).
ASMFC (Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission). 1998. Atlantic Sturgeon Stock Assessment. Peer Review Report.
ASSRT (Atlantic Sturgeon Status Review Team). 2007. Status Review of Atlantic Sturgeon.
Bain, M.B. 1997. Atlantic and shortnose sturgeons of the Hudson River: common and divergent life history attributes. Environmental Biology of Fishes 48:347-358.
Bain, M.B., K. Arend, N. Haley, S. Hayes, J. Knight, S. Nack, D. Peterson, and M. Walsh. 1998. Sturgeon of the Hudson River. Final Report on 1993-1996 Research.
Bain, M.B., Haley, N., Peterson, D.L., Arend, K.K., Mills, K.E. and Sullivan, P.J. 2007. Recovery of a US endangered fish. PLoS One, 2(1), p.e168.
Bain, M.B., N. Haley, D. Peterson, J.R. Waldman, and K. Arend. 2000. Harvest and habitats of Atlantic sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus Mitchill, 1815 in the Hudson River estuary: Lessons for sturgeon conservation. Boletin Instituto Espanol de Oceanografia 16(1-4):43-53.
Bain, M.B., Peterson, D.L., Arend, K.K. and Haley, N., 1999. Atlantic sturgeon population monitoring for the Hudson River estuary: sampling design and gear recommendations. Final Report to the Hudson River Fisheries Unit, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, New Paltz.
Balazik, M. 2017. First verified occurrence of the shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) in the James River, Virginia. Fishery Bulletin 115(2):196-200.
Balazik, M.T., G.C. Garman, J.P. Van Eenennaam, J. Mohler, and L.C. Woods. 2012a. Empirical Evidence of Fall Spawning by Atlantic Sturgeon in the James River, Virginia. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 141(6):1465-1471.
Balazik, M. T. and J. A. Musick. 2015. Dual annual spawning races in Atlantic sturgeon. PLoS ONE 10(5): e0128234.
Balazik, M. T., K. J. Reine, A. J. Spells, C. A. Fredrickson, M. L. Fine, G. C. Garman, and S. P. McIninch. 2012b. The potential for vessel interactions with adult Atlantic sturgeon in the James River, Virginia. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 32(6): 1062-1069.
Baltimore Sun. 2007. Rare catch could spawn resurgence of sturgeon in bay. June 13, 2007. http://articles.baltimoresun.com/2007-06-13/news/0706130110_1_sturgeon-chesapeake-bay-university-of-maryland.
Bath, D. W., J. M. O'Connor, J. B. Alber, and L. G. Arvidson. 1981. Development and identification of larval Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus) and shortnose sturgeon (A. brevirostrum) from the Hudson River estuary, New York. Copeia 3: 711-717.
Baumgartner, M.F., N.S.J. Lysiak, C. Schuman, J. Urban-Rich, and F.W. Wenzel. 2011. Diel vertical migration behavior of Calanus finmarchicus and its influence on right and sei whale occurrence. Marine Ecology Progress Series 423:167-184.
Benson, J. 2016. Endangered Atlantic sturgeon found off sub base could alter plans for piers. The Day. June 18, 2016. http://www.theday.com/article/20160617/NWS01/160619212.
Bjorndal, K.A. 1997. Foraging Ecology and Nutrition of Sea Turtles. The Biology of Sea Turtles. pp. 199-231.
Bonfil, R., S. Clarke, and H. Nakano. 2008. The biology and ecology of the oceanic whitetip shark, Carcharhinus longimanus. Pages 128-139 in M.D. Camhi, E.K. Pikitch, and E.A. Babcock (eds.) Sharks of the Open Ocean: Biology, Fisheries, and Conservation. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
Boston Globe. 2012. From depths of the Charles, an endangered species surfaces. February 20, 2012. https://www.bostonglobe.com/metro/2012/02/20/from-depths-charles-ancient-species/B0NFGOT45R3TewoIZ5uyGL/story.html.
Braun-McNeill J., and S.P. Epperly. 2004. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Sea Turtles in the Western North Atlantic and the U.S. Gulf of Mexico from Marine Recreational Fishery Statistics Survey (MRFSS). Marine Fisheries Review 64(4):50-56.
Braun-McNeill, J., C.R. Sasso., S.P. Epperly, and C. Rivero. 2008. Feasibility of using sea surface temperature imagery to mitigate cheloniid sea turtle-fishery interactions off the coast of northeastern USA. Endangered Species Research 5:257-266.
Breece, M.W., Fox, D.A. and Oliver, M.J. 2018. Environmental drivers of adult Atlantic sturgeon movement and residency in the Delaware Bay. Marine and Coastal Fisheries, 10(2), pp.269-280.
Breece, M.W., A.L. Higgs, and D.A. Fox. 2021. Spawning intervals, timing, and riverine use of adult Atlantic sturgeon in the Hudson River. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society. https://doi.org/10.1002/tafs.10304.
Breece, M.W., M.J. Oliver, M.A. Cimino, and D.A. Fox. 2013. Shifting Distributions of Adult Atlantic Sturgeon Amidst Post-Industrialization and Future Impacts in the Delaware River: a Maximum Entropy Approach. PLoS ONE 8(11):e81321. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0081321.
Brown, M.W., O.C. Nichols, M.K. Marx, and J.N. Ciano. 2002. Surveillance, Monitoring and Management of North Atlantic Right Whales in Cape Cod Bay and Adjacent Waters - 2002.
Brundage III, H.M. 2021. Occurrence of Shortnose Sturgeon in the Tidal Schuylkill River, an Urbanized and Industrialized Tributary of the Delaware River. Urban Naturalist, No. 47.
Brundage, H.M., and R.E. Meadows. 1982. The Atlantic sturgeon in the Delaware River estuary. Fisheries Bulletin 80:337-343.
Brundage, H.M., and J.C. O'Herron. 2009. Investigations of Juvenile Shortnose and Atlantic Sturgeon in the Lower Tidal Delaware River. Bulletin New Jersey Academy of Science 52(2):1-8.
Buckley, J., and B. Kynard. 1983. Studies on shortnose sturgeon. Final report. National Marine Fisheries Service, Gloucester, Massachusetts. 38 pp.
