Aquaculture References and Further Reading
Key resources including fisheries data, seafood and human health studies, and aquaculture technology.
Use these resources and citations to stay updated on the latest advancements in aquaculture.
- Fisheries of the United States, 2018
National Marine Fisheries Service. (2020). Fisheries of the United States, 2018. U.S. Department of Commerce, NOAA Current Fishery Statistics No. 2018. 167.
This publication is the annual NMFS yearbook of fishery statistics for the United States for 2018. The report provides data on U.S. recreational catch, commercial fisheries landings, and aquaculture production.
- The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2018 - Meeting the Sustainable Development Goals
FAO. (2018). The state of world fisheries and aquaculture 2018 - meeting the sustainable development goals. FAO, Rome. License: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
This is a reference on the global fisheries and aquaculture sectors—including status, trends, issues, and outlook—and contributes to a more complete understanding of the sectors' key role in food production, availability, and security.
- Mapping the Global Potential for Marine Aquaculture
Froehlich, H.E., Gentry, R.R., Grimm, D., et al. (2017). Mapping the global potential for marine aquaculture. Nature Ecology & Evolution, 1: 1317–1324.
This analysis demonstrates that suitable space is unlikely to limit marine aquaculture development and highlights the role that other factors, such as economics and governance, play in shaping growth trajectories. Authors suggest that the vast amount of space suitable for marine aquaculture presents an opportunity for countries to develop aquaculture in a way that aligns with their economic, environmental, and social objectives.
- The 2030 Agenda and the Sustainable Development Goals: The Challenge for Aquaculture Development and Management
FAO. (2017). The 2030 Agenda and the Sustainable Development Goals: The challenge for aquaculture development and management, by John Hambrey. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Circular No. 1141. FAO, Rome.
This report explores the nature of the 2030 Agenda, its goals and targets, and their relevance to aquaculture development. It examines the potential contribution of aquaculture development to the SDGs, and the strengths and weaknesses of existing aquaculture guidance to support implementation of the agenda. Almost all the SDGs, and many associated targets are relevant to aquaculture development.
- Public Perceptions of Aquaculture: Evaluating Spatiotemporal Patterns of Sentiment Around the World
Froehlich H.E., Gentry R.R., Rust M.B., Grimm D., Halpern B.S. (2017). Public perceptions of aquaculture: Evaluating spatiotemporal patterns of sentiment around the world. PLoS ONE 12(1): e0169281.
This study evaluates and reports the first multinational quantification of the relative sentiments and opinions of the public around distinct forms of aquaculture. Using thousands of newspaper headlines from developed and developing nations, researchers found an expanding positive trend of general ‘aquaculture’ coverage, while ‘marine’ and ‘offshore’ appeared more negative. Overall, developing regions published proportionally more positive than negative headlines than developed countries.
- The Political Economics of Marine Aquaculture in the United States
Knapp, G. & Rubino, M.C. (2016). The political economics of marine aquaculture in the United States. Reviews in Fisheries Science & Aquaculture, 24(3): 213–229.
Government regulatory policies and social acceptance are critically important to the growth of marine aquaculture in the United States. In much of the country, opposition by local and national interest groups and local, state, tribal, or national policies have limited marine aquaculture to a scale far below its potential.
- Global Change in Marine Aquaculture Production Potential Under Climate Change
Froehlich, H.E., Gentry, R.R. & Halpern, B.S. (2018). Global change in marine aquaculture production potential under climate change. Nature Ecology & Evolution, 2: 1745–1750.
Researchers model and map the effect of warming ocean conditions on marine aquaculture production potential over the next century, based on thermal tolerance and growth data of 180 cultured finfish and bivalve species.
Planning and Siting
- Marine Cage Culture and the Environment: Twenty-First Century Science Informing a Sustainable Industry
Price, C.S., & Morris, J.A., Jr. (2013). Marine cage culture and the environment: Twenty-first century science informing a sustainable industry. NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS NCCOS 164.
A comprehensive review of some predominant environmental risks that marine fish cage culture aquaculture, as it is currently conducted, poses in the marine environment and designs and practices now in use to address these environmental risks in the U.S. and elsewhere. The report includes a critical review of scientific work published since 2000 on the environmental impacts of marine finfish aquaculture around the world.