Buckley, J. and Kynard, B. 1981. Spawning and rearing of shortnose sturgeon from the Connecticut River. The Progressive Fish‐Culturist, 43(2), pp.74-76.
Buckley, J., and B. Kynard. 1985. Yearly movements of shortnose sturgeon in the Connecticut River. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 114:813-820.
Buerkett, C., and B. Kynard. 1993. Sturgeons of the Taunton River and Mt. Hope Bay: Distribution, habitats, and movements. Final Report for Project AFC-24-1 to Massachusetts Division of Marine Fisheries. 15 pp.
Burton, W.H., H.M. Brundage, and J.C. O’Herron. 2005. Delaware River adult and juvenile sturgeon survey – winter 2005. Prepared for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Philadelphia District. Versar, Inc., Columbia, Maryland. 36 pp.
Bushnoe, T.M., J.A. Musick, and D.S. Ha. 2005. Essential Spawning and Nursery Habitat of Atlantic Sturgon (Acipenser oxyrichus) in Virginia.
Calvo, L., H.M. Brundage III, D. Haidvogel, D. Kreeger, R. Thomas, J.C. O'Herron II, and E.N. Powell. 2010. Effects of Flow Dynamics, Salinity, and Water Quality on the Atlantic Sturgeon, the Shortnose Sturgeon and the Eastern Oyster in the Oligohaline Zone of the Delaware Estuary. Final Report to USACE, Philadelphia District.
Carlson, D. M. and K. W. Simpson. 1987. Gut Contents of Juvenile Shortnose Sturgeon in the Upper Hudson Estuary. Copeia 1987(3): 796-802.
CBS Boston. 2012. Hanover Canoers Capture 6-Foot Sturgeon With Their Bare Hands. February 20, 2012. http://boston.cbslocal.com/2012/05/31/hanover-canoers-capture-200-pound-sturgeon-with-their-bare-hands/.
CETAP. 1982. A characterization of marine mammals and turtles in the mid-and north Atlantic areas of the US outer continental shelf. Final report. Sponsored by the Bureau of Land Management under contract AA551-CT8-48.: 450.
CITES. 2013. Amendments to Appendices I and II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. www.cites.org.
Coch, N.K. 1986. Sediment characteristics and facies distributions. Northeastern Geology 8(3):109-129.
Cole, T.V.N., P. Hamilton, A.G. Henry, P. Duley, R.M Pace, B.N. White, and T. Frasier. 2013. Evidence of a North Atlantic right whale Eubalaena glacialis mating ground. Endangered Species Research 21:55-64.
Conant, T.A., P.H. Dutton, T. Eguchi, S.P. Epperl;y, C.C. Fahy, M.H. Godfrey, S.L. MacPherson, E.E. Possaredt, B.A. Schroeder, J.A. Seminoff, M.L. Snover, C.M. Upite, and B.W. Witherington. 2009. Loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) 2009 status review under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. 222 pp.
Crance, J. H. 1986. Habitat Suitability Index Models and Instream Flow Suitability Curves: Shortnose Sturgeon. Biological Report, 82(10.129).
Dadswell, M.J. 1979. Biology and population characteristics of the shortnose sturgeon, Acipenser brevirostrum LeSueur 1818 (Osteichthyes: Acipenseridae), in the Saint John River estuary, New Brunswick, Canada. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 57(11), pp.2186-2210.
Dadswell, M. 2006. A review of the status of Atlantic sturgeon in Canada, with comparisons to populations in the United States and Europe. Fisheries, 31, 218-229.
Dadswell, M.J., B.D. Taubert, T.S. Squiers, D. Marchette, and J. Buckley. 1984. Synopsis of biological data on shortnose sturgeon, Acipenser brevirostrum LeSueur 1818 NOAA Technical Report NMFS 14 and FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) Fisheries Synopsis (Vol. 140).
Day. 2016. "Endangered Atlantic sturgeon found off sub base could alter plans for piers." June 17, 2016. https://www.theday.com/article/20160617/NWS01/160619212
Dionne, P.E., G.B. Zydlewski, M.T. Kinnison, J. Zydlewski, and G.S. Wippelhauser. 2013. Reconsidering residency: characterization and conservation implications of complex migratory patterns of shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 70:119-127.
Dodge, K.L., J.M. Logan, and M.E. Lutcavage. 2011. Foraging ecology of leatherback sea turtles in the Western North Atlantic determined through multi-tissue stable isotope analyses. Marine Biology, 12.
Dovel, W. L. 1981. The Endangered Shortnose Sturgeon of the Hudson Estuary: Its Life History and Vulnerability to the Activities of Man. An Investigation by the Oceanic Society under Contract (No. DE-AC 39-79 RC-10074) to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Washington D.C.
Dovel, W. L. and T. J. Berggren. 1983. Atlantic sturgeon of the Hudson estuary, New York. New York Fish and Game Journal 30(2): 140-172.
Dovel, W.L., A.W. Pekovitch, and T.J. Berggren. 1992. Biology of the Shortnose Sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum Lesueur, 1818) in the Hudson River Estuary, New York. Pages 187-216 in C.L. Smith, editor, Estuarine Research in the 1980s. State University of New York Press, Albany, New York.
Duffy, C.A.J. and Abbott, D. 2003. Sightings of mobulid rays from northern New Zealand, with confirmation of the occurrence of Manta birostris in New Zealand waters.
Dzaugis, M.P. 2013. Diet and Prey Availability of Sturgeons in the Penobscot River. M.S. Thesis. University of Maine. 36 pp.
EPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency). 2003. Ambient water quality criteria for dissolved oxygen, water clarity and chlorophyll a for the Chesapeake Bay and its tidal tributaries.
Epperly, S.P., J. Braun, and A.J. Chester. 1995a. Aerial surveys for sea turtles in North Carolina inshore waters. Fishery Bulletin, 93, 254-261.
Epperly, S.P., J. Braun, A.J. Chester, F.A. Cross, J.V. Merriner and P.A. Tester. 1995b. Winter Distribution of Sea Turtles in the Vicinity of Cape Hatteras and their Interactions with the Summer Flounder Trawl Fishery. Bulletin of Marine Science, 56(2), 547-568.
Epperly, S.P., J. Braun, and A. Veishlow. 1995c. Sea Turtles in North Carolina Waters. Conservation Biology, 9(2), 384-394.
ERC, Inc. (Environmental Research and Consulting, Inc.). 2006. Acoustic telemetry study of the movements of shortnose sturgeon in the Delaware River and bay: progress report for 2003-2004. Prepared for NOAA Fisheries. 11 pp.
ERC, Inc. (Environmental Research and Consulting, Inc.). 2009. Final report of investigations of shortnose sturgeon early life stages in the Delaware River, Spring 2007 and 2008. Prepared for NJ Division of Fish and Wildlife. 40 pp.
Farmer, N.A., Garrison, L.P., Horn, C., Miller, M., Gowan, T., Kenney, R.D., Vukovich, M., Willmott, J.R., Pate, J., Harry Webb, D. and Mullican, T.J. 2022. The distribution of manta rays in the western North Atlantic Ocean off the eastern United States. Scientific reports, 12(1), pp.1-20.
Fay, C., M. Bartron, S. Craig, A. Hecht, J. Pruden, R. Saunders, T. Sheehan, and J. Trial. 2006. Status Review for Anadromous Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) in the United States. Atlantic Salmon Biological Review Team.
Fernandes, S.J. 2008. Population Demography, Distribution, and Movement Patterns of Atlantic and Shortnose Sturgeons in the Penobscot River Estuary, Maine. Master Thesis, The University of Maine.
Fernandes, S.J., G.B Zydlewski, J.D. Zydlewski, G.S. Wippelhauser, M.T. Kinnison. 2010. Seasonal Distribution and Movements of Shortnose Sturgeon and Atlantic Sturgon in the Penobscot River Estuary, Maine. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 139:1436-1449.
Fire, S. E., J. Pruden, D. Couture, Z. Wang, MY.D. Bottein, B.L. Haynes, T. Knott, D. Bouchard, A. Lichtenwalner, and G. Wippelhauser. 2012. Saxitoxin exposure in an endangered fish: association of a shortnose sturgeon mortality event with a harmful algal bloom. Marine Ecology Progress Series 460:145-153.
Fisher, M. 2009. Atlantic Sturgeon Progress Report.
Fisher, M. 2011. Atlantic Sturgeon Final Report.
Florida Museum of Natural History. 2004. "Tiny sturgeon snagged in James revives reproductive hopes." March 28, 2004.
Fossette, S., H. Corbel, P. Gaspar, Y.L. Maho, and J.Y. Georges. 2008. An alternative technique for the long-term satellite tracking of leatherback turtles. Endangered Species Research 4:33-41.
Fox, D.A., and M.W. Breece. 2010. Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus) in the New York Bight DPS: Identification of critical habitat and rates of interbasin exchange. Final Report NOAA-NMFS Anadromous Fish Conservation Act Program. NOAA Award NA08NMF4050611. 64 pp.
Freedman, R. and Roy, S.S. 2012. Spatial patterning of Manta birostris in United States east coast offshore habitat. Applied Geography, 32(2), pp.652-659.
Fried, S.M., and J.D. McCleave. 1973. Occurrence of the shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) an endangered species, in Montsweag Bay, Maine. Journal Fisheries Research Board of Canada 30(4):563-564.
Furey, N.B., and J.A. Sulikowski. 2011. The Fish Assemblage Structure of the Saco River Estuary. Northeastern Naturalist 18(1):37-44.
Geoghegan, P., M.T. Mattson, and R.G. Keppel. 1992. Distribution of the Shortnose Sturgeon in the Hudson River Estuary, 1984-1988. IN Estuarine Research in the 1980s, C. Lavett Smith, Editor. Hudson River Environmental Society, Seventh symposium on Hudson River ecology. State University of New York Press, Albany NY, USA.
Gilbert, C. R. 1989. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Mid-Atlantic Bight)--Atlantic and shortnose sturgeons., December. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Biological Report No. 82(11.122). Report No. USACE TR EL-82-4.
Good, C.D. 2008. Spatial Ecology of the North Atlantic Right Whale (Eubalaena glacialis). Dissertation for Ph.D, Duke University.
Graham, R.T., Witt, M.J., Castellanos, D.W., Remolina, F., Maxwell, S., Godley, B.J. and Hawkes, L.A. 2012. Satellite tracking of manta rays highlights challenges to their conservation. PloS one, 7(5), p.e36834.
Griffin, D.B., S.R. Murphy, M.G. Frick, A.C. Broderick, J.W. Coker, M.S. Coyne, and M.G. Dodd. 2013. Foraging habitats and migration corridors utilized by a recovering subpopulation of adult female loggerhead sea turtles: implications for conservation. Marine Biology, International Journal on Life in Oceans and Coastal Waters.
Gudger, E.W. 1922. The most northerly record of the capture in Atlantic waters of the United States of the giant ray, Manta birostris. Science, 55(1422), pp.338-340.
Hager, C. 2011. Atlantic Sturgeon Review: Gather data on reproducing subpopulation on Atlantic Sturgeon in the James River. Final Report.
Hager, C., J. Kahn, C. Watterson, J. Russo, and K. Hartman. 2014. Evidence of Atlantic Sturgeon Spawning in the York River System. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 143(5):1217-1219.
Hain, J. H. W., M.J. Ratnaswamy, R.D. Kenney, and H.E. Winn. 1992. The Fin Whale, Balaenoptera physalus, in Waters of the Northeastern United States Continental Shelf. Reports of the International Whaling Commission 42:653-669.
Hale, E. A., I. A. Park, M. T. Fisher, R. A. Wong, M. J. Stangl, and J. H. Clark. 2016. Abundance estimate for and habitat use by early juvenile Atlantic Sturgeon within the Delaware River Estuary. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 145(6): 1193-1201.
Hamilton, P.K., and C.A. Mayo. 1990. Population Characteristics of Right Whales (Eubalaena glacialis) Observed in Cape Cod and Massachusetts Bays, 1978-1986. Reports of the International Whaling Commission, Special Issue 12:203-208.