- Marine Spatial Planning Makes Room for Offshore Aquaculture in Crowded Coastal Waters
Lester, S.E., Stevens, J.M., Gentry, R.R., Kappel, C.V., Bell, T.W., Costello, C.J., Gaines, S.D., Kiefer, D.A., Maue, C.C., Rensel, J.E., Simons, R.D., Washburn, L., & White, C. (2018). Marine spatial planning makes room for offshore aquaculture in crowded coastal waters. Nature Communications, 9: 945.
A framework for guiding offshore aquaculture (bivalve, finfish, and kelp farming) development in relation to existing sectors and environmental concerns (wild-capture fisheries, viewshed quality, benthic pollution, and disease spread) in California, USA. They identify >250,000 marine spatial planning solutions that generate significant seafood supply and billions of dollars in revenue with minimal impacts (often <1%) on existing sectors and the environment. Study identifies candidate locations for high-value, low-impact aquaculture development.
- Shellfish Aquaculture Map Viewers: An Assessment of Design, Data, and Functions to Inform Planning and Siting in the United States
Wickliffe, L.C., Crothers, V.C., Theuerkauf, S.J., Riley, K.L., & Morris, J.A., Jr. (2019). Shellfish aquaculture map viewers: An assessment of design, data, and functions to inform planning and siting in the United States. Journal of Shellfish Research, 38(2): 209–221.
To streamline shellfish aquaculture permitting, many states have developed web-based aquaculture map viewers to communicate critical regulatory, space use, and natural resource information. In this study, 18 state-level shellfish aquaculture map viewers were reviewed for common design approaches, important data considerations, and useful tools and functions.
- Offshore Aquaculture: Spatial Planning Principles for Sustainable Development
Gentry, R.R., Lester, S.E., Kappel, C.V., White, C., Bell, T.W., Stevens, J. & Gaines, S.D. (2017). Offshore aquaculture: Spatial planning principles for sustainable development. Ecology and Evolution, 7: 733–743.
Here researchers employ an ecological lens and synthesize a broad multidisciplinary literature to provide insight into the interactions between offshore aquaculture and the surrounding environment across a spectrum of spatial scales. While important information gaps remain, researchers found that there is sufficient research for informed decisions about the effects of aquaculture siting to achieve a sustainable offshore aquaculture industry that complements other uses of the marine environment.
- An Ecosystem Design Approach for Marine Aquaculture Site Selection and Operation
Kiefer, D.A., Rensel, J.E., O'Brien, F.J., Fredriksson, D.W., & Irish, J. (2011). NOAA Marine Aquaculture Initiative Program. Final Report. NOAA Award #NA08OAR4170859, Washington, DC. 181.
With support of NOAA’s Aquaculture Program, System Science Applications and marine scientists from Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute and the US Naval Academy have expanded and tested the capabilities of AquaModel to evaluate environmental effects of singular and multiple fish farm sites. AquaModel is an environmental software package that simulates the operations of marine fish farms and the fate of organic and inorganic waste production in sediments and receiving waters.
- Expanding Mariculture Farther Offshore. Technical, Environmental, Spatial and Governance Challenges
Lovatelli, A., Aguilar-Manjarrez, J., & Soto, D., et al. (2010). Expanding mariculture farther offshore. Technical, environmental, spatial and governance challenges. FAO Technical Workshop. March 2010. Orbetello, Italy. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Proceedings, No. 24. FAO, Rome. 73.
The objective of the workshop from which these proceedings come was to discuss the growing need to transfer land-based and coastal aquaculture production systems farther off the coast and provide recommendations for action to FAO, governments and the private sector. The workshop report highlights the major opportunities and challenges for a sustainable mariculture industry to grow and further expand off the coast.
- A Global Assessment of Offshore Mariculture Potential from a Spatial Perspective
Kapetsky, J.M., Aguilar-Manjarrez, J., & Jenness, J. (2013). A global assessment of offshore mariculture potential from a spatial perspective. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper No. 549. FAO, Rome. 181.
This publication finds that mariculture, in particular offshore, offers significant opportunities for sustainable food production and development of many coastal communities, especially in regions where the availability of land, near shore space and freshwater are limited. This publication provides, for the first time, measures of the status and potential for offshore mariculture development from a spatial perspective that are comprehensive of all maritime nations and comparable among them. It also identifies nations that are not yet practicing mariculture that have a high offshore potential.
- The Future of Aquafeeds: A NOAA/USDA Alternative Feeds Initiative Report
Rust, M.B., Barrows, F.T., Hardy, R.W., Lazur, A., Naughten, K., & Silverstein, J. (2011). The future of aquafeeds: A NOAA/USDA alternative feeds initiative report. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS F/SPO-124. 103.
The purpose of the initiative is to accelerate the development and use of alternative dietary ingredients that will allow the global aquaculture industry to grow without putting unsustainable pressure on industrial fisheries, while maintaining the important human health benefits of diverse aquaculture food products. Although the production of fish meal and fish oil has been relatively constant for decades, supplies of industrial fisheries are limited, and cannot support increased demand from a growing aquaculture industry. Finding alternatives is critical to the long-term sustainable growth of aquaculture in the United States and abroad to meet projected increases in consumer demand for safe, high quality farmed aquatic foods.
- Fishmeal and Fish Oil Facts and Figures
Seafish. (2018). Fishmeal and fish oil facts and figures. Sea Fish Industry Authority. Grimsby, United Kingdom. 35.
This report pulls fishmeal and fish oil data from sources like FAO to provide information on import and export by country and a historical look at uses. Note: Seafish is a non-departmental public body set up to support the UK seafood industry.
- Global Overview on the Use of Fish Meal and Fish Oil in Industrially Compounded Aquafeeds: Trends and Future Prospects
Tacon, A.G.J., & Metian, M. (2008). Global overview on the use of fish meal and fish oil in industrially compounded aquafeeds: Trends and future prospects. Aquaculture, 285(1–4): 146–158.
On the basis of increasing global fish meal and fish oil costs, it is predicted that dietary fish meal and fish oil inclusion levels within compound aquafeeds will decrease in the long term, with fish meal and fish oil usage increasingly being targeted for use as a high value specialty feed ingredient for use within higher value starter, finisher and broodstock feeds, and by so doing extending supply of these much sought after and limited feed ingredient commodities.
- Comparative Terrestrial Feed and Land Use of an Aquaculture-dominant World
Froehlich, H.E., Runge, C., Gentry, R., Gaines, S., & Halpern, B. (2018). Comparative terrestrial feed and land use of an aquaculture-dominant world. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 115.
This study simulated how different forms of aquaculture contribute and compare with feed and land use of terrestrial meat production and how spatial patterns might change by midcentury if diets move toward more cultured seafood and less meat.
- Demand and Supply of Feed Ingredients for Farmed Fish and Crustaceans
Tacon, A.G.J., Hasan, M.R., & Metian, M. (2011). Demand and supply of feed ingredients for farmed fish and crustaceans: trends and prospects. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper, 564: 87.
This paper reviews the dietary feeding practices employed for the production of the major cultured fed species, the total global production and market availability of the major feed ingredient sources used and the major constraints to feed ingredient usage, and recommends approaches to feed ingredient selection and usage for the major species of cultivated fish and crustacean. Emphasis is placed on the need for major producing countries to maximize the use of locally available feed-grade ingredient sources, and, in particular, to select and use those nutritionally sound and safe feed ingredient sources whose production and growth can keep pace with the 8 to 10 percent annual average annual growth of the fed finfish and crustacean aquaculture sector.
- Effect of Dietary Taurine Supplementation on Growth, Feed Efficiency, and Nutrient Composition of Juvenile Sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria) Fed Plant Based Feeds
Johnson, R.B., Kim, S., Watson, A.M., Barrows, F.T., Kroeger, E.L., Nicklason, P.M., Goetz, G.W., & Place, A.R. (2015). Effects of dietary taurine supplementation on growth, feed efficiency, and nutrient composition of juvenile sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria) fed plant based feeds. Aquaculture, 445: 79–85.
Juvenile sablefish were fed a low taurine, basal feed with seven graded levels of supplemental taurine to determine nutrient requirements for growth and feed efficiency. The basal feed was plant based, formulated primarily with soy and corn proteins with a minimal (9%) amount of fishmeal. Results from this study should increase the performance of alternative, plant based feeds formulated for sablefish and enable regulatory agencies to better estimate the potential human exposure to taurine from the consumption of sablefish receiving these feeds.