Hartford Courant. 1990. What A Story! Hey, What A Fish! September 30, 1994. http://articles.courant.com/1994-09-30/news/9409300111_1_sturgeon-fish-story-giant-fish
Hastings, R. W., J. C. O’Herron, K. Schick, and M. A. Lazzari. 1987. Occurrence and distribution of shortnose sturgeon, Acipenser brevirostrum, in the upper tidal Delaware River. Estuaries 10(4): 337-341.
Hilton, E. J., B. Kynard, M. T. Balazik, A. Z. Horodysky, and C. B. Dillman. 2016. Review of the biology, fisheries, and conservation status of the Atlantic sturgeon, (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus Mitchill, 1815). Journal of Applied Ichthyology 32(S1): 30-66.
Hodgdon, C.T., Tennenhouse, C., Koh, W.Y., Fox, J. and Sulikowski, J.A. 2018. Shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) of the Saco River Estuary: Assessment of a unique habitat. Journal of Applied Ichthyology.
Hopewell News. 2013. "Boaters scramble to save rare fish." October 28, 2013.
Horne, A.N. and Stence, C.P. 2016. Assessment of Critical Habitats for Recovering the Chesapeake Bay Atlantic Sturgeon Distinct Population Segment. NOAA Species Recovery Grants to States (Section 6 Program). Grant Number: NA13NMF4720042. 71 pp.
Johnston, C.K. 2016. Shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) spawning potential in the Penobscot River, Maine: Considering dam removals and emerging threats. M.S. Thesis.
Kahn, J.E., C. Hager, J.C. Watterson, J. Russo, K. Moore, and K. Hartman. 2014. Atlantic Sturgeon Annual Spawning Run Estimate in the Pamunkey River, Virginia. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 143(6):1508-1514.
Kahnle, A.W., K.A. Hattala, K.A. McKown, C.A. Shirey, M.R. Collins, T.S. Squiers, T. Savoy, D.H. Secor, and J.A. Musick. 1998. Stock Status of Atlantic Sturgeon of Atlantic Coast Estuaries. Report for the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission.
Kashiwagi, T., Ito, T. and Sato, F. 2010. Occurrences of reef manta ray, Manta alfredi, and giant manta ray, M. birostris. Japan, examined by photographic records. Report of Japanese Society for Elasmobranch Studies, 46, pp.20-27.
Kashiwagi, T., Marshall, A.D., Bennett, M.B. and Ovenden, J.R. 2011. Habitat segregation and mosaic sympatry of the two species of manta ray in the Indian and Pacific Oceans: Manta alfredi and M. birostris. Marine Biodiversity Records, 4.
Kenney, R.D., M.A.M. Hyman, R.E. Owen, G.P. Scott, and H.E. Winn. 1986. Estimation of Prey Densities Required by Western North Atlantic Right Whales. Marine Mammal Science 2(1):1-13.
Kenney, R.D., H.E. Winn, and M.C. Macaulay. 1995. Cetaceans in the Great South Channel, 1979-1989: right whale (Eubalaena glacialis). Continental Shelf Research 15(4/5):385-414.
Khan C, C. T., Duley P, Glass A, and Gatzke J. 2013. North Atlantic right whale sighting survey (NARWSS) and right whale sighting advisory system (RWSAS) 2012 results summary. Northeast Fish Sci Cent Ref Doc No. 13-08, National Marine Fisheries Service, Woods Hole, MA.
Khan C, C. T., Duley P, Glass A, Gatzke J. 2014. North Atlantic right whale sighting survey (NARWSS) and right whale sighting advisory system (RWSAS) 2013 results summary. Northeast Fish Sci Cent Ref Doc No. 14-11, National Marine Fisheries Service, Woods Hole, MA.
Khan C, C. T., Duley P, Glass A, Gatzke J. 2016. North Atlantic right whale sighting survey (NARWSS) and right whale sighting advisory system (RWSAS) 2014 Results summary. Northeast Fish Sci Cent Ref Doc No. 16-01, National Marine Fisheries Service, Woods Hole, MA.
Kieffer, M.C., and B. Kynard. 1992. Shortnose sturgeon use of the Deerfield River: Spring-Summer 1992.
Kieffer, M.C., and B. Kynard. 1993. Annual movements of shortnose and Atlantic sturgeons in the Merrimack River, Massachusetts. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 122:1088-1103.
Kieffer, M.C., and B. Kynard. 1996. Spawning of the shortnose sturgeon in the Merrimack River, Massachusetts. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 125:1792-1186.
Kynard, B. 1997. Life history, latitudinal patterns, and status of the shortnose sturgeon, Acipenser brevirostrum. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 48, 319-334.
Kynard, B. 1998. Twenty-two Years of Passing Shortnose Sturgeon in Fish Lifts on the Connecticut River: What has been Learned? Fishing News, Fish Migration and Fish Bypasses.
Kynard, B., M. Breece, M. Atcheson, M. Kieffer, and M. Mangold. 2007. Status of Shortnose Sturgeon in the Potomac River. Final Report to the National Park Service, National Capital Region, Washington, D.C.
Kynard, B., Breece, M., Atcheson, M., Kieffer, M. and M. Mangold. 2009. Life history and status of shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) in the Potomac River. Journal of Applied Ichthyology 25:34–38.
Kynard, B., P. Bronzi, and H. Rosenthal. 2012. Life History and Behavior of Connecticut River Shortnose and other Sturgeons. World Sturgeon Conservation Society: Special Publication 4(2012).
Kynard, B. and M. Horgan. 2002. Ontogenetic behavior and migration of Atlantic sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus, and shortnose sturgeon, A. brevirostrum, with notes on social behavior. Environmental Biology of Fishes 63(2): 137-150.
Kynard, B., M. Horgan, M. Kieffer, and D. Seibel. 2000. Habitats Used by Shortnose Sturgeon in Two Massachusetts Rivers, with Notes on Estuarine Atlantic Sturgeon: A Hierarchical Approach. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 129:487-503.
Kynard, B., M. Kieffer, M. Burlingame, and M. Horgan. 1999. Studies on Shortnose Sturgeon. Final Report.