- Role of Shellfish Aquaculture in the Reduction of Eutrophication in an Urban Estuary
Bricker, S.B., Ferreira, J.G., Zhu, C., Rose, J.M., Galimany, E., Wikfors, G. Saurel, C., Miller, R.L., Wands, J., Trowbridge, P., Grizzle, R., Wellman, K., Rheault, R., Steinberg, J., Jacob, A., Davenport, E.D., Ayvazian, S., Chintala, M., & Tedesco, M.A. (2017). Role of shellfish aquaculture in the reduction of eutrophication in an urban estuary. Environmental Science & Technology, 52(1): 173–183.
Land-based management has reduced nutrient discharges; however, many coastal water bodies remain impaired. Oyster “bioextraction” of nutrients and how oyster aquaculture might complement existing management measures in urban estuaries was examined in Long Island Sound, Connecticut. Eutrophication status, nutrient removal, and ecosystem service values were estimated using eutrophication, circulation, local- and ecosystem-scale models, and an avoided-costs valuation.
- A Global Spatial Analysis Reveals Where Marine Aquaculture Can Benefit Nature and People
Theuerkauf, S.J., Morris, J.A., Jr., Waters, T.J., Wickliffe, L.C., Alleway, H.K., & Jones, R.C. (2019). A global spatial analysis reveals where marine aquaculture can benefit nature and people. PLoS ONE 14(10): e0222282.
This study provides insights into specific areas where governments, international development organizations, and investors should prioritize new efforts to drive changes in public policy, capacity-building, and business planning to realize the ecosystem and societal benefits of shellfish and seaweed aquaculture.
- A Role for Shellfish Aquaculture in Coastal Nitrogen Management
Rose, J.M., Bricker, S.B., Tedesco. M.A., & Wikfors, G.H. (2014). A role for shellfish aquaculture in coastal nitrogen management. Environmental Science & Technology, 2014, 48(5), 2519–2525.
While the use of shellfish for coastal nitrogen remediation has been proposed to address excess nutrients in coastal environments, formal incorporation into nitrogen management programs is lagging. Including shellfish aquaculture in existing nitrogen management programs makes sense from environmental, economic, and social perspectives, but challenges must be overcome for large-scale implementation to be possible.
- Cultivation of the Ribbed Mussel (Geukensia demissa) for Nutrient Bioextraction in an Urban Estuary
Galimany, E., Wikfors, G.H., Dixon, M.S., Newell, C.R., Meseck, S.L., Henning, D., Li, Y., & Rose, J.M. (2017). Cultivation of the ribbed mussel (Geukensia demissa) for nutrient bioextraction in an urban estuary. Environmental Science & Technology, 51(22): 13311–13318.
Shellfish aquaculture is gaining acceptance as a tool to reduce nutrient over enrichment in coastal and estuarine ecosystems through the feeding activity of the animals and assimilation of filtered particles in shellfish tissues. This ecosystem service, provided by the ribbed mussel (Geukensia demissa), was studied in animals suspended from a commercial mussel raft in the urban Bronx River Estuary, NY, in waters closed to shellfish harvest due to bacterial contamination.
- How Nutrient Trading Could Help Restore the Chesapeake Bay
Jones, C., Branosky, E., Selman, M., & Perez, M. (2010). How nutrient trading could help restore the Chesapeake Bay. WRI Working Paper. World Resources Institute, Washington, DC. 13.
This WRI Working Paper discusses the potential for nutrient trading to reduce nutrient pollution in the Chesapeake Bay, in which shellfish aquaculture could play a significant role.
- Environmental Performance of Marine Net-Pen Aquaculture in the United States
Rust, M., Amos, K.H., Bagwill, A.L., Dickhoff, W.W., Juarez, L.M., Price, C.S., Morris, J.A., Jr., Rubino, M.C. (2014). Environmental performance of marine net-pen aquaculture in the United States. Fisheries Magazine, 39(11): 508–524.
The United States net-pen aquaculture sector has improved its resource efficiency in terms of the amount of fish meal and fish oil used in feeds and reduced its environmental impacts in terms of the mass loading and impact of nutrient discharge on the receiving ecosystem, the incidence and treatment of fish diseases, the use of antibiotics, and the number and impact of fish escapes, while increasing production. These changes can be attributed to a combination of advances in science and technology, rising cost of fish meal/oil, improved management, and informed regulatory practices. Net-pen aquaculture has become an efficient food production system.
- Marine Cage Culture and the Environment: Effects on Water Quality and Primary Production
Price, C., Black, K.D., Hargrave, B.T., & Morris, J.A., Jr. (2015). Marine cage culture and the environment: Effects on water quality and primary production. Aquaculture Environment Interactions, 6: 151–174.
To guide environmentally sustainable expansion, coastal stakeholders require tools to evaluate the risks that marine aquaculture poses and to craft science-based policies and practices which safeguard marine ecosystems. This paper summarized current knowledge regarding dissolved nutrient loading from marine fish farms around the world, direct impacts on water quality and secondary impacts on primary production, including formation of harmful algal blooms.
- Blue Frontiers: Managing the Environmental Costs of Aquaculture
Hall, S.J., Delaporte, A., Phillips, M., Beveridge, M., & O'Keefe, M. (2011). Blue frontiers: Managing the environmental costs of aquaculture. The WorldFish Center. 104.
This study is a review and analysis of global aquaculture production across the major species and production systems. It compares the aggregate biophysical resource demands of each system and their cumulative environmental impacts. The study then compares these results with those from other animal food production systems before examining the consequences of likely future trends. Finally, the policy implications of the report’s findings are discussed along with the research agenda that should be pursued to meet the challenges involved in producing food sustainably.
- Future Brief: Sustainable Aquaculture
Science for Environment Policy. (2015). Sustainable aquaculture. Future Brief 11. Brief produced for the European Commission DG Environment by the Science Communication Unit, UWE, Bristol. 24.
Aquaculture is facing a new era of expansion in Europe. What are the environmental implications of this, and how can the sector expand sustainably? This Future Brief from Science for Environment Policy presents an overview of research into aquaculture’s impacts, and considers how it could develop in harmony with environmental goals.
- Salmon Aquaculture Dialogue: Working Group Report on Benthic Impacts and Farm Siting
Black, K.D., Hansen, P.K. and Holmer, M. (2008). Salmon aquaculture dialogue: Working group report on benthic impacts and farm siting. The Salmon Dialogue, World Wildlife Fund. 54.
The Salmon Dialogue is a multi-stakeholder, multinational group which was initiated by the World Wildlife Fund in 2004. Participants include salmon producers and other members of the market chain, NGOs, researchers, retailers, and government officials from major salmon producing and consuming countries. The goal of the Salmon Aquaculture Dialogue is to develop and implement verifiable environmental and social performance levels that measurably reduce or eliminate key impacts of salmon farming and are acceptable to stakeholders.
- Beneficial Environmental Effects of Marine Finfish Mariculture
Rensel, J.E., & Forster, J.R.M. (2007). Beneficial environmental effects of marine finfish mariculture. Final report to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, NOAA Award #NA040AR4170130, Washington, DC. 62.
A study to quantify the types and volumes of bio colonization at a commercial net-pen fish farm site in North Puget Sound, Washington was conducted from 2004–2006. This study shows that a typical floating fish pen system in Puget Sound is populated by a diverse group of over 100 species of seaweeds or invertebrates. These species provide a locally important component of the food web, providing enrichment for a variety of marine food web life including marine birds.
- Chemical and Biological Remediation of the Benthos Near Atlantic Salmon Farms
Brooks, K.M. , Stierns, A.R., Mahnken,C.V.W., & Blackburn, D.B. (2003). Chemical and biological remediation of the benthos near Atlantic salmon farms. Aquaculture, 219(1–4): 355–377.
Salmon farms in British Columbia typically produce over 2000 mt of fish during each 18 to 24 month production cycle. An 18-month study of Stolt Sea Farms' Arrow Pass farm was undertaken in 1996 to examine the spatial and temporal extents of chemical and biological benthic effects.
- Recolonization and Succession of Marine Macrobenthos in Organic-Enriched Sediment Deposited from Fish Farms
Lu, L., Wu, R.S.S. (1998).Recolonization and succession of marine macrobenthos in organic-enriched sediment deposited from fish farms. Environmental Pollution, 101(2): 241–251.
In this study, organic-enriched sediment collected underneath a fish farm was defaunated, placed in settling trays and exposed to the subtidal area of a clean site of similar hydrography. Trays were sampled monthly for a consecutive period of 5 months, and recolonization and successional patterns of macrobenthos were studied using univariate and multivariate statistics. Recolonization occurred rapidly, and averages of 144 animals/tray and 26 species/tray were recorded within the first month.