Lachapelle, K.A. 2013. Wintering shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) and their habitat in the Penobscot River, Maine. M.S. Thesis.
Lahanas, P. N., M.M. Miyamoto, K.A. Bjorndal, and A.B. Bolten. 1994. Molecular evolution and population genetics of Greater Caribbean green turtles (Chelonia mydas) as inferred from mitochondrial DNA control region sequences. Genetica 94:57-67.
Lazzari, M. A., J. C. O’Herron, and R. W. Hastings. 1986. Occurrence of juvenile Atlantic sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrhynchus, in the upper tidal Delaware River. Estuaries 9:358-361.
Li, X., Litvak, M.K. and Clarke, J.E.H., 2007. Overwintering habitat use of shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum): defining critical habitat using a novel underwater video survey and modeling approach. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 64(9), pp.1248-1257.
Little, C.E., M. Kieffer, G. Wippelhauser, G. Zydlewski, M. Kinnison, L.A. Whitefleet-Smith, and J.A. Sulikowski. 2013. First documented occurrences of the shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) in the Saco River, Maine, USA. Journal of Applied Ichthyology 29(4):709-712.
Litwiler, T. 2001. Conservation Plan for Sea Turtles, Marine Mammals, and the Shortnose sturgeon in Maryland. Maryland Department of Natural Resources Technical Report
FS-SCOL-01-2, Oxford, Maryland. 134 pp.
Mansfield, K. L., V.S. Saba, J.A. Keinath, J.A. Musick. 2009. Satellite tracking reveals dichotomy in migration strategies among juvenile loggerhead turtles in the Northwest Atlantic. Marine Biology 156:2555-2570.
Marshall, A.D., Compagno, L.J. and Bennett, M.B. 2009. Redescription of the genus Manta with resurrection of Manta alfredi (Krefft, 1868)(Chondrichthyes; Myliobatoidei; Mobulidae). Zootaxa, 2301(1), pp.1-28.
McCleave, J.D., S.M. Fried, and A.K. Towt. 1977. Daily Movements of Shortnose Sturgeon, Acipenser brevirostrum, in a Maine Estuary. Copeia 1977(1):149-157.
McLellan, W., S. Rommel, M. Moore, and D. Pabst. 2004. Right Whale Necropsy Protocol. Final Report to NOAA Fisheries for Contract #40AANF112525, 51.
Miller, M.H., and C. Klimovich. 2017. Endangered Species Act status review report: Giant manta ray (Manta birostris) and reef manta ray (Manta alfredi). National Marine Fisheries Service, Silver Spring, Maryland, September. Available from: https://repository.library.noaa.gov/view/noaa/17096.
Mohler, J. W. 2003. Culture manual for the Atlantic sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Region 5, 300 Westgate Center Drive, Hadley, Massachusetts.
Moore, S., and J. Reblin. 2008. The Kennebec Estuary: Restoration Challenges and Opportunities. Biological Conservation, Bowdoinham, Maine.
Morreale, S.J., P.T. Plotkin, D.J. Shaver, and H.J. Kalb. 2007. Adult migration and habitat utilization. Pages 213-229 in P.T. Plotkin (editor) Biology and Conservation of Ridley sea turtles. John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland.
Morreale, S.J. and E.A. Standora. 1998. Early life stage ecology of sea turtles in northeastern U.S. waters. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-SEFSC-413, 49 pp.
Morreale, S. J., & Standora, E. A. 2005. Western North Atlantic waters: crucial developmental habitat for Kemp’s ridley and loggerhead sea turtles. Chelonian Conservation and Biology, 4(4), 872-882.
Murawski, S. A. and A. L. Pacheco. 1977. Biological and fisheries data on Atlantic sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrhynchus (Mitchill). National Marine Fisheries Service, Northeast Fisheries Science Center, Sandy Hook Laboratory, Highlands, New Jersey, August 1977. Technical Series Report 10 No. 10.
NEFSC (Northeast Fisheries Science Center). 2011. Preliminary summer 2010 regional abundance estimate of loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) in northwestern Atlantic Ocean continental shelf waters. NEFSC Reference Document, 11-03, 33.
Niklitschek, E. J. and D. H. Secor. 2005. Modeling spatial and temporal variation of suitable nursery habitats for Atlantic sturgeon in the Chesapeake Bay. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 64(1): 135-148.
National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). 1998b. Recovery plan for the blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus). Prepared by Reeves R.R., P.J. Clapham, R.L. Brownell, Jr., and G.K. Silber for the National Marine Fisheries Service, Silver Spring, MD. 42 pp.
NMFS (National Marine Fisheries Service). 2016. Endangered and Threatened Species; Proposed designation of Critical Habitat for the Gulf of Maine, New York Bight, and Chesapeake Bay Distinct Population Segments of Atlantic sturgeon. Federal Register 81(107): 35701-35732.
NMFS (National Marine Fisheries Service). 2017. Designation of critical habitat for the Gulf of Maine, New York Bight, and Chesapeake Bay Distinct Population Segments of Atlantic sturgeon. ESA Section 4(b)(2) impact analysis and biological source document with the economic analysis and final regulatory flexibility analysis. Gloucester, Massachusetts, National Marine Fisheries Service, Greater Atlantic Regional Fisheries Office: 133.
NMFS (National Marine Fisheries Service) and USFWS (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service). 1996. Status Review of Shortnose Sturgeon in the Androscoggin and Kennebec Rivers.
NMFS (National Marine Fisheries Service) and USFWS (U.S Fish and Wildlife Service). 1998. Status Review of Atlantic Sturgeon.
NMFS (National Marine Fisheries Service) and USFWS (U.S Fish and Wildlife Service). 2007. Atlantic Sturgeon Reward Program for Maryland Waters of the Chesapeake Bay and Tributaries 1996-2006. Maryland Fishery Resources Office.
NMFS (National Marine Fisheries Service) and USFWS (U.S Fish and Wildlife Service). 2013a. Leatherback sea turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) 5-year review: Summary and evaluation. Silver Spring, Maryland, and Jacksonville, Florida, National Marine Fisheries Service, Office of Protected Resources and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Jacksonville Ecological Services Field Office: 89.
NMFS (National Marine Fisheries Service) and USFWS (U.S Fish and Wildlife Service). 2013b. Hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) 5‐year review: summary and evaluation.
NMFS (National Marine Fisheries Service) and USFWS (U.S Fish and Wildlife Service). 2015a. Kemp's ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys kempii) 5-year review: Summary and evaluation. (Silver Spring, Maryland), 62.
NMFS (National Marine Fisheries Service) and USFWS (U.S Fish and Wildlife Service). 2015b. Leatherback sea turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) 5-year review: Summary and evaluation. (Silver Spring, Maryland), 91.
NOAA (National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration). 2008. High numbers of right whales seen in Gulf of Maine: NOAA researchers identify wintering ground and potential breeding grounds. NOAA press release.
Novak, A. J., A. E. Carlson, C. R. Wheeler, G. S. Wippelhauser, and J. A. Sulikowski. 2017. Critical foraging habitat of Atlantic Sturgeon based on feeding habits, prey distribution, and movement patterns in the Saco River estuary, Maine. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 146(2): 308-317.
NY DEC. 2014. State Land Classifications: Unique Areas Available online at: http://www.dec.ny.gov/lands/7811.html#C_Unique_Areas.
O’Herron, J.C., K.W. Able, and R.W. Hastings. 1993. Movements of shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) in the Delaware River. Estuaries 16:235-240.
Oliver, S., M. Braccini, S.J. Newman, and E.S. Harvey. 2015. Global pattern in the bycatch of sharks and rays. Marine Policy 54:86-97.
Parker, E. L. 2007. Ontogeny and life history of shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum Lesueur 1818): Effects of latitudinal variation and water temperature. Unpublished Ph.D., University of Massachusetts: Amherst, Massachusetts.
Patriot Ledger. 2012. "Sturgeon found in Hanover offers hope for species." June 1, 2012. https://www.patriotledger.com/article/20120601/NEWS/306019786
Payne, P.M., and D.C. Schneider. 1984. Yearly Changes in Abundance of Harbor Seals, Phoca vitulina, at a Winter Haul-Out Site in Massachusetts. Fishery Bulletin 82(2):440-442.
Payne, P. M., D.N. Wiley, S.B. Young, S. Pittman, P.J. Clapham, and J.W. Jossi. 1990. Recent Fluctuations in the Abundance of Baleen Whales in the Southern Gulf of Maine in Relation to Changes in Selected Prey. Fishery Bulletin 88:687-696.
Pendleton, R.M., Standley, C.R., Higgs, A.L., Kenney, G.H., Sullivan, P.J., Sethi, S.A. and Harris, B.P. 2018. Acoustic telemetry and benthic habitat mapping informs the spatial ecology of Shortnose Sturgeon in the Hudson River, NY, USA. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society.
Philadelphia Water Department. 2014. Endangered Shortnose Sturgeon Returns to the Schuylkill. November 7, 2014. http://www.phillywatersheds.org/endangered-shortnose-sturgeon-returns-schuylkill.
Picard, K., and G.B. Zydlewski. 2014. Presence and Distribution of Sturgeon in the Damariscotta River Estuary. Presentation summary from the Atlantic Salmon Ecosystems Forum, January 8-9, 2014. Orono, Maine. http://atlanticsalmonforum.org/assets/program.pdf.
Richardson, B., C. Stence, M. Baldwin, and C. Mason. 2007. Development of a captive brood stock program for Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus) in Maryland. 2006 Progress Report for U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service State Wildlife Grant Funding. Maryland Department of Natural Resources. 40 pp.
Richmond, A. M. and B. Kynard. 1995. Ontogenetic behavior of shortnose sturgeon, Acipenser brevirostrum. Copeia 1995(1): 172-182.
Risch, D., C.W. Clark, P.J. Dugan, M. Popescu, U. Siebert, S.M. Van Parijs. 2013. Mike whale acoustic behavior and multi-year seasonal and diel vocalization patterns in Massachusetts Bay, USA. Marine Ecology Progress Series 489:279-295.
Rubin, R., and K.C. Kumli, G. 2008. Dive characteristics and movement patterns of acoustic and satellite-tagged manta rays (Manta birostris) in the Revillagigedos Islands of Mexico. In Joint Meeting of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists, Montreal, Canada, 2008.
Ruiz-Urquiola, A., F.B. Riveron, E. Perez, F.A. Abreu-Grobois, M. Gonzalez-Pumariega, B. James-Petric, R. Diaz, J.M Alvarez Castro, M. Jager, J. Ananza-Ricardo, and G. Espinosa Lopez. 2010. Population genetic structure of Greater Caribbean green turtles (Chelonia mydas) based on mitochondrial DNA sequences, with an emphasis on rookeries from southwestern Cuba. Revista de Investigaciones Marinas 31(1):33-52
Savoy, T. 2004. Population estimate and utilization of the lower Connecticut River by shortnose sturgeon. American Fisheries Society Monograph 9:345-352.
Savoy, T.F. and Benway, J. 2004. Food habits of shortnose sturgeon collected in the lower Connecticut River from 2000 through 2002. American Fisheries Society Monograph, 9, pp.353-360.
Savoy, T., and J. Benway. 2006. Connecticut anadromous fish investigations. Final Report to the National Marine Fisheries Service, Gloucester, Massachusetts.
Savoy, T., Maceda, L., Roy, N. K., Peterson, D., & Wirgin, I. 2017. Evidence of natural reproduction of Atlantic sturgeon in the Connecticut River from unlikely sources. PloS one, 12(4), e0175085.
Savoy, T., and D. Pacileo. 2003. Movements and Important Habitats of Subadult Atlantic Sturgeon in Connecticut Waters. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 132:1-8.
Savoy, T., and D. Shake. 1992. Anadromous Fish Studies in Connecticut Waters. Annual Progress Report.
Savoy, T., and D. Shake. 1993. Anadromous Fish Studies in Connecticut Waters. Annual Progress Report. AFC-21-1.
Schevill, W.E., W.A. Watkins, and K.E. Moore. 1986. Status of Eubalaena glacialis off Cape Cod. Rep. Int. Whal. Comm., Special Issue 10.