- Opinion: Offshore Aquaculture in the United States: Untapped Potential in Need of Smart Policy
Lester, S.E., Gentry, R.R., Kappel, C.V., White, C., & Gaines, S.D. (2018). Opinion: Offshore aquaculture in the United States: Untapped potential in need of smart policy. PNAS July 10, 2018, 115(28): 7162–7165.
Scientifically informed, proactive spatial planning that identifies optimal locations for sustainable aquaculture could minimize negative environmental, social, and economic impacts on marine ecosystems and coastal communities while reducing uncertainty for investors and the industry. The opportunity is right beyond our shores.
- Molluscan Shellfish Aquaculture in Federal Waters of the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ): Agencies, Industry, and Academia Working Together on Compliance and Permitting Requirements
Schiavinato, L., J.D., Courtier, C., Goshen, D., & Jones, S., J.D. (2019). Molluscan shellfish aquaculture in federal waters of the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ): Agencies, industry, and academia working together on compliance and permitting requirements. NOAA Award #NA17OAR4170239, Washington, DC. 18.
A case study was prepared by California Sea Grant & the Carl Vinson Institute of Government at the University of Georgia.
- Offshore Aquaculture in the United States: Economic Considerations, Implications and Opportunities
Rubino, M. (2008). Offshore aquaculture in the United States: Economic considerations, implications & opportunities. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS F/SPO-103. 263.
Coordinated by the NOAA Aquaculture Program, the study group, which includes some of the leading natural resource and fisheries economists in the United States, was asked to examine: trends and factors shaping aquaculture today; forces that will drive it in the future; inputs and outputs necessary to sustain its growth; economic consequences of offshore aquaculture development in the United States; and benefits and costs of such a domestic industry to the nation.
- Offshore Finfish Culture Operations: Current Legal Framework and Regulatory Authorities
Otts, S.S., & Bowling, T. (2014). Offshore finfish culture operations: Current legal framework and regulatory authorities. National Sea Grant Law Center. Oxford, MS. NOAA Award #NA09OAR4170200, Washington, DC. 17.
At the request of the National Marine Fisheries Service Office of Aquaculture, the National Sea Grant Law Center conducted legal research and analysis to explore the potential permitting process for a hypothetical finfish culture operation in U.S. federal waters (i.e., within the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone).
- Comparison of State Right-to-Farm Laws that Include Aquaculture
Nichols, A. (2018). Comparison of state right-to-farm laws that include aquaculture. Agricultural and Food Law Consortium. National Sea Grant Law Center. Oxford, MS. 40.
This document examines right-to-farm laws in the twenty-seven states that expressly include aquaculture within their laws’ definition of agriculture. The objective of this document is to provide a “quick reference” tool to help aquaculture stakeholders understand how the legal protections vary from state-to-state and what conditions an operation must meet in order to enjoy state protection from nuisance lawsuits.
- Questions on the Territorial Limits of Federal Law in Federal Waters Posed by NOAA's Aquaculture Program
Showalter, S. (2009). Questions on the territorial limits of federal law in federal waters posed by NOAA’s aquaculture program. National Sea Grant Law Center. Oxford, MS. 10.
A summary of research regarding interpretations of relevant laws and regulations such as Rivers and Harbors Act, the Clean Water Act, the Endangered Species Act, the Magnuson-Stevens Act, and the Marine Mammal Protection Act.
- Evaluation of U.S. Shellfish Aquaculture Permitting Systems
O’Connell, T. (2018). Evaluation of U.S. shellfish aquaculture permitting systems recommendations to improve permitting efficiencies and industry development. Final report to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Earth Resource Technology, Inc. 27.
NOAA Fisheries supported comprehensive review of federal, state, and local shellfish permitting systems around the nation. This report, prepared by Earth Resource Technology Incorporated, provides 15 recommendations based upon a review of 22 shellfish aquaculture permitting systems in 2016 covering all coastal states in the continental United States (East Coast, West Coast, Gulf of Mexico, and Alaska).
- Report on Regulatory Development Initiatives for Offshore Aquaculture in the United States
Fisheries and Oceans Canada. (2017). Report on regulatory development initiatives for offshore aquaculture in the United States. A joint DFO/NOAA report.
This report outlines how marine aquaculture is expanding into deeper offshore environments in response to growing consumer demand for seafood, improved technology, and limited potential to increase capture from wild fisheries.