Secor, D.H., Niklitschek, E.J., Stevenson, J.T., Gunderson, T.E., Minkkinen, S.P., Richardson, B., Florence, B., Mangold, M., Skjeveland, J. and Henderson-Arzapalo, A. 2000. Dispersal and growth of yearling Atlantic sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus, released into Chesapeake Bay. Fishery Bulletin, 98(4), pp.800-800.
Secor, D.H., M.H.P. O’Brien, N. Coleman, A. Horne, I. Park, D.C. Kazyak, D.G. Bruce & C. Stence. 2021. Atlantic Sturgeon Status and Movement Ecology in an Extremely
Small Spawning Habitat: The Nanticoke River-Marshyhope Creek, Chesapeake Bay, Reviews in
Fisheries Science & Aquaculture, DOI: 10.1080/23308249.2021.1924617
Seminoff, J.A., C.D. Allen, G.H. Balazs, P.H. Dutton, T. Eguchi, H.L. Haas, S.A. Hargrove, M. Jensen, D.L. Klemm, A.M. Lauritsen, S.L. MacPherson, P. Opay, E.E. Possarft, S. Pultz, E. Seney, K.S. Van Houtan, and R.S. Waples. 2015. Status Review of the Green Turtle (Chelonia mydas) Under the Endangered Species Act. NOAA Tech Memo NMFS SWFSC.
Shirey, C.A., C.C. Martin, and E.J. Stetzar. 1997. Abundance of sub-adult Atlantic sturgeon and areas of concentration within the lower Delaware River. Final Report, Delaware Division of Fish and Wildlife, Dover, DE, 21.
Shirey, C., C.C. Martin, and E.D. Stetzar. 1999. Atlantic sturgeon abundance and movement in the lower Delaware River. DE Division of Fish and Wildlife, Dover, DE, USA, Final Report to the National Marine Fisheries Service, Northeast Region, State, Federal & Constituent Programs Office (Project No. AFC-9, Grant No. NA86FA0315).
Shoop, C.R., and R.D. Kenney. 1992. Seasonal distributions and abundances of loggerhead and leatherback sea turtles in waters of the northeastern United States. Herpetological Monographs 6:43-67.
Simpson, P. C. 2008. Movements and habitat use of Delaware River Atlantic sturgeon. Unpublished Master of Science, Natural Resources Graduate Program, Delaware State University: Dover, Delaware.
Simpson, P.C. and D.A. Fox. 2006. Atlantic sturgeon in the Delaware River: contemporary population status and identification of spawning areas. Completion Report: Award NA05NMF4051093. 41p.
Skjeveland, J.E., S.A. Welsh, M.F. Mangold, S.M. Eyler, and S. Nachbar. 2000. A Report of Investigations and Research on Atlantic Sturgeon and Shortnose Sturgon in Maryland Waters of the Chesapeake Bay (1996-2000). USFWS Report.
Smith, T. I. J. and J. P. Clugston. 1997. Status and management of Atlantic sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus, in North America. Environmental Biology of Fishes 48(1): 335-346.
Snyder, D.E. 1988. Description and identification of shortnose and Atlantic sturgeon larvae. In American Fisheries Society Symposium (Vol. 5, pp. 7-30).
Spells, A. 1998. Atlantic sturgeon population evaluation utilizing a fishery dependent reward program in Virginia’s major western shore tributaries to the Chesapeake Bay. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Charles City, Virginia.
Squiers, T.S. 1982. Evaluation of the 1982 Spawning Run of Shortnose Sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) in the Androscoggin River, Maine.
Squiers, T.S. 2003. State of Maine 2003 Atlantic sturgeon compliance report to the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission. Report submitted to Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission, October 31, 2003, Washington, D.C.
Squiers, T.S., and M. Robillard. 1997. Preliminary report on the location of overwintering sites for shortnose sturgeon in the estuarial complex of the Kennebec River during the winter of 1996/1997. Unpublished report, submitted to the Maine Department of Transportation.
Squiers, T.S., M. Robillard, and N. Gray. 1993. Assessment of Potential Shortnose Sturgeon Spawning Sites in the Upper Tidal Reach of the Androscoggin River.
Squiers, T.S., M. Smith, and L. Flagg. 1981. Distribution and Abundance of Shortnose and Atlantic Sturgeon in the Kennebec River Estuary.
SSSRT (Shortnose Sturgeon Status Review Team). 2010. A Biological Assessment of shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum). Report to National Marine Fisheries Service, Northeast Regional Office. November 1, 2010. 417 pp.
Stein, A. B., K. D. Friedland, and M. Sutherland. 2004. Atlantic Sturgeon marine distribution and habitat use along the northeastern coast of the United States. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 133(3): 527-537.
Stetzar, E. J., T. Savoy, J. Bowers-Altman, H. Corbett, M. Fisher, D. Fox, J. Madsen, and M. Oliver. 2015. Sturgeons in the mid-Atlantic region: A multi-state collaboration of research and conservation. Final report for the Section 6 Species Recovery Grants program. Award Number: NAI0NMF4720030. Award Period: 06/01/2010-05/31/2013. 204 pp.
Stewart, J.D., E.M. Hoyos-Padilla, K.R. Kumli, and R.D. Rubin. 2016a. Deep-water feeding and behavioral plasticity in Manta birostris revealed by archival tags and submersible observations. Zoology 119(5):406-413.
Stewart, J.D., C.S. Beale, D. Fernando, A.B. Sianipar, R.S. Burton, B.X. Semmens, and O. Aburto-Oropeza. 2016b. Spatial ecology and conservation of Manta birostris in the Indo-Pacific. Biological Conservation 200:178-183.
Sweka, J. A., J. Mohler, and M.J. Millard. 2006. Relative Abundance Sampling of Juvenile Atlantic Sturgeon in the Hudson River. Final Report.
Sweka, J. A., J. Mohler, M. J. Millard, T. Kehler, A. Kahnle, K. Hattala, G. Kenney, and A. Higgs. 2007. Juvenile Atlantic sturgeon habitat use in Newburgh and Haverstraw Bays of the Hudson River: Implications for population monitoring. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 27(4): 1058-1067.