- Economics of Aquaculture Policy and Regulation
Anderson, J.L., Asche, F., & Garlock, T. (2019). Economics of aquaculture policy and regulation. Annual Review of Resource Economics, 11(1): 101–123.
With aquaculture's growth, a number of high-profile concerns have arisen, including pollution, feeding practices, disease management and antibiotic use, habitat use, non-native species, food safety, fraud, animal welfare, impacts on traditional wild fisheries, access to water and space, market competition, and genetics. Managing these concerns requires thoughtful and well-designed policies and regulations. This manuscript reviews the contributions natural resource economics has made to evaluating aquaculture policy and regulation. Despite their valuable contributions, however, economists have been largely underrepresented in the debate.
- Policy and Governance in Aquaculture: Lessons Learned and Way Forward
Hishamunda, N., Ridler, N. & Martone, E. (2014). Policy and governance in aquaculture: Lessons learned and way forward. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper No. 577. FAO, Rome. 59.
This paper summarizes some of the issues facing general aquaculture governance, current “best practices,” and potential challenges for the future.
- Exploring the Genetic Risks Posed to Natural Population by Escaped Cultured Marine Fish: A Reintroduction to the OMEGA Model
Gruenthal, K.M., Blair, G.R., Volk, J.D., & Rust, M.B. (2017). Exploring genetic risks posed to natural population by escaped cultured marine fish: a reintroduction to the OMEGA model. Aquaculture: Proceedings of the 42nd U.S.-Japan Aquaculture Panel Symposium. U.S. Department of Commerce, NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS F/SPO-168. 87.
To address the technical and scientific barrier and advance sustainable US marine aquaculture, the NOAA Fisheries Office of Aquaculture fostered a research initiative to explore the interactions between wild fish and escapees and how to minimize the genetic impact.
- Life History and Temporal Variability of Escape Events Interactively Determine the Fitness Consequences of Aquaculture Escapees on Wild Populations
Yang, L., Waples, R.S., & Baskett, M.L. (2019). Life history and temporal variability of escape events interactively determine the fitness consequences of aquaculture escapees on wild populations. Theoretical Population Biology, 129: 93–102.
Domesticated individuals are likely to be maladaptive in the wild due to adaptation to captivity. Escaped aquaculture fish can cause unintended fitness and demographic consequences for their wild conspecifics through interbreeding and competition. Escape events from different sources exhibit great heterogeneity in their frequencies and magnitudes, ranging from rare but large spillover during a storm, to continuous low-level leakage caused by operational errors.
- Offshore Mariculture Escapes Genetics/Ecological Assessment (OMEGA) Model Version 1.0
Blair, G., & Volk, J. (2012). Offshore mariculture escapes genetics/ecological assessment (OMEGA) model version 1.0. Model overview and user guide. Prepared for NMFS, Seattle, WA. 123.
The purpose of OMEGA is to identify and weigh environmental risks of escapes of marine aquaculture fish to their wild conspecifics. OMEGA is intended to: 1) provide insights about factors affecting risks associated with escapes from aquaculture operations, 2) help identify research priorities, 3) explore options for the design of sustainable aquaculture programs, and 4) inform policy and management decisions related to the genetic and ecological risks of aquaculture.
- Protected Species and Marine Aquaculture Interactions
Price, C.S., Keane, E., Morin, D., Vaccaro, C., Bean, D., & Morris, J.A., Jr. (2017). Protected species and marine aquaculture interactions. NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS NCCOS 211. Beaufort, NC. 85.
This global assessment summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding documented and potential interactions of species listed under the ESA, such as sea turtles and marine mammals, and evaluates offshore longline mussel culture gear interactions as a case study. This assessment will strengthen the ability of NOAA and other regulatory agencies to make science-based decisions and recommendations as part of the review and consultation process required to permit aquaculture operations. In addition to providing a state of science analysis, the assessment includes a preliminary risk analysis to evaluate potential for harmful interactions between aquaculture and protected species, identifies knowledge gaps, provides management recommendations, and highlights areas of needed research.
Seafood and Health
- Risks and Benefits of Fish Consumption
FAO & WHO. (2010). Consultation on the risks and benefits of fish consumption. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Report. No. 978. FAO, Rome. 50.
The purpose of the FAO/WHO Expert Consultation was to provide a framework for assessing the net health benefits or risks of fish consumption that would assist governments to prepare advice for their own populations. This is the Executive Summary of the report and draws the general conclusion that benefits from fish consumption outweigh the risks for all populations.
- Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2015–2020
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services & U.S. Department of Agriculture. (2015). 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 8th Edition. 144.
Over the past century, deficiencies of essential nutrients have dramatically decreased, many infectious diseases have been conquered, and the majority of the U.S. population can now anticipate a long and productive life. At the same time, rates of chronic diseases—many of which are related to poor quality diet and physical inactivity—have increased. About half of all American adults have one or more preventable, diet-related chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, Type 2 Diabetes, and obesity.
- Fish Intake, Contaminants, and Human Health: Evaluating the Risks and the Benefits
Mozaffarian, D., & Rimm, E.B. (2006). Fish intake, contaminants, and human health: Evaluating the risks and the benefits. JAMA, 296(15): 1885–99.
For major health outcomes among adults, based on both the strength of the evidence and the potential magnitudes of effect, the benefits of fish intake exceed the potential risks. For women of childbearing age, benefits of modest fish intake, excepting a few selected species, also outweigh risks.
- The Preventable Causes of Death in the United States: Comparative Risk Assessment of Dietary, Lifestyle, and Metabolic Risk Factors
Danaei, G., Ding, E.L., Mozaffarian, D., Taylor, B., Rehm, J., Murray, C.J., & Ezzati, M. (2009). The preventable causes of death in the United States: comparative risk assessment of dietary, lifestyle, and metabolic risk factors. PLoS medicine, 6(4): e1000058.
This paper estimates the mortality effects of the following 12 modifiable dietary, lifestyle, and metabolic risk factors in the United States using consistent and comparable methods.
- Towards Establishing Dietary Reference Intakes for Eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic (DHA) Acids
Harris, W.S., Mozaffarian, D., Lefevre, M., Toner, C.D., Colombo, J., Cunnane, S.C., Holden, J.M., Klurfeld, D.M., Morris, M.C., & Whelan, J. (2009).Towards establishing dietary reference intakes for eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids. Journal of Nutrition, 139(4): 804S–819S.
This is a result of a workshop held be the Technical Committee on Dietary Lipids of the International Life Sciences Institute North America to consider whether the body of evidence specific to the major chronic diseases in the United States—coronary heart disease (CHD), cancer, and cognitive decline—had evolved sufficiently to justify reconsideration of DRI for EPA+DHA.
- Seafood Choices: Balancing Benefits and Risks
Nesheim, M.C., & Yaktine, A.L. (2007). Seafood choices: Balancing benefits and risks. Institute of Medicine of the National Academies, Committee on Nutrient Relationships in Seafood. National Academies Press: Washington, DC. 738.
At the request of government agencies, the National Academy of Sciences and the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the National Academies convened an expert committee to examine relationships between the benefits and risks of seafood in order to help consumers make informed choices.
- Maternal Seafood Consumption in Pregnancy and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in Childhood (ALSPAC Study): an Observational Cohort Study
Hibbeln, J.R., Davis, J.M., Steer, C., Emmett, P., Rogers, I., Williams, C., & Golding, J. (2007). Maternal seafood consumption in pregnancy and neurodevelopmental outcomes in childhood (ALSPAC study): an observational cohort study. Lancet, 369(9561): 578–585.
A cohort of 11,875 pregnant women completed a food frequency questionnaire assessing seafood consumption at 32 weeks' gestation. Researchers recorded beneficial effects on child development with maternal seafood intakes of more than 340 g per week, suggesting that advice to limit seafood consumption could actually be detrimental.
- Meta–analysis of Observational Studies on Fish Intake and Coronary Heart Disease
Whelton, S.P., He, J., Whelton, P.K., & Muntner, P. (2004). Meta-analysis of observational studies on fish intake and coronary heart disease. The American Journal of Cardiology, 93(9): 1119–1123.
Some 19 observational studies in which there was a group that consumed fish on a regular basis and a comparison group that consumed little or no fish were reviewed. Findings suggest that fish consumption may be an important component of lifestyle modification for the prevention of coronary heart disease.
- Mercury Advisories and Household Health Trade-offs
Shimshack, J.P., Ward, M.B. (2010). Mercury advisories and household health trade-offs. Journal of Health Economics, 29(5): 674–685.
The authors discuss how health advisories may have unintended consequences for reducing overall seafood consumption.