Taubert, B.D. and Dadswell, M.J. 1980. Description of some larval shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) from the holyoke pool, Connecticut River, Massachusetts, USA, and the Saint John River, New Brunswick, Canada. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 58(6), pp.1125-1128.
TEWG (Turtle Expert Working Group). 2000. Assessment update for the Kemp's ridley and loggerhead sea turtle populations in the western North Atlantic. NOAA Tech Memo NMFS SEFSC-444(1-115).
TEWG (Turtle Expert Working Group). 2007. An assessment of the leatherback turtles population in the Atlantic ocean. Miami, Florida, National Marine Fisheries Service, Southeast Fisheries Science Center. NMFS-SEFSC-555: 116.
Tomichek, C., J. Colby, M.A. Adonizio, M. Frisk, K. Dunton, D. Fox, and A. Jordaan. 2014. Tagged species detection: approach to monitoring marine species at marine hydrokinetic projects. Proceedings of the 2nd Marine Energy Technology Symposium.
USFWS (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service). 2007. 2007 Connecticut River Migratory Fish Counts. http://www.fws.gov/r5crc/Fish/old07.html.
Van den Avyle, M. J. 1983. Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements (South Atlantic)-Atlantic Sturgeon. US Fish. Wildl. Ser., Div. Biol. Ser. FWS/OBS-82/11. US Army Corps Eng. TREL-82-4.
Van Eenennaam, J. P., S.I. Doroshov, G.P. Moberg, J.G. Watson, D.S. Moore, and J. Linares. 1996. Reproductive Conditions of the Atlantic Sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrichus) in the Hudson River. Estuaries 19(4):769-777.
VIMS (Virginia Institute of Marine Science). 2005. Essential Fish Habitat of Atlantic Sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus in the Southern Chesapeake Bay. Final Report to NOAA Fisheries for Award NA03NMF4050200 (AFC) 37.
Waring, G.T., E. Josephson, K. Maze-Foley, and P.E. Rosel, editors. 2016. U.S. Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico marine mammal stock assessments—2015.
Watkins, W.A., and W.E. Schevill. 1982. Observations of Right Whales, Eubalaena glacialis in Cape Cod Waters. Fishery Bulletin 80(4):875-880.
Wegener, M. T., & Zydlewski, G. B. 2012. Reproduction of Shortnose Sturgeon in the Gulf of Maine: A Modeling and Acoustic Telemetry Assessment: University of Maine.
Welsh, S.A., M.F. Mangold, J.E. Skjeveland, and A.J. Spells. 2002. Distribution and Movement of Shortnose Sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) in the Chesapeake Bay. Estuaries 25(1):101-104.
Wenzel, F., Mattila, D. K., & Clapham, P. J. 1988. Balaenoptera musculus in the Gulf of Maine. Marine Mammal Science, 4(2), 172-175.
Whitworth, W. 1996. Freshwater fishes of Connecticut. State Geological and Natural History Survey of Connecticut, Connecticut Department Bulletin 114, 243 pp.
Wilk, S.J., McMillan, D.G., Pikanowski, R.A., MacHaffie, E.M., Pacheco, A.L. and Stehlik, L.L. 1997. Fish, megainvertebrates, and associated hydrographic observations collected in Newark Bay, New Jersey, during May 1993-April 1994.
Winn, H.E., C.A. Price, and P.W. Sorenson. 1986. The Distributional Biology of the Right Whale (Eubalaena glacialis) in the Western North Atlantic. Reports of the International Whaling Commission, Special Issue 10:129-138.
Wippelhauser, G. 2012. Summary of Maine Atlantic sturgeon data: Description of monitoring 1977-2001 and 2009-2011 in the Kennebec and Merrymeeting Bay Estuary System.
Wippelhauser, G., and T.S. Squiers. 2015. Shortnose Sturgeon and Atlantic Sturgeon in the Kennebec River System, Maine: a 1977-2001 Retrospective of Abundance and Important Habitat. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 144(3):591-601.
Wippelhauser, G. S., Sulikowski, J., Zydlewski, G. B., Altenritter, M. A., Kieffer, M., & Kinnison, M. T. 2017. Movements of Atlantic sturgeon of the Gulf of Maine inside and outside of the geographically defined distinct population segment. Marine and Coastal Fisheries, 9(1), 93-107.
Wippelhauser, G., G.B. Zydlewski, M. Kieffer, J. Sulikowski, and M.T. Kinnison. 2015. Shortnose Sturgeon in the Gulf of Maine: Use of Spawning Habitat in the Kennebec System and Response to Dam Removal. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 144(4):742-752.
Wynne, K. and M. Schwartz. 1999. Guide to Marine Mammals & Turtles of the U.S. Atlantic & Gulf of Mexico. Rhode Island Sea Grant.
Yoder , C.O., L.E. Hersha, and E.T. Rankin. 2009. Fish Assemblage and Habitat Assessment of the Presumpscot River. Final Project Report to Casco Bay Estuary Partnership, Portland Maine. MBI Technical Report MBI/2008-12-6. 124 pp.
Young C.N. and Carlson J.K. 2020. The biology and conservation status of the oceanic whitetip shark (Carcharhinus longimanus) and future directions for recovery. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries, 30(2), 293-312.
Young, C.N., J. Carlson, M. Hutchinson, C. Hutt, D. Kobayashi, C.T. McCandless, and J. Wraith. 2017. Endangered Species Act status review report: oceanic whitetip shark (Carcharhinus longimanus). National Marine Fisheries Service, Office of Protected Resources, Silver Spring, Maryland. Retrieved from: https://repository.library.noaa.gov/view/noaa/17097.
Ziegeweid, J. R., C. A. Jennings, D. L. Peterson, and M. C. Black. 2008. Effects of salinity, temperature, and weight on the survival of young-of-year shortnose sturgeon. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 137(5): 1490-1499.
Zydlewski, G.B., M.T. Kinnison, P.E. Dionne, J. Zydlewski, and G.S. Wippelhauser. 2011. Shortnose sturgeon use small coastal rivers: the importance of habitat connectivity. Journal of Applied Ichthyology 27:41-44.